1825

1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1825th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 825th year of the 2nd millennium, the 25th year of the 19th century, and the 6th year of the 1820s decade. As of the start of 1825, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1825 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1825
MDCCCXXV
Ab urbe condita2578
Armenian calendar1274
ԹՎ ՌՄՀԴ
Assyrian calendar6575
Balinese saka calendar1746–1747
Bengali calendar1232
Berber calendar2775
British Regnal yearGeo. 4 – 6 Geo. 4
Buddhist calendar2369
Burmese calendar1187
Byzantine calendar7333–7334
Chinese calendar甲申(Wood Monkey)
4521 or 4461
    — to —
乙酉年 (Wood Rooster)
4522 or 4462
Coptic calendar1541–1542
Discordian calendar2991
Ethiopian calendar1817–1818
Hebrew calendar5585–5586
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1881–1882
 - Shaka Samvat1746–1747
 - Kali Yuga4925–4926
Holocene calendar11825
Igbo calendar825–826
Iranian calendar1203–1204
Islamic calendar1240–1241
Japanese calendarBunsei 8
(文政8年)
Javanese calendar1752–1753
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4158
Minguo calendar87 before ROC
民前87年
Nanakshahi calendar357
Thai solar calendar2367–2368
Tibetan calendar阳木猴年
(male Wood-Monkey)
1951 or 1570 or 798
    — to —
阴木鸡年
(female Wood-Rooster)
1952 or 1571 or 799
Capture of the El Mosquito
March 2: The pirate sloop Anne is captured.

Events

January–March

April–June

  • April 17Charles X of France recognizes Haiti, 21 years after it expelled the French following the successful Haitian Revolution, and demands the payment of 150 million gold francs, 30 million of which Haiti must finance through France itself, as down payment.
  • May 26 – Two Unitarian Christian bodies, the American Unitarian Association in the United States and the British and Foreign Unitarian Association in the United Kingdom are founded, coincidentally on the same date.
  • June 2 – The United States Senate ratifies the treaties with the Great Osage and the Little Osage tribes. [1]
  • June 3 – The U.S. Senate ratifies the treaty with the Kansas tribe. [1]
  • June 9 – The U.S. Senate ratifies the treaty with the Poncas tribe. [1]
  • June 15 – A rebellion is started by 200 slaves in the Guamacaro region of Cuba, and is suppressed after 12 hours; in the ensuing months, most who weren't killed in the battle would be hunted down and killed. [2]

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

Births

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

Deaths

January–June

July–December

Dates unknown

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Niles' Weekly Register, Volume 30, p316
  2. ^ Manuel Barcia, West African Warfare in Bahia and Cuba: Soldier Slaves in the Atlantic World, 1807-1844 (Oxford University Press, 2014) p97
  3. ^ The Annual Register, or A View of the History, Politics, and Literature for the Year 1828 (Baldwin and Cradock, 1829) p428
  4. ^ Rosenberg, Matt T. "Largest Cities Through History". About.com. Retrieved 2012-09-25.
  5. ^ Haverkamp, Frode; Gude, Hans Fredrik (1992). Hans Gude (in Norwegian). Oslo: Aschehoug. p. 59. ISBN 82-03-17072-2. OCLC 29047091.
  6. ^ "Supplement to the Local Gazetteer of Wu Prefecture". World Digital Library. 1134. Retrieved 2013-09-06.
1824 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 19th Congress coincided with the contentious presidential election of that year. While the bulk of states held their elections in 1824, six states scheduled their general elections at various times during 1825.By 1823, the year that marked the end of the consensus-driven Era of Good Feelings, the national wing of the Federalist Party had disbanded and the Republican Party, which was left as the only major political party, was being destroyed by internal divisions. The party fractured after the 1824 presidential election between those who supported the new president, John Quincy Adams, and those who supported Andrew Jackson. Jackson was defeated after the House decided the contested election in favor of Adams. Representatives who supported Adams won a slim majority in the House, and would later form the National Republican Party a successor of the Republican Party in 1825. Jackson supporters in the Republican Party started calling themselves Jacksonians and Democratic Republicans, and later became the Democratic Party in 1828.

1824 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1824 was the tenth quadrennial presidential election, held from Tuesday, October 26, to Thursday, December 2, 1824. In an election contested by four members of the Democratic-Republican Party, no candidate won a majority of the electoral vote, necessitating a contingent election in the House of Representatives under the provisions of the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution. On February 9, 1825, the House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams as president. The 1824 presidential election was the first election in which the winner of the election lost the popular vote.

Prior to the election, the Democratic-Republican Party had won six consecutive presidential elections, and by 1824 the opposition Federalist Party had collapsed as a national party. Secretary of State Adams, General Andrew Jackson, Secretary of the Treasury William H. Crawford, and Speaker of the House Henry Clay all sought the presidency as members of the Democratic-Republican Party. A fifth candidate, John C. Calhoun, also sought the presidency before dropping out to run for vice president. The 1824 Democratic-Republican congressional nominating caucus nominated Crawford for president, but the other candidates disregarded this nomination and continued to seek the presidency.

