1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1822nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 822nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 22nd year of the 19th century, and the 3rd year of the 1820s decade. As of the start of 1822, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|1822 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2575|
|Balinese saka calendar||1743–1744|
|British Regnal year||2 Geo. 4 – 3 Geo. 4|
|Chinese calendar||辛巳年 (Metal Snake)|
4518 or 4458
— to —
壬午年 (Water Horse)
4519 or 4459
|- Vikram Samvat||1878–1879|
|- Shaka Samvat||1743–1744|
|- Kali Yuga||4922–4923|
|Japanese calendar||Bunsei 5|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||90 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2364–2365|
1948 or 1567 or 795
— to —
1949 or 1568 or 796
The 1822 New York state election was held from November 4 to 6, 1822, to elect the Governor and the Lieutenant Governor, as well as all members of the New York State Senate and the New York State Assembly.1822 United States elections
The 1822 United States elections occurred in the middle of Democratic-Republican President James Monroe's second term, and was the last election of the First Party System. Members of the 18th United States Congress were chosen in this election. The 1820 census added 26 seats to the House. Democratic-Republicans continued to dominate both chambers of Congress.1822 and 1823 United States House of Representatives elections
Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 18th Congress were held at different dates in each state between July 1, 1822 (in Louisiana) and August 14, 1823 (in North Carolina) during James Monroe's second term in office. This was the first election based on the results of the 1820 Census, which added a total of 26 seats to the House. Four states lost one Representative each, while nine states gained anywhere between 1 and 8 seats.
The campaign was waged between the Democratic-Republican Party and the Federalist Party. However, by this time, party unity had broken down and the consensus principles of the Era of Good Feelings were giving way to fragmentation. In turn, many historians classify the parties of the Representatives based on how they voted in the contingent election of 1825 (where the House determined the winner of the 1824 presidential election), at the end of the 18th Congress, with results similar to those in the following table. Michael J. Dubin classifies candidates based on the political parties supporting them in the elections of 1822-1823 (though he does not provide a nationwide tally).
This was the single largest gain by any President's party in House midterm elections in US history, and the only time the President's party made gains of 10 seats or more in such an election.1822 and 1823 United States Senate elections
The United States Senate elections of 1822 and 1823 were elections for the United States Senate that had the Democratic-Republican Party continue almost complete control of the Senate.
As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.1822 in Denmark
Events from the year 1822 in Denmark.1822 in France
Events from the year 1822 in France.1822 in Ireland
Events from the year 1822 in Ireland.1822 in Sweden
Events from the year 1822 in Sweden1824 United States House of Representatives elections
Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 19th Congress coincided with the contentious presidential election of that year. While the bulk of states held their elections in 1824, six states scheduled their general elections at various times during 1825.By 1823, the year that marked the end of the consensus-driven Era of Good Feelings, the national wing of the Federalist Party had disbanded and the Republican Party, which was left as the only major political party, was being destroyed by internal divisions. The party fractured after the 1824 presidential election between those who supported the new president, John Quincy Adams, and those who supported Andrew Jackson. Jackson was defeated after the House decided the contested election in favor of Adams. Representatives who supported Adams won a slim majority in the House, and would later form the National Republican Party a successor of the Republican Party in 1825. Jackson supporters in the Republican Party started calling themselves Jacksonians and Democratic Republicans, and later became the Democratic Party in 1828.Action of 9 November 1822
The Action of 9 November 1822 was a naval battle fought between the United States Navy schooner USS Alligator and a squadron of three pirate schooners off the coast of Cuba during the Navy's West Indies anti-piracy operation. Fifteen leagues from Matanzas, Cuba, a large band of pirates captured several vessels and held them for ransom. Upon hearing of the pirate attacks, Alligator under Lieutenant William Howard Allen rushed to the scene to rescue the vessels and seize the pirates.
Upon arriving at the bay where the pirates were said to be, Alligator dispatched boats to engage the enemy vessels, as the water was too shallow for the warship to engage them directly. With Allen personally commanding one of the boats, the Americans assaulted the schooner Revenge. Although the Navy was able to force the pirates into abandoning Revenge, the buccaneers managed to fight their way out of the bay and inflict seven casualties. With their commander mortally wounded, the boats ceased pursuit of the pirates, but were able to recover the vessels that had been held in the bay.Duval County, Florida
Duval County is a county in the State of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 864,263, with a 2017 estimate at 937,934, the sixth most populous in Florida. Its county seat is Jacksonville, with which the Duval County government has been consolidated since 1968. Duval County was established in 1822, and is named for William Pope Duval, Governor of Florida Territory from 1822 to 1834.
Duval County is included in the Jacksonville, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area.First Mexican Empire
The Mexican Empire (Spanish: Imperio Mexicano, pronounced [ĩmˈpeɾjo mexiˈcano]) was a short lived monarchy, and the first independent post-colonial imperial state in Mexico. It was the only former colony of the Spanish Empire to establish a monarchy after independence. Together with the Brazilian Empire, it was one of two European-style empires in the Americas. The Mexican Empire lasted two years.
It existed from the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba and the declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire in September 1821 until the emperor's abdication in March 1823 when the Provisional Government took power and the First Mexican Republic was proclaimed in 1824. The first monarch of the state was Agustín de Iturbide, reigning as Agustín I of Mexico.Florida Territory
The Territory of Florida was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 30, 1822, until March 3, 1845, when it was admitted to the Union as the state of Florida. Originally the Spanish territory of La Florida, and later the provinces of East and West Florida, it was ceded to the United States as part of the 1819 Adams–Onís Treaty. It was governed by the Florida Territorial Council.Independence of Brazil
The Independence of Brazil comprised a series of political and military events that occurred in 1821–1824, most of which involved disputes between Brazil and Portugal regarding the call for independence presented by the Brazilian Empire.
