1816 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1816 was the eighth quadrennial presidential election. It was held from Friday, November 1 to Wednesday, December 4, 1816. In the first election following the end of the War of 1812, Democratic-Republican candidate James Monroe defeated Federalist Rufus King. The election was the last in which the Federalist Party fielded a presidential candidate.

As President James Madison chose to retire after serving two terms, the Democratic-Republicans held a congressional nominating caucus in March 1816. With the support of Madison and former President Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State Monroe defeated Secretary of War William H. Crawford to win his party's presidential nomination. Governor Daniel D. Tompkins of New York won the Democratic-Republican vice presidential nomination, continuing the party's tradition of balancing a presidential nominee from Virginia with a vice presidential nominee from either New York or New England. The Federalists did not formally nominate a ticket, but Senator King of New York emerged as the de facto Federalist candidate.

The previous four years of American politics were dominated by the effects of the War of 1812. While the war had not ended in victory, the peace concluded in 1815 was satisfactory to the American people, and the Democratic-Republicans received the credit for its conclusion. The Federalists found themselves discredited by their opposition to the war, as well as the secessionist rhetoric from New England embodied by the Hartford Convention. Furthermore, President Madison had succeeded in realizing certain measures favored by the Federalists, including a national bank and protective tariffs. The Federalists had little to campaign on, and King himself held little hope of ending the Democratic-Republican winning streak in presidential elections. Monroe won the Electoral College by the wide margin, carrying 16 of the 19 states. This would be the last election where Federalists would run a candidate.

United States presidential election, 1816

November 1 – December 4, 1816

All 217 electoral votes of the Electoral College
109 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout16.9%[1] Decrease 23.5 pp
  James Monroe White House portrait 1819 Rufus King - National Portrait Gallery
Nominee James Monroe Rufus King
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Home state Virginia New York
Running mate Daniel D. Tompkins John E. Howard
Electoral vote 183 34
States carried 16 3
Popular vote 76,592 34,740
Percentage 68.2% 30.9%

1816 United States presidential election in Massachusetts1816 United States presidential election in New Hampshire1816 United States presidential election in Massachusetts1816 United States presidential election in Rhode Island1816 United States presidential election in Connecticut1816 United States presidential election in New York1816 United States presidential election in Vermont1816 United States presidential election in New Jersey1816 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania1816 United States presidential election in Delaware1816 United States presidential election in Maryland1816 United States presidential election in Virginia1816 United States presidential election in Ohio1816 United States presidential election in Indiana1816 United States presidential election in Kentucky1816 United States presidential election in Tennessee1816 United States presidential election in North Carolina1816 United States presidential election in South Carolina1816 United States presidential election in Georgia1816 United States presidential election in LouisianaElectoralCollege1816.svg
Presidential election results map. Green denotes states won by Monroe, burnt orange denotes states won by King. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

James Madison
Democratic-Republican

Elected President

James Monroe
Democratic-Republican

Nominations

Democratic-Republican Party nomination

Democratic-Republican Party
Democratic-Republican Party Ticket, 1816
James Monroe Daniel D. Tompkins
for President for Vice President
James Monroe Portrait
DTompkins
8th
U.S. Secretary of War
(1814–1815)
4th
Governor of New York
(1807–1817)
Campaign

Withdrew before caucus

Declined to run

Andrew Jackson

General Andrew Jackson from Tennessee

Monroe was the favorite candidate of both former President Jefferson and retiring President Madison. However, Monroe faced stiff competition from Secretary of War William H. Crawford of Georgia. Also, there was widespread sentiment, especially in New York, that it was time to end the Virginia dynasty of presidents, resulting in Daniel D. Tompkins and Simon Snyder, the governors of New York and Pennsylvania respectively, briefly considering running for the nomination. But Monroe's long record of service at home and abroad made him a fitting candidate to succeed Madison. Crawford never formally declared himself a candidate, because he believed that he had little chance against Monroe and feared such a contest might deny him a place in the new cabinet. Tompkins and Snyder realized they had even less chance of beating Monroe to the nomination, and instead positioned themselves to run for the vice-presidency. Still, Crawford's supporters posed a significant challenge to Monroe.[2]

In March 1816, Democratic-Republican congressmen in caucus nominated Monroe for President and Tompkins for Vice President. Monroe defeated Crawford for the nomination by a vote of 65 to 54, while Tompkins defeated Snyder by a wider margin of 85 votes to 30.

