1820 United States Census

The United States Census of 1820 was the fourth Census conducted in the United States. It was conducted on August 7, 1820. The 1820 Census included six new states: Louisiana, Indiana, Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama and Maine. There has been a district wide loss of 1820 Census records for Arkansas Territory, Missouri Territory and New Jersey, however.

The total population was determined to be 9,638,453, of which 1,538,022 were slaves. The center of population was about 120 miles (193 km) west-northwest of Washington in Hardy County, Virginia (now in West Virginia).

This was the first census in which a state recorded a population of over one million – New York and Pennsylvania – as well as the first in which a city recorded a population of over 100,000 – New York. It was also the first census in which Baltimore was ranked as the country's second-most populous city.

1820 United States Census
Seal of the United States Census Bureau
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenAugust 7, 1820
Total population9,638,453

Census questions

The 1820 census contains a great deal more information than previous censuses. Enumerators listed the following data in columns, left to right:

  1. Name of the head of family
  2. # of free white males under age 10
  3. # of free white males age 10-16
  4. # of free white males age 16-18
  5. # of free white males age 16-26
  6. # of free white males age 26-45
  7. # of free white males age 45 and up
  8. # of free white females under age 10
  9. # of free white females age 10-16
  10. # of free white females age 16-26
  11. # of free white females age 26-45
  12. # of free white females age 45 and up
  13. # of foreigners not naturalized
  14. # of persons engaged in agriculture
  15. # of persons engaged in commerce
  16. # of persons engaged in manufacture
  17. # of male slaves under 14
  18. # of male slaves age 14-26
  19. # of male slaves age 26-45
  20. # of male slaves age 45 and up
  21. # of female slaves under 14
  22. # of female slaves age 14-26
  23. # of female slaves age 26-45
  24. # of female slaves age 45 and up
  25. # of free male colored persons under 14
  26. # of free male colored persons age 14-26
  27. # of free male colored persons age 26-45
  28. # of free male colored persons age 45 and up
  29. # of free female colored persons under 14
  30. # of free female colored persons age 14-26
  31. # of free female colored persons age 26-45
  32. # of free female colored persons age 45 and up
  33. # of all other persons except Indians not taxed

Several of these columns were for special counts, and not to be included in the aggregate total. Doing so would have resulted in counting some individuals twice. Census takers were asked to use double lines, red ink or some other method of distinguishing these columns so that double counting would not occur. For example, the count of free white males between 16 and 18 was a special count, because these individuals were also supposed to be tabulated in the column for free white males of age 16 and under 26.

The other special counts were foreigners not naturalized, persons engaged in agriculture, persons engaged in commerce, and persons engaged in manufacture.

Census takers were also instructed to count each individual in only one of the occupational columns. For example, if an individual was engaged in agriculture, commerce, and manufacture, the census taker had to judge which one the individual was primarily engaged in.

Note to Researchers

Censustaking was not yet an exact science. Before 1830, enumerators lacked pre-printed forms, and drew up their own, sometimes resulting in pages without headings, line tallies, or column totals. As a result, census records for many towns before 1830 are idiosyncratic. This is not to suggest that they are less reliable than subsequent censuses, but that they may require more work on the part of the researcher.

State rankings

Rank State Population
01 New York 1,372,812
02 Pennsylvania 1,049,458
03 Virginia 938,261
04 North Carolina 638,829
05 Ohio 581,434
06 Kentucky 564,317
07 Massachusetts 523,287
08 South Carolina 502,741
09 Tennessee 422,813
10 Maryland 407,350
11 Georgia 340,989
12 Maine 298,335
13 New Jersey 277,575
14 Connecticut 275,202
15 New Hampshire 244,161
16 Vermont 235,764
17 Louisiana 153,407
18 Indiana 147,178
X West Virginia [1] 136,808
19 Alabama 127,901
20 Rhode Island 83,059
21 Mississippi 75,448
22 Delaware 72,749
X Missouri 66,586
23 Illinois 55,211
X District of Columbia [2] 23,336
X Arkansas 14,273
X Michigan 7,452
X Wisconsin 1,444