In the election, Adams won New England, Jackson and Adams split the mid-Atlantic states, Jackson and Clay split the Western states, and Jackson and Crawford split the Southern states. Jackson finished with a plurality of the electoral and popular vote, while the other three candidates each finished with a significant share of the electoral and popular vote. Calhoun, who supported Jackson, also became the de facto running mate of Adams and as such was elected with a comfortable majority of the vice presidential vote in the Electoral College. However, no one had won a majority of the presidential electoral vote, and the 1824 election thus became the first (and, so far, only) election to be decided in the House of Representatives under the terms of the 12th Amendment. The 12th Amendment specified that only the three top finishers in the electoral vote were eligible to be selected by the House, thus eliminating Clay, who was influential within that chamber. In the contingent election, Clay threw his support behind Adams, who shared many of his positions on the major issues. With Clay's backing, Adams won the contingent election on the first ballot.

After Adams took office, he appointed Clay as Secretary of State, and supporters of Jackson accused Clay and Adams of having agreed to a "corrupt bargain" in which Clay supported Adams in return for his appointment to the most prestigious Cabinet position. Later, the faction led by Jackson would evolve into the modern Democratic Party, while supporters of Adams and Henry Clay would form the National Republican Party and then the Whig Party. Adams's 1824 election victory was thus the last of seven consecutive wins by the Democratic-Republican Party.

1824 and 1825 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1824 and 1825 were elections for the United States Senate that saw the Jacksonians gain a majority over the Anti-Jacksonian National Republican Party.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.

1825 in France

Events from the year 1825 in France.

1825 in Ireland

Events from the year 1825 in Ireland.

1825 in Sweden

Events from the year 1825 in Sweden

Alexander I of Russia

Alexander I (Russian: Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; 23 December [O.S. 12 December] 1777 – 1 December [O.S. 19 November] 1825) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825. He was the eldest son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. Alexander was the first Russian King of partitioned Poland, reigning from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland, reigning from 1809 to 1825.

He was born in Saint Petersburg to Grand Duke Paul Petrovich, later Emperor Paul I, and succeeded to the throne after his father was murdered. He ruled Russia during the chaotic period of the Napoleonic Wars. As prince and during the early years of his reign, Alexander often used liberal rhetoric, but continued Russia's absolutist policies in practice. In the first years of his reign, he initiated some minor social reforms and (in 1803–04) major, liberal educational reforms, such as building more universities. Alexander appointed Mikhail Speransky, the son of a village priest, as one of his closest advisors. The Collegia was abolished and replaced by the State Council, which was created to improve legislation. Plans were also made to set up a parliament and sign a constitution.

In foreign policy, he changed Russia's position relative to France four times between 1804 and 1812 among neutrality, opposition, and alliance. In 1805 he joined Britain in the War of the Third Coalition against Napoleon, but after the massive defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz he switched and formed an alliance with Napoleon by the Treaty of Tilsit (1807) and joined Napoleon's Continental System. He fought a small-scale naval war against Britain between 1807 and 1812 as well as a short war against Sweden (1808–09) after Sweden's refusal to join the Continental System. Alexander and Napoleon hardly agreed, especially regarding Poland, and the alliance collapsed by 1810. The tsar's greatest triumph came in 1812 as Napoleon's invasion of Russia proved a total disaster for the French. As part of the winning coalition against Napoleon he gained some spoils in Finland and Poland. He formed the Holy Alliance to suppress revolutionary movements in Europe that he saw as immoral threats to legitimate Christian monarchs. He helped Austria's Klemens von Metternich in suppressing all national and liberal movements.

In the second half of his reign he was increasingly arbitrary, reactionary and fearful of plots against him; he ended many earlier reforms. He purged schools of foreign teachers, as education became more religiously oriented as well as politically conservative. Speransky was replaced as advisor with the strict artillery inspector Aleksey Arakcheyev, who oversaw the creation of military settlements. Alexander died of typhus in December 1825 while on a trip to southern Russia. He left no children, as his two daughters died in childhood. Both of his brothers wanted the other to become emperor. After a period of great confusion (that presaged the failed Decembrist revolt of liberal army officers in the weeks after his death), he was succeeded by his younger brother, Nicholas I.

Decembrist revolt

The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (Russian: Восстание декабристов, tr. Vosstanie dekabristov) took place in Imperial Russia on 26 December [O.S. 14 December] 1825. Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Tsar Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession. Because these events occurred in December, the rebels were called the Decembrists (Dekabristy, Russian: Декабристы).