The Balloting
Presidential Ballot Vice Presidential Ballot
James Monroe 65 Daniel D. Tompkins 85
William H. Crawford 54 Simon Snyder 30

Federalist Party candidates

Federalist candidates:

Rufus King - National Portrait Gallery

Senator
Rufus King
(New York)
for President

Johneagerhoward

Former Senator
John Eager Howard
(Maryland)
for Vice President

In hopes of uniting with disaffected Democratic-Republicans, as they had in the previous election, the Federalists initially planned to hold their own congressional nominating caucus after that of the Democratic-Republicans. With the end of the war and the nomination of Monroe, the Federalists abandoned their hopes of another fusion ticket, and the demoralized party failed to formally nominate a candidate. Senator Rufus King of New York, who had been the party's 1804 and 1808 vice presidential nominee, and who had been nominated for president by a dissident faction of the party in 1812, eventually emerged as the de facto Federalist candidate. Several Federalists would receive electoral votes for vice president, with former Senator John Eager Howard of Maryland receiving the most votes.[3]

General election

PresidentialCounty1816
Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage of the winning candidate in each county. Shades of blue are for Monroe (Democratic-Republican), shades of yellow are for King (Federalist), and shades of green are for Independent Republicans (Democratic-Republican).

Dispute about Indiana

On February 12, 1817, the House and Senate met in joint session to count the electoral votes for President and Vice President. The count proceeded without incident until the roll came to the last state to be counted, Indiana. At that point, Representative John W. Taylor of New York objected to the counting of Indiana's votes. He argued that Congress had acknowledged the statehood of Indiana in a joint resolution on December 11, 1816, whereas the ballots of the Electoral College had been cast on December 4, 1816. He claimed that at the time of the balloting, there had been merely a Territory of Indiana, not a State of Indiana. Other representatives contradicted Taylor, asserting that the joint resolution merely recognized that Indiana had already joined the Union by forming a state constitution and government on June 29, 1816. These representatives pointed out that both the House and Senate had seated members from Indiana who had been elected prior to the joint resolution, which would have been unconstitutional had Indiana not been a state at the time of their election. Representative Samuel D. Ingham then moved that the question be postponed indefinitely. The House agreed almost unanimously, and the Senate was brought back in to count the electoral votes from Indiana.

Results

ElectoralCollege1816-Large

When the votes were counted, Monroe had won all but three of the nineteen states. King thought that a Monroe victory was inevitable, and did not seriously contest the election.[4]

Each of the three states that were won by King voted for a different person for Vice President. Massachusetts electors voted for former United States Senator (and future Governor) John Eager Howard of Maryland. Delaware chose a different Marylander, sitting United States Senator Robert Goodloe Harper. Connecticut split its vote between James Ross of Pennsylvania and Chief Justice John Marshall.

Maryland did not choose its electors as a slate; rather, it divided itself into electoral districts, with each district choosing one elector. Three of Maryland's eleven districts were won by Federalist electors. However, these electors did not vote for King or for a Federalist vice president, instead casting blank votes as a protest.

