1830 United States Census

The United States Census of 1830, the fifth census undertaken in the United States, was conducted on June 1, 1830. The only loss of census records for 1830 involved some countywide losses in Massachusetts, Maryland, and Mississippi.

It determined the population of the 24 states to be 12,866,020, of which 2,009,043 were slaves. The center of population was about 170 miles (274 km) west of Washington, D.C. in present-day Grant County, West Virginia.

This was the first census in which a city – New York – recorded a population of over 200,000.

1830 United States Census
Seal of the United States Census Bureau
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenJune 1, 1830
Total population12,866,020

Census questions

The 1830 census asked these questions:[1]

  • Name of head of family
  • Address
  • Number of free white males and females
    • in five-year age groups to age 20
    • in 10-year age groups from 20 to 100
    • 100 years and older
  • number of slaves and free colored persons in six age groups
  • number of deaf and dumb
    • under 14 years old
    • 14 to 24 years old
    • 25 years and older
  • number of blind
  • foreigners not naturalized

Data availability

No microdata from the 1830 population census are available, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.

State rankings

Rank State Population
01 New York 1,918,608
02 Pennsylvania 1,348,233
03 Virginia 1,044,054
04 Ohio 937,903
05 North Carolina 737,987
06 Kentucky 687,917
07 Tennessee 681,904
08 Massachusetts 610,408
09 South Carolina 581,185
10 Georgia 516,823
11 Maryland 447,040
12 Maine 399,455
13 Indiana 343,031
14 New Jersey 320,823
15 Alabama 309,527
16 Connecticut 297,675
17 Vermont 280,652
18 New Hampshire 269,328
19 Louisiana 215,739
X West Virginia [2] 176,924
20 Illinois 157,445
21 Missouri 140,455
22 Mississippi 136,621
23 Rhode Island 97,199
24 Delaware 76,748
X Florida 34,730
X Arkansas 30,388
X District of Columbia [3] 30,261
X Michigan 28,004
X Wisconsin 3,635