The uprising, which was suppressed by Nicholas I, took place in Peter's Square in Saint Petersburg. In 1925, to mark the centenary of the event, the square was renamed Decembrist Square; but in 2008 the name was changed back to its original name, Senate Square.

Henry County, Illinois

Henry County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. The 2010 United States Census, listed its population at 50,486. Its county seat is Cambridge.Henry County is included in the Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Hungarian Academy of Sciences

The Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungarian: Magyar Tudományos Akadémia (MTA)) is the most important and prestigious learned society of Hungary. Its seat is at the bank of the Danube in Budapest. Its main responsibilities are the cultivation of science, dissemination of scientific findings, supporting research and development and representing Hungarian science domestically and around the world.

Knox County, Illinois

Knox County is a county in the U.S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 52,919. Its county seat is Galesburg.Knox County comprises the Galesburg, IL Micropolitan Statistical Area.

List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, 1820–1839

This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the years 1820–1839. Note that the first parliament of the United Kingdom was held in 1801; parliaments between 1707 and 1800 were either parliaments of Great Britain or of Ireland). For Acts passed up until 1707 see List of Acts of the Parliament of England and List of Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. For Acts passed from 1707 to 1800 see List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland.

For Acts of the devolved parliaments and assemblies in the United Kingdom, see the List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament from 1999, the List of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the List of Acts and Measures of the National Assembly for Wales; see also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.

The number shown after each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts passed before 1963 are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Union with Ireland Act 1800 is cited as "39 & 40 Geo. 3 c. 67", meaning the 67th Act passed during the session that started in the 39th year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 40th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "41 Geo. 3" rather than "41 Geo. III"). Note also that Acts of the last session of the Parliament of Great Britain and the first session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are both cited as "41 Geo. 3". Acts passed from 1963 onwards are simply cited by calendar year and chapter number.

All modern Acts have a short title, e.g. the Local Government Act 2003. Some earlier Acts also have a short title given to them by later Acts, such as by the Short Titles Act 1896.

Mercer County, Illinois

Mercer County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 16,434. Its county seat is Aledo.Mercer County is included in the Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area.

National Academy of Design

The National Academy of Design is an honorary association of American artists, founded in New York City in 1825 by Samuel Morse, Asher Durand, Thomas Cole, Martin E. Thompson, Charles Cushing Wright, Ithiel Town, and others "to promote the fine arts in America through instruction and exhibition."

Putnam County, Illinois

Putnam County is the least extensive county in the U.S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 6,006. The county seat is Hennepin. The county was formed in 1825 out of Fulton County and named after Israel Putnam, who was a general in the American Revolution.

Putnam County is part of the Ottawa-Peru, IL Micropolitan Statistical Area.

Tasmania

Tasmania (; abbreviated as TAS and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia. It is located 240 km (150 mi) to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by Bass Strait. The state encompasses the main island of Tasmania, the 26th-largest island in the world, and the surrounding 334 islands. The state has a population of around 526,700 as of March 2018. Just over forty percent of the population resides in the Greater Hobart precinct, which forms the metropolitan area of the state capital and largest city, Hobart.Tasmania's area is 68,401 km2 (26,410 sq mi), of which the main island covers 64,519 km2 (24,911 sq mi). It is promoted as a natural state, and protected areas of Tasmania cover about 42% of its land area, which includes national parks and World Heritage Sites. Tasmania was the founding place of the first environmental political party in the world.The island is believed to have been occupied by indigenous peoples for 30,000 years before British colonisation. It is thought Aboriginal Tasmanians were separated from the mainland Aboriginal groups about 10,000 years ago when the sea rose to form Bass Strait. The Aboriginal population is estimated to have been between 3,000 and 7,000 at the time of colonisation, but was almost wiped out within 30 years by a combination of violent guerrilla conflict with settlers known as the "Black War", intertribal conflict, and from the late 1820s, the spread of infectious diseases to which they had no immunity. The conflict, which peaked between 1825 and 1831, and led to more than three years of martial law, cost the lives of almost 1,100 Aboriginals and settlers.

The island was permanently settled by Europeans in 1803 as a penal settlement of the British Empire to prevent claims to the land by the First French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. The island was initially part of the Colony of New South Wales but became a separate, self-governing colony under the name Van Diemen's Land (named after Anthony van Diemen) in 1825. Approximately 75,000 convicts were sent to Van Diemen's Land before transportation ceased in 1853. In 1854 the present Constitution of Tasmania was passed, and the following year the colony received permission to change its name to Tasmania. In 1901 it became a state through the process of the Federation of Australia.

Van Diemen's Land

Van Diemen's Land was the original name used by most Europeans for the island of Tasmania, part of Australia. The name was changed from Van Diemen's Land to Tasmania in 1856.

Warren County, Illinois

Warren County is a county in the U.S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 17,707. Its county seat is Monmouth.

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