1819

1819 (MDCCCXIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1819th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 819th year of the 2nd millennium, the 19th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1810s decade. As of the start of 1819, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1819 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1819
MDCCCXIX
Ab urbe condita2572
Armenian calendar1268
ԹՎ ՌՄԿԸ
Assyrian calendar6569
Balinese saka calendar1740–1741
Bengali calendar1226
Berber calendar2769
British Regnal year59 Geo. 3 – 60 Geo. 3
Buddhist calendar2363
Burmese calendar1181
Byzantine calendar7327–7328
Chinese calendar戊寅(Earth Tiger)
4515 or 4455
    — to —
己卯年 (Earth Rabbit)
4516 or 4456
Coptic calendar1535–1536
Discordian calendar2985
Ethiopian calendar1811–1812
Hebrew calendar5579–5580
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1875–1876
 - Shaka Samvat1740–1741
 - Kali Yuga4919–4920
Holocene calendar11819
Igbo calendar819–820
Iranian calendar1197–1198
Islamic calendar1234–1235
Japanese calendarBunsei 2
(文政2年)
Javanese calendar1746–1747
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4152
Minguo calendar93 before ROC
民前93年
Nanakshahi calendar351
Thai solar calendar2361–2362
Tibetan calendar阳土虎年
(male Earth-Tiger)
1945 or 1564 or 792
    — to —
阴土兔年
(female Earth-Rabbit)
1946 or 1565 or 793

Events

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

Births

January–June

July–December

Date Unknown

Deaths

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

References

  1. ^ "Western Africa". The Missionary Register. London: Church Missionary Society. 9: 284–5. July 1821.
  2. ^ Dometa Wiegand Brothers, The Romantic Imagination and Astronomy: On All Sides Infinity (Springer, 2015) p. 127
  3. ^ Clements R. Markham, The Lands of Silence: A History of Arctic and Antarctic Exploration (Cambridge University Press, 2014) p. 207
  4. ^ Saul David, Prince of Pleasure: The Prince of Wales and the Making of the Regency (Grove Press, 2000) p. 388
  5. ^ Arrell M. Gibson, Kickapoos: Lords of the Middle Border (University of Oklahoma Press, 1975) p. 81
  6. ^ George B. Clark, Treading Softly: U.S. Marines in China, 1819-1949 (Greenwood, 2001) p1
  7. ^ "Museums and their precursors: a brief survey", in Manual of Curatorship: A Guide to Museum Practice, ed. by John M. A. Thompson (Routledge, 2015)
  8. ^ James Leonard Mack, My Life, My Country, My World (Dorrance Publishing, 2008)
  9. ^ Journal of a Voyage to Discover a North-west Passage. 1821.
1818 and 1819 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 16th Congress were held in the various states between April 28, 1818 (in New York) and August 12, 1819 (in North Carolina), with Alabama electing its first representatives September 20–21, 1819 during James Monroe's first term. The Congress assembled December 6, 1819.

The election occurred in a time period that featured no pressing federal issues and a feeling of national consensus to the effectiveness of the ruling party. The Federalist collapse continued, as support for the party was dismal outside New England due to a decline in an acceptance of their ideology and lingering anger over the secessionist doctrine produced at the Hartford Convention. The Democratic-Republicans used this election to increase their enormous majority.

1818 and 1819 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1818 and 1819 were elections for the United States Senate that had the Democratic-Republican Party gain two seats. The Federalists had only three seats being contested, of which they lost two and the third was left vacant due to a failure to elect.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

1819/1820 United States Senate election in New York

The 1819/1820 United States Senate election in New York was held on February 2, 1819, and January 8, 1820, by the New York State Legislature to elect a U.S. Senator (Class 3) to represent the State of New York in the United States Senate.

1819 in France

Events from the year 1819 in France.

1819 in Ireland

Events from the year 1819 in Ireland.

1819 in Sweden

Events from the year 1819 in Sweden

1819 in the United Kingdom

Events from the year 1819 in the United Kingdom.

Adams–Onís Treaty

The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, also known as the Transcontinental Treaty, the Florida Purchase Treaty, or the Florida Treaty, was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that ceded Florida to the U.S. and defined the boundary between the U.S. and New Spain. It settled a standing border dispute between the two countries and was considered a triumph of American diplomacy. It came in the midst of increasing tensions related to Spain's territorial boundaries in North America against the United States and Great Britain in the aftermath of the American Revolution; it also came during the Latin American wars of independence.