It is celebrated on 7 September, the anniversary of the date in 1822 that prince regent Dom Pedro declared Brazil's independence from the former United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves. Formal recognition came with a treaty three years later, signed by both the new Empire of Brazil and the Kingdom of Portugal in late 1825.Kingdom of Portugal
The Kingdom of Portugal (Latin: Regnum Portugalliae, Portuguese: Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal. It was in existence from 1139 until 1910. After 1415, it was also known as the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, and between 1815 and 1822, it was known as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. The name is also often applied to the Portuguese Empire, the realm's extensive overseas colonies.
The nucleus of the Portuguese state was the County of Portugal, established in the 9th century as part of the Reconquista, by Vímara Peres, a vassal of the King of Asturias. The county became part of the Kingdom of León in 1097, and the Counts of Portugal established themselves as rulers of an independent kingdom in the 12th century, following the battle of São Mamede. The kingdom was ruled by the Alfonsine Dynasty until the 1383–85 Crisis, after which the monarchy passed to the House of Aviz.
During the 15th and 16th century, Portuguese exploration established a vast colonial empire. From 1580 to 1640, the Kingdom of Portugal was in personal union with Habsburg Spain.
After the Portuguese Restoration War of 1640–1668, the kingdom passed to the House of Braganza and thereafter to the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. From this time, the influence of Portugal declined, but it remained a major power due to its most valuable colony, Brazil. After the independence of Brazil, Portugal sought to establish itself in Africa, but was ultimately forced to yield to the British interests, leading to the collapse of the monarchy in the 5 October 1910 revolution and the establishment of the First Portuguese Republic.
Portugal was a decisive absolute monarchy before 1822. It rotated between absolute and constitutional monarchy from 1822 until 1834, and was a decisive constitutional monarchy after 1834.List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, 1820–1839
This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the years 1820–1839. Note that the first parliament of the United Kingdom was held in 1801; parliaments between 1707 and 1800 were either parliaments of Great Britain or of Ireland). For Acts passed up until 1707 see List of Acts of the Parliament of England and List of Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. For Acts passed from 1707 to 1800 see List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland.
For Acts of the devolved parliaments and assemblies in the United Kingdom, see the List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament from 1999, the List of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the List of Acts and Measures of the National Assembly for Wales; see also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.
The number shown after each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts passed before 1963 are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Union with Ireland Act 1800 is cited as "39 & 40 Geo. 3 c. 67", meaning the 67th Act passed during the session that started in the 39th year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 40th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "41 Geo. 3" rather than "41 Geo. III"). Note also that Acts of the last session of the Parliament of Great Britain and the first session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are both cited as "41 Geo. 3". Acts passed from 1963 onwards are simply cited by calendar year and chapter number.
All modern Acts have a short title, e.g. the Local Government Act 2003. Some earlier Acts also have a short title given to them by later Acts, such as by the Short Titles Act 1896.Percy Bysshe Shelley
Percy Bysshe Shelley ( (listen) BISH; 4 August 1792 – 8 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, who is regarded by some as among the finest lyric and philosophical poets in the English language, and one of the most influential. A radical in his poetry as well as in his political and social views, Shelley did not see fame during his lifetime, but recognition of his achievements in poetry grew steadily following his death. Shelley was a key member of a close circle of visionary poets and writers that included Lord Byron, Leigh Hunt, Thomas Love Peacock, and his own second wife, Mary Shelley, the author of Frankenstein.
Shelley is perhaps best known for classic poems such as "Ozymandias", "Ode to the West Wind", "To a Skylark", "Music, When Soft Voices Die", "The Cloud", and "The Masque of Anarchy". His other major works include a groundbreaking verse drama The Cenci (1819) and long, visionary, philosophical poems such as Queen Mab (later reworked as The Daemon of the World), Alastor, The Revolt of Islam, Adonaïs, Prometheus Unbound (1820)—widely considered to be his masterpiece—Hellas: A Lyrical Drama (1821), and his final, unfinished work, The Triumph of Life (1822).
Shelley's close circle of friends included some of the most important progressive thinkers of the day, including his father-in-law, the philosopher William Godwin, and Leigh Hunt. Though Shelley's poetry and prose output remained steady throughout his life, most publishers and journals declined to publish his work for fear of being arrested for either blasphemy or sedition. Shelley's poetry sometimes had only an underground readership during his day, but his poetic achievements are widely recognized today, and his political and social thought had an impact on the Chartist and other movements in England, and reach down to the present day. Shelley's theories of economics and morality, for example, had a profound influence on Karl Marx; his early—perhaps first—writings on nonviolent resistance influenced Leo Tolstoy, whose writings on the subject in turn influenced Mahatma Gandhi, and through him Martin Luther King Jr. and others practicing nonviolence during the American civil rights movement.
Shelley became a lodestar to the subsequent three or four generations of poets, including important Victorian and Pre-Raphaelite poets such as Robert Browning and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. He was admired by Oscar Wilde, Thomas Hardy, George Bernard Shaw, Leo Tolstoy, Bertrand Russell, W. B. Yeats, Upton Sinclair and Isadora Duncan. Henry David Thoreau's Civil Disobedience was apparently influenced by Shelley's writings and theories on non-violence in protest and political action. Shelley's popularity and influence has continued to grow in contemporary poetry circles.United States House Committee on Armed Services
The U.S. House Committee on Armed Services, commonly known as the House Armed Services Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives. It is responsible for funding and oversight of the Department of Defense (DOD) and the United States armed forces, as well as substantial portions of the Department of Energy.