City rankings

Rank City State Population[3] Region (2016)[4]
01 New York New York 123,706 Northeast
02 Baltimore Maryland 78,444 South
03 Philadelphia Pennsylvania 63,802 Northeast
04 Boston Massachusetts 43,298 Northeast
05 New Orleans Louisiana 27,176 South
06 Charleston South Carolina 24,780 South
07 Northern Liberties Pennsylvania 19,678 Northeast
08 Southwark Pennsylvania 14,713 Northeast
09 Washington District of Columbia 13,247 South
10 Salem Massachusetts 12,731 Northeast
11 Albany New York 12,630 Northeast
12 Richmond Virginia 12,067 South
13 Providence Rhode Island 11,767 Northeast
14 Cincinnati Ohio 9,642 Midwest
15 Portland Maine 8,581 Northeast
16 Norfolk Virginia 8,478 South
17 Alexandria District of Columbia 8,218 South
18 Savannah Georgia 7,523 South
19 Georgetown District of Columbia 7,360 South
20 Portsmouth New Hampshire 7,327 Northeast
21 Newport Rhode Island 7,319 Northeast
22 Nantucket Massachusetts 7,266 Northeast
23 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 7,248 Northeast
24 Brooklyn New York 7,175 Northeast
25 New Haven Connecticut 7,147 Northeast
26 Kensington Pennsylvania 7,118 Northeast
27 Newburyport Massachusetts 6,852 Northeast
28 Petersburg Virginia 6,690 South
29 Lancaster Pennsylvania 6,633 Northeast
30 Charlestown Massachusetts 6,591 Northeast
31 Gloucester Massachusetts 6,384 Northeast
32 Marblehead Massachusetts 5,630 Northeast
33 Hudson New York 5,310 Northeast
34 Lexington Kentucky 5,279 South
35 Troy New York 5,264 Northeast
36 Hartford Connecticut 4,726 Northeast
37 Middleborough Massachusetts 4,687 Northeast
38 Taunton Massachusetts 4,520 Northeast
39 Lynn Massachusetts 4,515 Northeast
40 Plymouth Massachusetts 4,348 Northeast
41 Reading Pennsylvania 4,332 Northeast
42 Beverly Massachusetts 4,283 Northeast
43 Roxbury Massachusetts 4,135 Northeast
44 Louisville Kentucky 4,012 South
45 New Bedford Massachusetts 3,947 Northeast
46 Trenton New Jersey 3,942 Northeast
47 Schenectady New York 3,939 Northeast
48 New Bern North Carolina 3,663 South
49 Frederick Maryland 3,640 South
50 York Pennsylvania 3,545 Northeast
51 Fayetteville North Carolina 3,532 South
52 Elizabeth New Jersey 3,515 Northeast
53 Spring Garden Pennsylvania 3,498 Northeast
54 New London Connecticut 3,330 Northeast
55 Harrisburg Pennsylvania 2,990 Northeast
56 Norwich Connecticut 2,983 Northeast
57 Utica New York 2,972 Northeast
58 Carlisle Pennsylvania 2,908 Northeast
59 Raleigh North Carolina 2,674 South
60 Hagerstown Maryland 2,670 South
61 Wilmington North Carolina 2,633 South
62 Middletown Connecticut 2,618 Northeast

Further reading

References

  1. ^ Between 1790 and 1860, the state of West Virginia was part of Virginia; the data for each states reflect the present-day boundaries.
  2. ^ The District of Columbia is not a state but was created with the passage of the Residence Act of 1790. The territory that formed that federal capital was originally donated by both Maryland and Virginia; however, the Virginia portion was returned by Congress in 1846.
  3. ^ Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  4. ^ "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
1820 in the United States

Events from the year 1820 in the United States.

1822 United States House of Representatives election in Georgia

Georgia gained one seat in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census.

1822 United States House of Representatives election in Vermont

Vermont lost one seat in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. For the 1822 election, Vermont switched back to using a single at-large district. This would be the last year that Vermont would use an at-large district until 1932, when its representation was reduced to a single seat. Vermont elected its members September 3, 1822.

1822 United States House of Representatives elections in Indiana

Indiana gained two seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census, and elected its members August 5, 1822.

Indiana's single at-large seat in the 17th Congress was empty at the time of the election, previous incumbent William Hendricks (Democratic-Republican) having resigned to run for Governor of Indiana. Jonathan Jennings (Jackson Democratic-Republican), elected to the new 2nd district, was elected in the ensuing special election to fill the at-large district for the remainder of the 17th Congress.

1822 United States House of Representatives elections in Kentucky

Kentucky gained two seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. Kentucky elected its members August 5, 1822.

1822 United States House of Representatives elections in Louisiana

Louisiana gained two seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. Louisiana elected its members July 1–3, 1822.

1822 United States House of Representatives elections in Ohio

Ohio gained eight seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. Ohio elected its members October 8, 1822.

1822 United States House of Representatives elections in Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania gained three seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. Pennsylvania elected its members October 8, 1822.

1822 and 1823 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 18th Congress were held at different dates in each state between July 1, 1822 (in Louisiana) and August 14, 1823 (in North Carolina) during James Monroe's second term in office. This was the first election based on the results of the 1820 Census, which added a total of 26 seats to the House. Four states lost one seat each, while nine states gained anywhere between one and eight seats.

The campaign was waged between the Democratic-Republican Party and the Federalist Party. However, by this time, party unity had broken down and the consensus principles of the Era of Good Feelings were giving way to fragmentation. In turn, many historians classify the parties of the Representatives based on how they voted in the contingent election of 1825 (where the House determined the winner of the 1824 presidential election), at the end of the 18th Congress, with results similar to those in the following table. Michael J. Dubin classifies candidates based on the political parties supporting them in the elections of 1822-1823 (though he does not provide a nationwide tally).

This was the single largest gain by any President's party in House midterm elections in US history, and the only time the President's party made gains of 10 seats or more in such an election.