Florida had become a burden to Spain, which could not afford to send settlers or garrisons, so the Spanish government decided to cede the territory to the United States in exchange for settling the boundary dispute along the Sabine River in Spanish Texas. The treaty established the boundary of U.S. territory and claims through the Rocky Mountains and west to the Pacific Ocean, in exchange for the U.S. paying residents' claims against the Spanish government up to a total of $5,000,000 and relinquishing the U.S. claims on parts of Spanish Texas west of the Sabine River and other Spanish areas, under the terms of the Louisiana Purchase.

The treaty remained in full effect for only 183 days: from February 22, 1821, to August 24, 1821, when Spanish military officials signed the Treaty of Córdoba acknowledging the independence of Mexico; Spain repudiated that treaty, but Mexico effectively took control of Spain's former colony. The Treaty of Limits between Mexico and the United States, signed in 1828 and effective in 1832, recognized the border defined by the Adams–Onís Treaty as the boundary between the two nations.

Arkansas Territory

The Territory of Arkansas, initially organized as the Territory of Arkansaw, was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 2, 1819 until June 15, 1836, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Arkansas.

British Malaya

The term "British Malaya" () loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries. Unlike the term "British India", which excludes the Indian princely states, British Malaya is often used to refer to the Malay States under indirect British rule as well as the Straits Settlements that were under the sovereignty of the British Crown.

Before the formation of Malayan Union in 1946, the territories were not placed under a single unified administration, with the exception during the immediate post-war period when a British military became the temporary administrator of Malaya. Instead, British Malaya comprised the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States, and the Unfederated Malay States. Under British rule, Malaya was one of the most profitable territories of the Empire, being the world's largest producer of tin and later rubber. Japan ruled a part of Malaya as a single unit from Singapore during the Second World War.The Malayan Union was later dissolved and replaced by the Federation of Malaya in 1948, which became fully independent on 31 August 1957. On 16 September 1963, the federation, along with North Borneo (Sabah), Sarawak, and Singapore, formed into a larger federation of Malaysia.

Founding of modern Singapore

The establishment of a British trading post in Singapore in 1819 by Sir Stamford Raffles led to its founding as a British colony in 1824. This event has generally been understood to mark the founding of colonial Singapore, a break from its status as a port in ancient times during the Srivijaya and Majapahit eras, and later, as part of Melaka and Johor.

Gran Colombia

Gran Colombia (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈɡɾaŋ koˈlombja], "Great Colombia") is a name used today for the state that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831. The state included the territories of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela, and parts of northern Peru, western Guyana and northwestern Brazil. The term Gran Colombia is used historiographically to distinguish it from the current Republic of Colombia, which is also the official name of the former state.

At the time of its creation, Gran Colombia was the most prestigious country in Spanish America. John Quincy Adams, then Secretary of State and future president of the United States, claimed it to be one of the most powerful nations on the planet. This prestige, added to the figure of Bolívar, attracted to the nation unionist ideas of independence movements in Cuba, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, which sought to form an associated state with the republic.But international recognition of the legitimacy of the Gran Colombian state ran afoul of European opposition to the independence of states in the Americas. Austria, France, and Russia only recognized independence in the Americas if the new states accepted monarchs from European dynasties. In addition, Colombia and the international powers disagreed over the extension of the Colombian territory and its boundaries.Gran Colombia was proclaimed through the Fundamental Law of the Republic of Colombia, issued during the Congress of Angostura (1819), but did not come into being until the Congress of Cúcuta (1821) drafted the Constitución constitucional.

Gran Colombia was constituted as a unitary centralist state. Its existence was marked by a struggle between those who supported a centralized government with a strong presidency and those who supported a decentralized, federal form of government. At the same time, another political division emerged between those who supported the Constitution of Cúcuta and two groups who sought to do away with the Constitution, either in favor of breaking up the country into smaller republics or maintaining the union but creating an even stronger presidency. The faction that favored constitutional rule coalesced around Vice-President Francisco de Paula Santander, while those who supported the creation of a stronger presidency were led by President Simón Bolívar. The two of them had been allies in the war against Spanish rule, but by 1825, their differences had become public and were an important part of the political instability from that year onward.

