The United States Census of 1820 was the fourth Census conducted in the United States. It was conducted on August 7, 1820. The 1820 Census included six new states: Louisiana, Indiana, Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama and Maine. There has been a district wide loss of 1820 Census records for Arkansas Territory, Missouri Territory and New Jersey, however.
The total population was determined to be 9,638,453, of which 1,538,022 were slaves. The center of population was about 120 miles (193 km) west-northwest of Washington in Hardy County, Virginia (now in West Virginia).
This was the first census in which a state recorded a population of over one million – New York and Pennsylvania – as well as the first in which a city recorded a population of over 100,000 – New York. It was also the first census in which Baltimore was ranked as the country's second-most populous city.
|1820 United States Census|
Seal of the United States Census Bureau
|Date taken||August 7, 1820|
The 1820 census contains a great deal more information than previous censuses. Enumerators listed the following data in columns, left to right:
Several of these columns were for special counts, and not to be included in the aggregate total. Doing so would have resulted in counting some individuals twice. Census takers were asked to use double lines, red ink or some other method of distinguishing these columns so that double counting would not occur. For example, the count of free white males between 16 and 18 was a special count, because these individuals were also supposed to be tabulated in the column for free white males of age 16 and under 26.
The other special counts were foreigners not naturalized, persons engaged in agriculture, persons engaged in commerce, and persons engaged in manufacture.
Census takers were also instructed to count each individual in only one of the occupational columns. For example, if an individual was engaged in agriculture, commerce, and manufacture, the census taker had to judge which one the individual was primarily engaged in.
Censustaking was not yet an exact science. Before 1830, enumerators lacked pre-printed forms, and drew up their own, sometimes resulting in pages without headings, line tallies, or column totals. As a result, census records for many towns before 1830 are idiosyncratic. This is not to suggest that they are less reliable than subsequent censuses, but that they may require more work on the part of the researcher.
|X||West Virginia ||136,808|
|X||District of Columbia ||23,336|
|01||New York||New York||123,706||Northeast|
|09||Washington||District of Columbia||13,247||South|
|17||Alexandria||District of Columbia||8,218||South|
|19||Georgetown||District of Columbia||7,360||South|
|48||New Bern||North Carolina||3,663||South|
Events from the year 1820 in the United States.1822 United States House of Representatives election in Georgia
Georgia gained one seat in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census.1822 United States House of Representatives election in Vermont
Vermont lost one seat in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. For the 1822 election, Vermont switched back to using a single at-large district. This would be the last year that Vermont would use an at-large district until 1932, when its representation was reduced to a single seat. Vermont elected its members September 3, 1822.1822 United States House of Representatives elections in Indiana
Indiana gained two seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census, and elected its members August 5, 1822.
Indiana's single at-large seat in the 17th Congress was empty at the time of the election, previous incumbent William Hendricks (Democratic-Republican) having resigned to run for Governor of Indiana. Jonathan Jennings (Jackson Democratic-Republican), elected to the new 2nd district, was elected in the ensuing special election to fill the at-large district for the remainder of the 17th Congress.1822 United States House of Representatives elections in Kentucky
Kentucky gained two seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. Kentucky elected its members August 5, 1822.1822 United States House of Representatives elections in Louisiana
Louisiana gained two seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. Louisiana elected its members July 1–3, 1822.1822 United States House of Representatives elections in Ohio
Ohio gained eight seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. Ohio elected its members October 8, 1822.1822 United States House of Representatives elections in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania gained three seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. Pennsylvania elected its members October 8, 1822.1822 and 1823 United States House of Representatives elections
Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 18th Congress were held at different dates in each state between July 1, 1822 (in Louisiana) and August 14, 1823 (in North Carolina) during James Monroe's second term in office. This was the first election based on the results of the 1820 Census, which added a total of 26 seats to the House. Four states lost one seat each, while nine states gained anywhere between one and eight seats.
The campaign was waged between the Democratic-Republican Party and the Federalist Party. However, by this time, party unity had broken down and the consensus principles of the Era of Good Feelings were giving way to fragmentation. In turn, many historians classify the parties of the Representatives based on how they voted in the contingent election of 1825 (where the House determined the winner of the 1824 presidential election), at the end of the 18th Congress, with results similar to those in the following table. Michael J. Dubin classifies candidates based on the political parties supporting them in the elections of 1822-1823 (though he does not provide a nationwide tally).