1823 United States House of Representatives election in Connecticut

Connecticut lost one seat in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census.

1823 United States House of Representatives elections in Alabama

Alabama increased from one to three seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. The state then changed from a single at-large district to three geographic districts.

1823 United States House of Representatives elections in Maine

Although Maine neither gained nor lost seats after the 1820 United States Census, redistricting placed two incumbents into the 3rd district. Maine elected its members April 7, 1823, after the term began but before the new Congress convened. Maine law required a majority for election, with additional ballots taken if a majority were not achieved. This proved necessary in 1822 in the 1st, 3rd, 4th, and 6th districts, but all members were still chosen before the new Congress convened.

1823 United States House of Representatives elections in Tennessee

Tennessee gained three seats in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. Tennessee elected its members August 7–8, 1823, after the term began but before the new Congress convened.

1823 United States House of Representatives elections in Virginia

Virginia lost one seat in reapportionment following the 1820 United States Census. Nineteen incumbents ran for re-election, leaving three open seats. Virginia elected its members in April 1823 after the term began, but before the new Congress convened.

Freeman Walker

Freeman Walker (October 25, 1780 – September 23, 1827) was a United States Senator from Georgia. Born in Charles City, Virginia, he attended the common schools; in 1797, he moved to Augusta, Georgia.

Walker studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1803, commencing practice in Augusta. He was a member of the Georgia House of Representatives from 1807 to 1811, and was mayor of Augusta in 1818 and 1819. He was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the U.S. Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of John Forsyth, serving from November 6, 1819, to August 6, 1821, when he resigned. At the time of the 1820 census he owned 46 slaves. He was again mayor of Augusta in 1823. Walker died in Augusta in 1827; interment was in the Walker family cemetery.Freeman Walker's son was Confederate major general William H.T. Walker, who served in the American Civil War.

John Elliott (Georgia)

John Elliott (October 24, 1773 – August 9, 1827) was a United States Senator from Georgia, serving from 1819 to 1825.

Elliott graduated from Yale University in 1794 and returned to Georgia to practice law. He was elected to the Senate after holding several local offices.

Through his first wife Esther Dunwoody, he was the father of Hester Amarintha "Hettie" Elliott (1797–1831) and Corinne Elliott. Hettie was the first wife of Major James Stephens Bulloch (1793–1849) and mother of Civil War Confederate veteran James Dunwoody Bulloch (1823–1901).

Senator Elliott was also the first husband of Martha "Patsy" Stewart (1799—1864), daughter of General Daniel Stewart and Sarah Susannah Oswald. John and Patsy had four children:

Susan Ann Elliott (1820–1895)

Georgia Amanda Elliott (1822–1848)

Charles William Elliott (September 1824 – c. 1825)

Daniel Stewart "Dan" Elliott (1826–1861), Civil War Confederate casualtyAfter his death, Patsy married Major Bulloch in May 8, 1832 and had four children, including Martha "Mittie" Bulloch (1835–1884) and Civil War Confederate veteran Irvine Stephens Bulloch (1842–1898). Mittie was the mother of US President Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919) and Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt (1860–1894), who was the father of First Lady Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (1884–1962).

In 1820, he owned 115 slaves in Liberty County, Georgia. In 1830, his estate owned 117 slaves.

Nicholas Ware

Nicholas Ware (February 16, 1776 – September 7, 1824) was a United States Senator from Georgia.

Ware was born in Caroline County, Virginia and later moved with his parents to Edgefield, South Carolina and a few years later to Augusta, Georgia. He received a thorough English education and studied medicine. He studied law in Augusta as well as at the Litchfield Law School in Litchfield, Connecticut. He was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Augusta.

From 1808 to 1811 and in 1814–1815, Ware was a member of the Georgia House of Representatives. He was elected as mayor of Augusta, serving from 1819 to 1821. That year the Georgia legislature elected him as a Democratic-Republican (later as a Crawford Republican) to the U.S. Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Freeman Walker; he served from November 10, 1821, until his death in New York City in 1824. Ware was interred under the annex of Grace Church.

He was a planter and slave owner. At the time of the 1820 census, he owned 62 slaves and had extensive plantation near Augusta. He developed it for cotton, the major commodity crop of the Deep South in the antebellum era.

His daughter married. After being widowed, she married the widower and planter Francis W. Eppes of Tallahassee, Florida.

Palestine, Lawrence County, Indiana

Palestine is an abandoned city in Shawswick Township, Lawrence County, Indiana. Palestine was the original county seat of Lawrence County from 1818 to 1825, when Bedford took the position.

Wardensville, West Virginia

Wardensville is a town in Hardy County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 271 at the 2010 census. Originally named Trout Run, Wardensville was chartered in Virginia in 1832 and incorporated in West Virginia in 1879. Wardensville is located west of the Great North Mountain range, which separates it from the Shenandoah Valley. The town lies on the east bank of the Cacapon River at its confluence with Trout Run. The George Washington and Jefferson National Forests border the town to its east and south.

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