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote(a), (b) Electoral
vote(c)
Running mate
Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote(c)
James Monroe Democratic-Republican Virginia 76,592 68.2% 183 Daniel D. Tompkins New York 183
Rufus King Federalist New York 34,740 30.9% 34 John Eager Howard Maryland 22
James Ross Pennsylvania 5
John Marshall Virginia 4
Robert Goodloe Harper Maryland 3
Unpledged electors None N/A 1,038 0.9% 0 N/A N/A 0
Total 112,370 100% 217 217
Needed to win 109 109

Source (Popular Vote): A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787-1825[5]

(a) Only 10 of the 19 states chose electors by popular vote.
(b) Those states that did choose electors by popular vote had widely varying restrictions on suffrage via property requirements.
(c) One Elector from Delaware and three Electors from Maryland did not vote.

Popular vote
Monroe
68.2%
King
30.9%
Electoral vote—President
Monroe
82.8%
King
15.4%
Unpledged electors
1.8%
Electoral vote—Vice President
Tompkins
82.8%
Howard
10.1%
Ross
2.3%
Marshall
1.8%
Harper
1.4%
Unpledged electors
1.8%

Electoral college selection

Method of choosing electors State(s)
Each Elector appointed by state legislature Connecticut
Delaware
Georgia
Indiana
Louisiana
Massachusetts
New York
South Carolina
Vermont
Each Elector chosen by voters statewide New Hampshire
New Jersey
North Carolina
Ohio
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Virginia
State is divided into electoral districts, with one Elector chosen per district by the voters of that district Kentucky
Maryland
Tennessee

See also

References

  1. ^ "National General Election VEP Turnout Rates, 1789-Present". United States Election Project. CQ Press.
  2. ^ William DeGregorio, The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents, Gramercy 1997
  3. ^ Deskins, Donald Richard; Walton, Hanes; Puckett, Sherman (2010). Presidential Elections, 1789-2008: County, State, and National Mapping of Election Data. University of Michigan Press. pp. 65–66.
  4. ^ Sabato, Larry; Ernst, Howard (January 1, 2009). Encyclopedia of American Political Parties and Elections. Infobase Publishing. pp. 304–305.
  5. ^ "A New Nation Votes".
U.S. Congressional Documents
Web

Source (Electoral Vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 30, 2005.

External links

14th United States Congress

The Fourteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in the Old Brick Capitol in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1815, to March 4, 1817, during the seventh and eighth years of James Madison's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Third Census of the United States in 1810. Both chambers had a Democratic-Republican majority.

15th United States Congress

The Fifteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in the Old Brick Capitol in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1817, to March 4, 1819, during the first two years of James Monroe's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Third Census of the United States in 1810. Both chambers had a Democratic-Republican majority.

1816

1816 (MDCCCXVI)

was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1816th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 816th year of the 2nd millennium, the 16th year of the 19th century, and the 7th year of the 1810s decade. As of the start of 1816, the Gregorian calendar was

12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

This year was known as the Year Without a Summer, because of low temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere, possibly the result of the Mount Tambora volcanic eruption in Indonesia in 1815, causing severe global cooling, catastrophic in some locations.

1816 United States elections

The 1816 United States elections elected the members of the 15th United States Congress. Mississippi and Illinois were admitted as states during the 15th Congress. The election took place during the First Party System. The Democratic-Republican Party controlled the Presidency and both houses of Congress, while the Federalist Party provided only limited opposition. The election marked the start of the Era of Good Feelings, as the Federalist Party became nearly irrelevant in national politics after the War of 1812 and the Hartford Convention.

In the Presidential election, Democratic-Republican Secretary of State James Monroe easily defeated Federalist Senator Rufus King of New York. Monroe faced a more difficult challenge in securing his party's nomination, but was able to defeat Secretary of War William H. Crawford in the Democratic-Republican congressional nominating caucus. The Federalists never again fielded a presidential candidate.

In the House, Democratic-Republicans won major gains, and continued to dominate the chamber.In the Senate, Democratic-Republicans picked up a moderate number of seats, increasing their already-dominant majority.