City rankings

Rank City State Population[4] Region (2016)[5]
01 New York New York 202,589 Northeast
02 Baltimore Maryland 80,620 South
03 Philadelphia Pennsylvania 80,462 Northeast
04 Boston Massachusetts 61,392 Northeast
05 New Orleans Louisiana 46,082 South
06 Charleston South Carolina 30,289 South
07 Northern Liberties Pennsylvania 28,872 Northeast
08 Cincinnati Ohio 24,831 Midwest
09 Albany New York 24,209 Northeast
10 Southwark Pennsylvania 20,581 Northeast
11 Washington District of Columbia 18,826 South
12 Providence Rhode Island 16,833 Northeast
13 Richmond Virginia 16,060 South
14 Salem Massachusetts 13,895 Northeast
15 Kensington Pennsylvania 13,394 Northeast
16 Portland Maine 12,598 Northeast
17 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 12,568 Northeast
18 Brooklyn New York 12,406 Northeast
19 Troy New York 11,556 Northeast
20 Spring Garden Pennsylvania 11,140 Northeast
21 Newark New Jersey 10,953 Northeast
22 Louisville Kentucky 10,341 South
23 New Haven Connecticut 10,180 Northeast
24 Norfolk Virginia 9,814 South
25 Rochester New York 9,207 Northeast
26 Charlestown Massachusetts 8,783 Northeast
27 Buffalo New York 8,668 Northeast
28 Georgetown District of Columbia 8,441 South
29 Utica New York 8,323 Northeast
30 Petersburg Virginia 8,322 South
31 Alexandria District of Columbia 8,241 South
32 Portsmouth New Hampshire 8,026 Northeast
33 Newport Rhode Island 8,010 Northeast
34 Lancaster Pennsylvania 7,704 Northeast
35 New Bedford Massachusetts 7,592 Northeast
36 Gloucester Massachusetts 7,510 Northeast
37 Savannah Georgia 7,303 South
38 Nantucket Massachusetts 7,202 Northeast
39 Hartford Connecticut 7,074 Northeast
40 Moyamensing Pennsylvania 6,822 Northeast
41 Springfield Massachusetts 6,784 Northeast
42 Augusta Georgia 6,710 South
43 Lowell Massachusetts 6,474 Northeast
44 Newburyport Massachusetts 6,375 Northeast
45 Lynn Massachusetts 6,138 Northeast
46 Cambridge Massachusetts 6,072 Northeast
47 Taunton Massachusetts 6,042 Northeast
48 Lexington Kentucky 6,026 South
49 Reading Pennsylvania 5,856 Northeast
50 Nashville Tennessee 5,566 South
51 Warwick Rhode Island 5,529 Northeast
52 Dover New Hampshire 5,449 Northeast
53 Hudson New York 5,392 Northeast
54 Roxbury Massachusetts 5,247 Northeast
55 Marblehead Massachusetts 5,149 Northeast
56 Middleborough Massachusetts 5,008 Northeast
57 St. Louis Missouri 4,977 Midwest
58 Plymouth Massachusetts 4,758 Northeast
59 Lynchburg Virginia 4,630 South
60 Andover Massachusetts 4,530 Northeast
61 Frederick Maryland 4,427 South
62 New London Connecticut 4,335 Northeast
63 Harrisburg Pennsylvania 4,312 Northeast
64 Schenectady New York 4,268 Northeast
65 Danvers Massachusetts 4,228 Northeast
66 York Pennsylvania 4,216 Northeast
67 Worcester Massachusetts 4,173 Northeast
68 Fall River Massachusetts 4,158 Northeast
69 Dorchester Massachusetts 4,074 Northeast
70 Beverly Massachusetts 4,073 Northeast
71 Trenton New Jersey 3,925 Northeast
72 New Bern North Carolina 3,796 South
73 Wilmington North Carolina 3,791 South
74 Carlisle Pennsylvania 3,707 Northeast
75 Easton Pennsylvania 3,529 Northeast
76 Elizabeth New Jersey 3,455 Northeast
77 Hagerstown Maryland 3,371 South
78 Columbia South Carolina 3,310 South
79 Fredericksburg Virginia 3,308 South
80 Mobile Alabama 3,194 South
81 Norwich Connecticut 3,135 Northeast
82 Middletown Connecticut 3,123 Northeast
83 Zanesville Ohio 3,094 Midwest
84 Dayton Ohio 2,950 Midwest
85 Steubenville Ohio 2,937 Midwest
86 Fayetteville North Carolina 2,868 South
87 Chillicothe Ohio 2,846 Midwest
88 Allegheny Pennsylvania 2,801 Northeast
89 Natchez Mississippi 2,789 South
90 Annapolis Maryland 2,623 South


  1. ^ "Library Bibliography Bulletin 88, New York State Census Records, 1790-1925". New York State Library. October 1981. pp. 43 (p.49 of PDF).
  2. ^ Between 1790 and 1860, the state of West Virginia was part of Virginia; the data for each states reflect the present-day boundaries.
  3. ^ The District of Columbia is not a state but was created with the passage of the Residence Act of 1790. The territory that formed that federal capital was originally donated by both Maryland and Virginia; however, the Virginia portion was returned by Congress in 1846.
  4. ^ Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  5. ^ "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.

Further reading

23rd United States Congress

The Twenty-third United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1833, to March 4, 1835, during the fifth and sixth years of Andrew Jackson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fifth Census of the United States in 1830. The Senate had an Anti-Jacksonian or National Republican majority, and the House had a Jacksonian or Democratic majority.

Benjamin H. Warder

Benjamin Head Warder (15 November 1824 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – 13 January 1894 in Cairo, Egypt) was an American manufacturer of agricultural machinery. In 1902, the company he co-founded merged with four others to form International Harvester.

Carthage, Cincinnati

Carthage is a residential neighborhood located in the Mill Creek valley in Cincinnati, Ohio. It shares a border with Elmwood Place, Ohio, which, with adjacent St. Bernard, Ohio, forms a city island in the middle of Cincinnati. The population was 2,733 at the 2010 census.

