1818

1818 (MDCCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1818th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 818th year of the 2nd millennium, the 18th year of the 19th century, and the 9th year of the 1810s decade. As of the start of 1818, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1818 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1818
MDCCCXVIII
Ab urbe condita2571
Armenian calendar1267
ԹՎ ՌՄԿԷ
Assyrian calendar6568
Balinese saka calendar1739–1740
Bengali calendar1225
Berber calendar2768
British Regnal year58 Geo. 3 – 59 Geo. 3
Buddhist calendar2362
Burmese calendar1180
Byzantine calendar7326–7327
Chinese calendar丁丑(Fire Ox)
4514 or 4454
    — to —
戊寅年 (Earth Tiger)
4515 or 4455
Coptic calendar1534–1535
Discordian calendar2984
Ethiopian calendar1810–1811
Hebrew calendar5578–5579
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1874–1875
 - Shaka Samvat1739–1740
 - Kali Yuga4918–4919
Holocene calendar11818
Igbo calendar818–819
Iranian calendar1196–1197
Islamic calendar1233–1234
Japanese calendarBunka 15 / Bunsei 1
(文政元年)
Javanese calendar1745–1746
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4151
Minguo calendar94 before ROC
民前94年
Nanakshahi calendar350
Thai solar calendar2360–2361
Tibetan calendar阴火牛年
(female Fire-Ox)
1944 or 1563 or 791
    — to —
阳土虎年
(male Earth-Tiger)
1945 or 1564 or 792

Events

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

Births

January–June

July–December

Date Unknown

Deaths

January–June

July–December

References

  1. ^ "A BRIEF HISTORY OF CHUBB 1818 - 1990s". Chubb Archive. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
  2. ^ Robert Huish, The Last Voyage of Capt. Sir John Ross, R.N. to the Arctic Regions (J. Saunders, 1835) p77
  3. ^ a b John Styles, Memoirs of the Life of the Right Hon. George Canning, Volume 2 (Thomas Tegg, 1828) pp270-273
  4. ^ John Burke, A General and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the British Empire (Henry Colburn Co., 1833) p xxxiii
  5. ^ Jean Frédéric Ostervald, et al., Picturesque Tour from Geneva to Milan, by Way of the Simplon (R. Ackermann, 1820) pp43-44
  6. ^ The Oriental Herald and Journal of General Literature April 1826. p. 150.
  7. ^ Jump, John D. (2016). Byron. London: Routledge. p. 103.
  8. ^ "Congressional Register", Niles Weekly Register July 3, 1824. p. 251.
  9. ^ Pyle, Christopher H.; Pious, Richard M. (1984). The President, Congress, and the Constitution: Power and Legitimacy in American Politics. Simon and Schuster. p. 294.
  10. ^ Robison, W. Scott (1887). History of the City of Cleveland: Its Settlement, Rise and Progress. Robison & Cockett. p. 28.
  11. ^ Rich, Bob (2013). A Touch of Cleveland History: Stories from the First 200 Years. Gray & Company. p. 43.
  12. ^ "Emily Bronte | Biography, Works, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
1818 United Kingdom general election

The 1818 United Kingdom general election saw the Whigs gain a few seats, but the Tories under the Earl of Liverpool retained a majority of around 90 seats. The Whigs were divided over their response to growing social unrest and the introduction of the Corn Laws.

The result of the election was known on 4 August 1818.

The fifth United Kingdom Parliament was dissolved on 10 June 1818. The new Parliament was summoned to meet on 4 August 1818, for a maximum seven-year term from that date. The maximum term could be and normally was curtailed, by the monarch dissolving the Parliament, before its term expired. The sixth Parliament lasted only about a year and a half, as King George III's death on 29 January 1820 triggered a dissolution of Parliament.

1818 United States elections

The 1818 United States elections occurred in the middle of Democratic-Republican President James Monroe's first term, during the First Party System and the Era of Good Feelings. Members of the 16th United States Congress were chosen in this election. During the 16th Congress, Alabama and Maine joined the union. Democratic-Republicans continued to dominate both chambers of Congress, and slightly increased their majority in both houses of Congress in this election.

1818 and 1819 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 16th Congress were held in the various states between April 28, 1818 (in New York) and August 12, 1819 (in North Carolina), with Alabama electing its first representatives September 20–21, 1819 during James Monroe's first term. The Congress assembled December 6, 1819.

The election occurred in a time period that featured no pressing federal issues and a feeling of national consensus to the effectiveness of the ruling party. The Federalist collapse continued, as support for the party was dismal outside New England due to a decline in an acceptance of their ideology and lingering anger over the secessionist doctrine produced at the Hartford Convention. The Democratic-Republicans used this election to increase their enormous majority.

1818 and 1819 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1818 and 1819 were elections for the United States Senate that had the Democratic-Republican Party gain two seats. The Federalists had only three seats being contested, of which they lost two and the third was left vacant due to a failure to elect.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

1818 in France

Events from the year 1818 in France.

1818 in Ireland

Events from the year 1818 in Ireland.

Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Sophia Charlotte; 19 May 1744 – 17 November 1818) was the wife of King George III. She served as Queen of Great Britain and Queen of Ireland from her wedding in 1761 until the union of the two kingdoms in 1801, after which she was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until her death in 1818. She was also the Electress of Hanover in the Holy Roman Empire until the promotion of her husband to King of Hanover on 12 October 1814, after which she was also queen consort of Hanover.

Charlotte was a patron of the arts and an amateur botanist who helped expand Kew Gardens. She was distressed by her husband's bouts of physical and mental illness, which became permanent in later life and resulted in their eldest son's appointment as Prince Regent in 1811. George III and Charlotte had 15 children in total, 13 of whom survived to adulthood. She was the mother of two future British monarchs, George IV and William IV. Her other children included Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, and Charlotte, Queen of Württemberg.

Crocker

Crocker is an archaic synonym of potter.

Frankenstein

Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel written by English author Mary Shelley (1797–1851) that tells the story of Victor Frankenstein, a young scientist who creates a hideous, sapient creature in an unorthodox scientific experiment. Shelley started writing the story when she was 18, and the first edition of the novel was published anonymously in London on 1 January 1818, when she was 20. Her name first appeared on the second edition, published in 1823.

Shelley travelled through Europe in 1814, journeying along the river Rhine in Germany with a stop in Gernsheim, which is 17 kilometres (11 mi) away from Frankenstein Castle, where, two centuries before, an alchemist was engaged in experiments. Later, she travelled in the region of Geneva (Switzerland)—where much of the story takes place—and the topic of galvanism and occult ideas were themes of conversation among her companions, particularly her lover and future husband, Percy Shelley. Mary, Percy and Lord Byron decided to have a competition to see who could write the best horror story. After thinking for days, Shelley dreamt about a scientist who created life and was horrified by what he had made; her dream later evolved into the novel's story.Frankenstein is infused with elements of the Gothic novel and the Romantic movement. At the same time, it is an early example of science fiction. Brian Aldiss has argued that it should be considered the first true science fiction story because, in contrast to previous stories with fantastical elements resembling those of later science fiction, the central character "makes a deliberate decision" and "turns to modern experiments in the laboratory" to achieve fantastic results. It has had a considerable influence in literature and popular culture and spawned a complete genre of horror stories, films and plays.

Since the novel's publication, the name "Frankenstein" has often been used to refer to the monster itself. This usage is considered erroneous, but some commentators regard it as well-established and acceptable. In the novel, Frankenstein's creation is identified by words such as "creature", "monster", "daemon", "wretch", "abortion", "fiend" and "it". Speaking to Victor Frankenstein, the monster says "I ought to be thy Adam, but I am rather the fallen angel" (which ties to Lucifer in Paradise Lost, which the monster reads, and which relates to the disobedience of Prometheus in the book's subtitle).

Ozymandias

"Ozymandias" ( oz-ee-MAN-dee-əs) is the title of two poems published in 1818.

English Romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792–1822) wrote a sonnet, first published in the 11 January 1818 issue of The Examiner

in London. It was included the following year in Shelley's collection Rosalind and Helen, A Modern Eclogue; with Other Poems (1819) and in a posthumous compilation of his poems published in 1826. "Ozymandias" is Shelley's most famous work and is frequently anthologised.

Shelley wrote the poem in friendly competition with his friend and fellow poet Horace Smith (1779–1849), who also wrote a sonnet on the same topic with the same title. Smith's poem was published in The Examiner a few weeks after Shelley's sonnet. Both poems explore the fate of history and the ravages of time: even the greatest men and the empires they forge are impermanent, their legacies fated to decay into oblivion.

In antiquity, Ozymandias (Ὀσυμανδύας) was a Greek name for the Egyptian pharaoh Ramesses II. Shelley began writing his poem in 1817, soon after the announcement of the British Museum's acquisition of a large fragment of a statue of Ramesses II from the thirteenth century BC, leading some scholars to believe that Shelley was inspired by this. The 7.25-ton fragment of the statue's head and torso had been removed in 1816 from the mortuary temple of Ramesses (the Ramesseum) at Thebes by Italian adventurer Giovanni Battista Belzoni. It was expected to arrive in London in 1818, but did not arrive until 1821.

Treaty of 1818

The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary and the restoration of slaves between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, also known as the London Convention, Anglo-American Convention of 1818, Convention of 1818, or simply the Treaty of 1818, was an international treaty signed in 1818 between the above parties. Signed during the presidency of James Monroe, it resolved standing boundary issues between the two nations. The treaty allowed for joint occupation and settlement of the Oregon Country, known to the British and in Canadian history as the Columbia District of the Hudson's Bay Company, and including the southern portion of its sister district New Caledonia.

The two nations agreed to a boundary line involving the 49th parallel north, in part because a straight-line boundary would be easier to survey than the pre-existing boundaries based on watersheds. The treaty marked both the United Kingdom's last permanent major loss of territory in what is now the Continental United States and the United States' only permanent significant cession of North American territory to a foreign power. Britain ceded all of Rupert's Land south of the 49th parallel and east of the Continental Divide, including all of the Red River Colony south of that latitude, while the United States ceded the northernmost edge of the Missouri Territory north of the 49th parallel.

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