1816 United States presidential election in Connecticut

The 1816 United States presidential election in Connecticut took place between November 1 to December 4, 1816, as part of the 1816 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose nine representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

During this election, Connecticut cast its nine electoral votes to Federalist Party candidate Rufus King of New York. Nevertheless, Democratic Republican candidate and Secretary of State James Monroe won the election nationally.

With King's victory in the state, Connecticut became one of the only three states to vote for the Federalists, with the other two being neighboring Massachusetts and Delaware.

Although John Eager Howard was selected as King's running mate, Connecticut split its votes for Vice President between James Ross of Pennsylvania and Chief Justice John Marshall.

1816 United States presidential election in Indiana

The 1816 United States presidential election in Indiana took place between November 1 to December 4, 1816, as part of the 1816 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose three representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

During this election, Indiana voted in its first presidential election and cast its three electoral votes to Democratic Republican candidate and Secretary of State James Monroe.

When the House and Senate met in joint session to count the electoral votes for President and Vice President on February 12, 1817. The count proceeded without incident until the roll came to the last state to be counted, which happened to be Indiana. At that point, Representative John W. Taylor of New York objected to the counting of Indiana's votes. He argued that Congress had acknowledged the statehood of Indiana in a joint resolution on December 11, 1816, whereas the ballots of the Electoral College had been cast on December 4, 1816. He claimed that at the time of the balloting, there had been merely the Indiana Territory, not a State of Indiana. Other representatives contradicted Taylor, asserting that the joint resolution merely recognized that Indiana had already joined the Union by forming a state constitution and government on June 29, 1816. These representatives pointed out that both the House and Senate had seated members from Indiana who had been elected prior to the joint resolution, which would have been unconstitutional had Indiana not been a state at the time of their election. Representative Samuel D. Ingham then moved that the question be postponed indefinitely. The House agreed almost unanimously, and the Senate was brought back in to count the electoral votes from Indiana.

December 11, 1816 (19th)

1816 United States presidential election in Louisiana

The 1816 United States presidential election in Louisiana took place between November 1 to December 4, 1816, as part of the 1816 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose three representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

During this election, Louisiana cast its three electoral votes to Democratic Republican candidate and Secretary of State James Monroe.

1816 United States presidential election in New Jersey

The 1808 United States presidential election in New Jersey took place between November 1 to December 4, 1816, as part of the 1816 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose eight representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

During this election, New Jersey cast its eight electoral votes to Democratic Republican candidate and Secretary of State James Monroe.

1816 United States presidential election in New York

The 1808 United States presidential election in New York took place between November 1 to December 4, 1816, as part of the 1816 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose 29 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

During this election, New York cast its 29 electoral votes to Democratic Republican candidate and Secretary of State James Monroe.

1816 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania

The 1816 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania took place as part of the 1816 United States presidential election. Voters chose 25 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

Pennsylvania voted for the Democratic-Republican candidate, James Monroe, over the Federalist candidate, Rufus King. Monroe won Pennsylvania by a margin of 18.66%.

1816 United States presidential election in South Carolina

The 1808 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place between November 1 to December 4, 1816, as part of the 1816 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose eleven representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

During this election, South Carolina cast its 11 electoral votes to Democratic Republican candidate and Secretary of State James Monroe.

1816 United States presidential election in Vermont

The 1816 United States presidential election in Vermont took place between November 1 to December 4, 1816, as part of the 1816 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose eight representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

During this election, Vermont cast its eight electoral votes to Democratic Republican candidate and Secretary of State James Monroe.

1816 and 1817 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 15th Congress were held in the various states between April 1816 (in New York) and August 14, 1817 (in North Carolina). The Congress first met on December 1, 1817.

The Democratic-Republican Party made significant gains during this election cycle, which helped to usher in what is known as the Era of Good Feelings under President James Monroe, who was elected that year. The Federalist Party was in a state of collapse, in part because of the secessionist doctrine espoused by some party members from New England at the Hartford Convention of 1814–15. This created an almost treasonous image of the Federalist party outside its base in urban New England. The War of 1812 concluded in 1815 with a feeling of national pride, since the small American military had fought the much more powerful British forces to a stalemate. The end of the war and the foolhardy posturing of New England Federalists led voters to rally around the dominant Democratic-Republicans and usher in a period of nonpartisan, consensus governance, despite the remnants of party divisions.