Elizabeth, New Jersey

Elizabeth is both the largest city and the county seat of Union County, in New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 124,969, retaining its ranking as New Jersey's fourth most populous city, behind Paterson.

The population increased by 4,401 (3.7%) from the 120,568 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 10,566 (+9.6%) from the 110,002 counted in the 1990 Census. For 2017, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated a population of 130,215, an increase of 4.2% from the 2010 enumeration, ranking the city the 212th-most-populous in the nation.In 2008, Elizabeth was named one of "America's 50 Greenest Cities" by Popular Science magazine, the only city in New Jersey selected.

John Elliott (Georgia)

John Elliott (October 24, 1773 – August 9, 1827) was a United States Senator from Georgia, serving from 1819 to 1825.

Elliott graduated from Yale University in 1794 and returned to Georgia to practice law. He was elected to the Senate after holding several local offices.

Through his first wife Esther Dunwoody, he was the father of Hester Amarintha "Hettie" Elliott (1797–1831) and Corinne Elliott. Hettie was the first wife of Major James Stephens Bulloch (1793–1849) and mother of Civil War Confederate veteran James Dunwoody Bulloch (1823–1901).

Senator Elliott was also the first husband of Martha "Patsy" Stewart (1799—1864), daughter of General Daniel Stewart and Sarah Susannah Oswald. John and Patsy had four children:

Susan Ann Elliott (1820–1895)

Georgia Amanda Elliott (1822–1848)

Charles William Elliott (September 1824 – c. 1825)

Daniel Stewart "Dan" Elliott (1826–1861), Civil War Confederate casualtyAfter his death, Patsy married Major Bulloch in May 8, 1832 and had four children, including Martha "Mittie" Bulloch (1835–1884) and Civil War Confederate veteran Irvine Stephens Bulloch (1842–1898). Mittie was the mother of US President Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919) and Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt (1860–1894), who was the father of First Lady Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (1884–1962).

In 1820, he owned 115 slaves in Liberty County, Georgia. In 1830, his estate owned 117 slaves.

John M. Berrien

John Macpherson Berrien (August 23, 1781 – January 1, 1856) of Georgia was a United States senator from Georgia and Andrew Jackson's Attorney General.

John Pendleton King

John Pendleton King (April 3, 1799 – March 19, 1888) was an attorney, planter and politician, serving as United States Senator from Georgia. He resigned in 1837 before the end of his term to devote himself to his plantation and business, serving for nearly 40 years as president of the Georgia Railroad and Banking Company and becoming a cotton manufacturer. He acquired large plantation holdings and by 1860 owned 69 slaves to work the cotton fields and related trades.

Petersburg, West Virginia

Petersburg is a city in Grant County, West Virginia, USA. The population was 2,467 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Grant County.

Robert M. Charlton

Robert Milledge Charlton (January 19, 1807 – January 18, 1854) was an American politician and jurist. He served as a Senator representing Georgia from 1852 to 1853.

Charlton was born in Savannah, Georgia on January 19, 1807. A lawyer by training, Charlton served in various positions at the city and state level in addition to his U.S. Senate term. He was a member of the Georgia House of Representatives (1828), and he was appointed and subsequently elected a judge of the Eastern Circuit of Georgia in 1832. Charlton was also appointed as a United States District Attorney.

He was appointed as a Democrat to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of John M. Berrien. Charlton served as the mayor of Savannah from 1839 to 1841. The father of Robert Charlton, Thomas U.P. Charlton, had previously served as the appointed mayor of Savannah in 1815 and again in 1819.

In 1829 Robert Charlton married Margaret Shick. Charlton ward, Savannah and Charlton County, Georgia are named after him. Charlton died in Savannah on January 18, 1854, the day before his 47th birthday, and is buried in Laurel Grove Cemetery in that city.