This was the single largest gain by any President's party in House midterm elections in US history, and the only time the President's party made gains of 10 seats or more in such an election.1823 United States House of Representatives election in Connecticut
Connecticut lost one seat in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census.1823 United States House of Representatives elections in Alabama
Alabama increased from one to three seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. The state then changed from a single at-large district to three geographic districts.1823 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine
Although Maine neither gained nor lost seats after the 1820 United States Census, redistricting placed two incumbents into the 3rd district. Maine elected its members April 7, 1823, after the term began but before the new Congress convened. Maine law required a majority for election, with additional ballots taken if a majority were not achieved. This proved necessary in 1822 in the 1st, 3rd, 4th, and 6th districts, but all members were still chosen before the new Congress convened.1823 United States House of Representatives elections in Tennessee
Tennessee gained three seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. Tennessee elected its members August 7–8, 1823, after the term began but before the new Congress convened.1823 United States House of Representatives elections in Virginia
Virginia lost one seat in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. Nineteen incumbents ran for re-election, leaving three open seats. Virginia elected its members in April 1823 after the term began, but before the new Congress convened.Freeman Walker
Freeman Walker (October 25, 1780 – September 23, 1827) was a United States Senator from Georgia. Born in Charles City, Virginia, he attended the common schools; in 1797, he moved to Augusta, Georgia.
Walker studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1803, commencing practice in Augusta. He was a member of the Georgia House of Representatives from 1807 to 1811, and was mayor of Augusta in 1818 and 1819. He was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the U.S. Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of John Forsyth, serving from November 6, 1819, to August 6, 1821, when he resigned. At the time of the 1820 census he owned 46 slaves. He was again mayor of Augusta in 1823. Walker died in Augusta in 1827; interment was in the Walker family cemetery.Freeman Walker's son was Confederate major general William H.T. Walker, who served in the American Civil War.John Elliott (Georgia)
John Elliott (October 24, 1773 – August 9, 1827) was a United States Senator from Georgia, serving from 1819 to 1825.
Elliott graduated from Yale University in 1794 and returned to Georgia to practice law. He was elected to the Senate after holding several local offices.
Through his first wife Esther Dunwoody, he was the father of Hester Amarintha "Hettie" Elliott (1797–1831) and Corinne Elliott. Hettie was the first wife of Major James Stephens Bulloch (1793–1849) and mother of Civil War Confederate veteran James Dunwoody Bulloch (1823–1901).
Senator Elliott was also the first husband of Martha "Patsy" Stewart (1799—1864), daughter of General Daniel Stewart and Sarah Susannah Oswald. John and Patsy had four children:
Susan Ann Elliott (1820–1895)
Georgia Amanda Elliott (1822–1848)
Charles William Elliott (September 1824 – c. 1825)
Daniel Stewart "Dan" Elliott (1826–1861), Civil War Confederate casualtyAfter his death, Patsy married Major Bulloch in May 8, 1832 and had four children, including Martha "Mittie" Bulloch (1835–1884) and Civil War Confederate veteran Irvine Stephens Bulloch (1842–1898). Mittie was the mother of US President Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919) and Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt (1860–1894), who was the father of First Lady Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (1884–1962).
In 1820, he owned 115 slaves in Liberty County, Georgia. In 1830, his estate owned 117 slaves.Nicholas Ware
Nicholas Ware (February 16, 1776 – September 7, 1824) was a United States Senator from Georgia.
Ware was born in Caroline County, Virginia and later moved with his parents to Edgefield, South Carolina and a few years later to Augusta, Georgia. He received a thorough English education and studied medicine. He studied law in Augusta as well as at the Litchfield Law School in Litchfield, Connecticut. He was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Augusta.
From 1808 to 1811 and in 1814–1815, Ware was a member of the Georgia House of Representatives. He was elected as mayor of Augusta, serving from 1819 to 1821. That year the Georgia legislature elected him as a Democratic-Republican (later as a Crawford Republican) to the U.S. Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Freeman Walker; he served from November 10, 1821, until his death in New York City in 1824. Ware was interred under the annex of Grace Church.
He was a planter and slave owner. At the time of the 1820 census, he owned 62 slaves and had extensive plantation near Augusta. He developed it for cotton, the major commodity crop of the Deep South in the antebellum era.
His daughter married. After being widowed, she married the widower and planter Francis W. Eppes of Tallahassee, Florida.Palestine, Lawrence County, Indiana
Palestine is an abandoned city in Shawswick Township, Lawrence County, Indiana. Palestine was the original county seat of Lawrence County from 1818 to 1825, when Bedford took the position.Wardensville, West Virginia
Wardensville is a town in Hardy County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 271 at the 2010 census. Originally named Trout Run, Wardensville was chartered in Virginia in 1832 and incorporated in West Virginia in 1879. Wardensville is located west of the Great North Mountain range, which separates it from the Shenandoah Valley. The town lies on the east bank of the Cacapon River at its confluence with Trout Run. The George Washington and Jefferson National Forests border the town to its east and south.