The proportion of seats held by the Federalist party in the House of Representatives fell to less than a quarter. Even at that, the election of 1816 gave them the highest proportion of seats that they were ever able to secure before the national party ceased to function as of 1824. In the same period, the Democratic-Republicans enjoyed majorities never again approached by any American political party until the era of Reconstruction in the late 1860s.

1816 and 1817 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1816 and 1817 were elections for the United States Senate that had the Democratic-Republican Party gain a net of two seats from the admission of a new state, and which coincided with the presidential election.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.

1816 election

1816 election may refer to:

French legislative election, 1816

1816 United States presidential election

United States House of Representatives elections, 1816 and 1817

List of elections in 1816

The following elections occurred in the year 1816.

1816 French legislative election

United States presidential election

The election of president and vice president of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U.S. states or in Washington, D.C. cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the U.S. Electoral College, known as electors. These electors then in turn cast direct votes, known as electoral votes, for president, and for vice president. The candidate who receives an absolute majority of electoral votes (at least 270 out of a total of 538, since the Twenty-Third Amendment granted voting rights to citizens of Washington, D.C.) is then elected to that office. If no candidate receives an absolute majority of the votes for President, the House of Representatives chooses the winner; if no one receives an absolute majority of the votes for Vice President, then the Senate chooses the winner.

The Electoral College and its procedure are established in the U.S. Constitution by Article II, Section 1, Clauses 2 and 4; and the Twelfth Amendment (which replaced Clause 3 after its ratification in 1804). Under Clause 2, each of the states casts as many electoral votes as the total number of its Senators and Representatives in Congress, while, per the Twenty-third Amendment ratified in 1961, Washington, D.C. casts the same number of electoral votes as the least-represented state, which is three. Also under Clause 2, the manner for choosing electors is determined by each state legislature, not directly by the federal government. Many state legislatures previously selected their electors directly, but over time all of them switched to using the popular vote to help determine electors, which persists today. Once chosen, electors generally cast their electoral votes for the candidate who won the plurality in their state, but at least 21 states do not have provisions that specifically address this behavior; those who vote in opposition to the plurality are known as "faithless" or "unpledged electors". In modern times, faithless and unpledged electors have not affected the ultimate outcome of an election, so the results can generally be determined based on the state-by-state popular vote.

Presidential elections occur quadrennially with registered voters casting their ballots on Election Day, which since 1845 has been the first Tuesday after November 1. This date coincides with the general elections of various other federal, state, and local races; since local governments are responsible for managing elections, these races typically all appear on one ballot. The Electoral College electors then formally cast their electoral votes on the first Monday after December 12 at their respective state capitals. Congress then certifies the results in early January, and the presidential term begins on Inauguration Day, which since the passage of the Twentieth Amendment has been set at January 20.

The nomination process, consisting of the primary elections and caucuses and the nominating conventions, was not specified in the Constitution, but was developed over time by the states and political parties. These primary elections are generally held between January and June before the general election in November, while the nominating conventions are held in the summer. Though not codified by law, political parties also follow an indirect election process, where voters in the 50 U.S. states, Washington, D.C., and U.S. territories, cast ballots for a slate of delegates to a political party's nominating convention, who then in turn elect their party's presidential nominee. Each party may then choose a vice presidential running mate to join the ticket, which is either determined by choice of the nominee or by a second round of voting. Because of changes to national campaign finance laws since the 1970s regarding the disclosure of contributions for federal campaigns, presidential candidates from the major political parties usually declare their intentions to run as early as the spring of the previous calendar year before the election (almost 18 months before Inauguration Day).

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