He was also a slave owner. In 1830, he owned 3 slaves. In 1840, he owned 14 slaves. In 1850, he owned 13 slaves.

Thomas Spalding

Thomas Spalding (March 25, 1774 – January 5, 1851) was a United States Representative from Georgia. He was born in Frederica, Georgia, St. Simons Island, Glynn County, Georgia. He attended the common schools of Georgia and Florida and a private school in Massachusetts. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1795, but did not practice. He engaged extensively in agricultural pursuits.Spalding served as a member of the state constitutional convention in 1798. He was a member of the Georgia Senate in 1799. After traveling for 18 months in England and France, he moved to McIntosh County, Georgia, in 1803 and then again served in the Georgia Senate. He successfully contested, as a Democratic-Republican candidate, the election of Federalist party candidate Cowles Mead to the Ninth Congress and served from December 24, 1805, until his resignation in 1806. He served as a trustee of the McIntosh County Academy in 1807 and was one of the founders of the Bank of Darien and of the branch in Milledgeville, Georgia, and president for many years.

Spalding engaged in cultivation of Sea Island Cotton as a commodity crop on Sapelo Island, Georgia. According to the New Georgia Encyclopedia, he owned 350 slaves. In 1830, he owned 400 slaves. In 1840, he owned 348 slaves. In 1850, he owned 200 slaves.In 1826 he was appointed as a commissioner of the State of Georgia to determine the boundary line between Georgia and the Territory of Florida. He served as a commissioner from the United States of America to Bermuda to negotiate relative to property taken or destroyed in the South by the British in the War of 1812. He was a president of the convention at Milledgeville, Georgia in 1850, which resolved that the State of Georgia would resist any act of Congress abolishing slavery. He died in 1851, while en route home, at the residence of his son near Darien, Georgia, named Ashantilly. He was buried in St. Andrew's Cemetery.

Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War

This timeline of events leading to the American Civil War is a chronologically ordered list of events and issues which historians recognize as origins and causes of the American Civil War. These events are roughly divided into two periods: the first encompasses the gradual build-up over many decades of the numerous social, economic, and political issues that ultimately contributed to the war's outbreak, and the second encompasses the five-month span following the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States in 1860 and culminating in the capture of Fort Sumter in April 1861.

Scholars have identified many different causes for the war. Among the most polarizing of the underlying issues from which other proximate causes developed was whether the institution of slavery should be retained and even expanded to other territories or whether it should be contained and eventually abolished. Since the early colonial period, slavery had played a major role in the socioeconomic system of British North America and was recognized in the Thirteen Colonies at the time of the United States' Declaration of Independence in 1776. During and after the American Revolution, events and statements by politicians and others brought forth differences, tensions and divisions between citizens of the slave states of the Southern United States and citizens of the free states of the Northern United States (including several newly admitted Western states) over the topics of slavery. In the many decades between the Revolutionary War and the Civil War, such divisions became increasingly irreconcilable and contentious.Events in the 1850s culminated with the election of the anti-slavery Republican Abraham Lincoln as President on November 6, 1860. This provoked the first round of state secession as leaders of the cotton states of the Deep South were unwilling to remain in what they perceived as a second-class political status, with their way of life now threatened by the President himself. Initially, seven states seceded: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas. After the Confederates attacked and captured Fort Sumter, President Lincoln called for volunteers to march south and suppress the rebellion. This pushed four other states in the Upper South (Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Arkansas) also to secede, completing the incorporation of the Confederate States of America by July 1861. Their contributions of territory and soldiers to the Confederacy ensured the war would be prolonged and bloody.

William Bellinger Bulloch

William Bellinger Bulloch (1777 – May 6, 1852) was an American Senator from Georgia, the youngest son of Archibald Bulloch, uncle to James Stephens Bulloch, granduncle to James Dunwoody Bulloch, Martha Bulloch Roosevelt, and Irvine Stephens Bulloch, great-granduncle to President Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. and Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt, and great-great-granduncle to First Lady of the United States Eleanor Roosevelt.

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