Gran Colombia was dissolved in 1831 due to the political differences that existed between supporters of federalism and centralism, as well as regional tensions among the peoples that made up the republic. It broke into the successor states of Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela; Panama was separated from Colombia in 1903. Since Gran Colombia's territory corresponded more or less to the original jurisdiction of the former Viceroyalty of New Granada, it also claimed the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua, the Mosquito Coast.

HM Prison Maidstone

HM Prison Maidstone is a Category C men's prison, located in Maidstone, Kent, England. The prison is operated by Her Majesty's Prison Service.

List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, 1801–1819

This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the years 1801–1819. Note that the first parliament of the United Kingdom was held in 1801; parliaments between 1707 and 1800 were either parliaments of Great Britain or of Ireland). For Acts passed up until 1707 see List of Acts of the Parliament of England and List of Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. For Acts passed from 1707 to 1800 see List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland.

For Acts of the devolved parliaments and assemblies in the United Kingdom, see the List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament from 1999, the List of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the List of Acts and Measures of the National Assembly for Wales; see also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.

The number shown after each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts passed before 1963 are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Union with Ireland Act 1800 is cited as "39 & 40 Geo. 3 c. 67", meaning the 67th Act passed during the session that started in the 39th year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 40th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "41 Geo. 3" rather than "41 Geo. III"). Note also that Acts of the last session of the Parliament of Great Britain and the first session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are both cited as "41 Geo. 3". Acts passed from 1963 onwards are simply cited by calendar year and chapter number.

All modern Acts have a short title, e.g. "the Local Government Act 2003". Some earlier Acts also have a short title given to them by later Acts, such as by the Short Titles Act 1896.

List of United Kingdom by-elections (1818–32)

This is a list of parliamentary by-elections in the United Kingdom held between 1818 and 1832, with the names of the previous incumbent and the victor in the by-election.

In the absence of a comprehensive and reliable source, for party and factional alignments in this period, no attempt is made to define them in this article. The House of Commons: 1790-1820 and The House of Commons: 1820-1832 provide some guidance to the complex and shifting political relationships, but those works do not define each member's allegiances.

Museo del Prado

The Prado Museum (Spanish: Museo del Prado; Spanish pronunciation: [muˈseo ðel ˈpɾaðo]) is the main Spanish national art museum, located in central Madrid. It is widely considered to have one of the world's finest collections of European art, dating from the 12th century to the early 20th century, based on the former Spanish Royal Collection, and the single best collection of Spanish art. Founded as a museum of paintings and sculpture in 1819, it also contains important collections of other types of works. El Prado is one of the most visited sites in the world, and it is considered one of the greatest art museums in the world. The numerous works by Francisco Goya, the single most extensively represented artist, as well as by Hieronymus Bosch, El Greco, Peter Paul Rubens, Titian, and Diego Velázquez, are some of the highlights of the collection.

The collection currently comprises around 8,200 drawings, 7,600 paintings, 4,800 prints, and 1,000 sculptures, in addition to a large number of other works of art and historic documents. As of 2012, the museum displayed about 1,300 works in the main buildings, while around 3,100 works were on temporary loan to various museums and official institutions. The remainder were in storage. The museum received 2.8 million visitors in 2012. It is one of the largest museums in Spain.

The best-known work on display at the museum is Las Meninas by Velázquez. Velázquez and his keen eye and sensibility were also responsible for bringing much of the museum's fine collection of Italian masters to Spain, now the largest outside Italy.

The museum is planning a 16% extension in the nearby Salón de Reinos, to be opened in 2019.

Queen Victoria

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India.

Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality.

Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.

Her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.

Viceroyalty of New Granada

The Viceroyalty of New Granada (Spanish: Virreinato de Nueva Granada [birei̯ˈnato ðe ˈnweβa ɣɾaˈnaða]) was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America, corresponding to modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela. The territory corresponding to Panama was incorporated later in 1739, and the provinces of Venezuela were separated from the Viceroyalty and assigned to the Captaincy General of Venezuela in 1777. In addition to these core areas, the territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada included Guyana, southwestern Suriname, parts of northwestern Brazil, and northern Peru.

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