1816 (MDCCCXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1816th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 816th year of the 2nd millennium, the 16th year of the 19th century, and the 7th year of the 1810s decade. As of the start of 1816, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

This year was known as the Year Without a Summer, because of low temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere, the result of the Mount Tambora volcanic eruption in Indonesia in 1815. The sulfur from this eruption reflected the sun's rays and caused severe global cooling, catastrophic in some locations.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1816 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1816
Ab urbe condita2569
Armenian calendar1265
Assyrian calendar6566
Balinese saka calendar1737–1738
Bengali calendar1223
Berber calendar2766
British Regnal year56 Geo. 3 – 57 Geo. 3
Buddhist calendar2360
Burmese calendar1178
Byzantine calendar7324–7325
Chinese calendar乙亥(Wood Pig)
4512 or 4452
    — to —
丙子年 (Fire Rat)
4513 or 4453
Coptic calendar1532–1533
Discordian calendar2982
Ethiopian calendar1808–1809
Hebrew calendar5576–5577
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1872–1873
 - Shaka Samvat1737–1738
 - Kali Yuga4916–4917
Holocene calendar11816
Igbo calendar816–817
Iranian calendar1194–1195
Islamic calendar1231–1232
Japanese calendarBunka 13
Javanese calendar1742–1744
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4149
Minguo calendar96 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar348
Thai solar calendar2358–2359
Tibetan calendar阴木猪年
(female Wood-Pig)
1942 or 1561 or 789
    — to —
(male Fire-Rat)
1943 or 1562 or 790






Date unknown




date unknown




Approximate date


  1. ^ Who were Czars Alexander I and Alexander II of Russia?, toughissues.org (accessed 2013-12-13) Archived December 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Thompson, Roy (2004). Thunder Underground: Northumberland mining disasters, 1815-1865. Ashbourne: Landmark. p. 121. ISBN 9781843061694. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
  3. ^ K. L. Pradhan, Thapa Politics in Nepal: With Special Reference to Bhim Sen Thapa, 1806-1839 (Concept Publishing, 2012) p110
  4. ^ The Statesman's Manual: The Addresses and Messages of the Presidents of the United States, Inaugural, Annual, and Special, from 1789 to 1854 (E. Walker, 1849) p321
  5. ^ Louis L. Bucciarelli and Nancy Dworsky, Sophie Germain: An Essay in the History of the Theory of Elasticity (Springer, 2012) p138
  6. ^ Kenneth J. Hagan and Ian J. Bickerton, Unintended Consequences: The United States at War (Reaktion Books, 2007) p48
  7. ^ [1] French official law repository
  8. ^ Andrew J. Counter, The Amorous Restoration: Love, Sex, and Politics in Early Nineteenth-Century France (Oxford University Press, 2016) p47
  9. ^ Martin Ceadel, The Origins of War Prevention: The British Peace Movement and International Relations, 1730-1854 (Clarendon Press, 1996) p222
  10. ^ Roger Steer, Good News for the World: 200 Years of Making the Bible Heard : the Story of Bible Society (Monarch Books, 2004) p155
  11. ^ Darrin M. McMahon, Enemies of the Enlightenment: The French Counter-Enlightenment and the Making of Modernity (Oxford University Press, 2002) p157
1816 United States elections

The 1816 United States elections elected the members of the 15th United States Congress. Mississippi and Illinois were admitted as states during the 15th Congress. The election took place during the First Party System. The Democratic-Republican Party controlled the Presidency and both houses of Congress, while the Federalist Party provided only limited opposition. The election marked the start of the Era of Good Feelings, as the Federalist Party became nearly irrelevant in national politics after the War of 1812 and the Hartford Convention.

In the Presidential election, Democratic-Republican Secretary of State James Monroe easily defeated Federalist Senator Rufus King of New York. Monroe faced a more difficult challenge in securing his party's nomination, but was able to defeat Secretary of War William H. Crawford in the Democratic-Republican congressional nominating caucus. The Federalists never again fielded a presidential candidate.

In the House, Democratic-Republicans won major gains, and continued to dominate the chamber.In the Senate, Democratic-Republicans picked up a moderate number of seats, increasing their already-dominant majority.

1816 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1816 was the eighth quadrennial presidential election. It was held from Friday, November 1 to Wednesday, December 4, 1816. In the first election following the end of the War of 1812, Democratic-Republican candidate James Monroe defeated Federalist Rufus King. The election was the last in which the Federalist Party fielded a presidential candidate.

As President James Madison chose to retire after serving two terms, the Democratic-Republicans held a congressional nominating caucus in March 1816. With the support of Madison and former President Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State Monroe defeated Secretary of War William H. Crawford to win his party's presidential nomination. Governor Daniel D. Tompkins of New York won the Democratic-Republican vice presidential nomination, continuing the party's tradition of balancing a presidential nominee from Virginia with a vice presidential nominee from either New York or New England. The Federalists did not formally nominate a ticket, but Senator King of New York emerged as the de facto Federalist candidate.

The previous four years of American politics were dominated by the effects of the War of 1812. While the war had not ended in victory, the peace concluded in 1815 was satisfactory to the American people, and the Democratic-Republicans received the credit for its conclusion. The Federalists found themselves discredited by their opposition to the war, as well as the secessionist rhetoric from New England embodied by the Hartford Convention. Furthermore, President Madison had succeeded in realizing certain measures favored by the Federalists, including a national bank and protective tariffs. The Federalists had little to campaign on, and King himself held little hope of ending the Democratic-Republican winning streak in presidential elections. Monroe won the Electoral College by the wide margin, carrying 16 of the 19 states. This would be the last election where Federalists

would run a candidate.

1816 and 1817 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 15th Congress were held in the various states between April 1816 (in New York) and August 14, 1817 (in North Carolina). The Congress first met on December 1, 1817.

The Democratic-Republican Party made significant gains during this election cycle, which helped to usher in what is known as the Era of Good Feelings under President James Monroe, who was elected that year. The Federalist Party was in a state of collapse, in part because of the secessionist doctrine espoused by some party members from New England at the Hartford Convention of 1814–15. This created an almost treasonous image of the Federalist party outside its base in urban New England. The War of 1812 concluded in 1815 with a feeling of national pride, since the small American military had fought the much more powerful British forces to a stalemate. The end of the war and the foolhardy posturing of New England Federalists led voters to rally around the dominant Democratic-Republicans and usher in a period of nonpartisan, consensus governance, despite the remnants of party divisions.

The proportion of seats held by the Federalist party in the House of Representatives fell to less than a quarter. Even at that, the election of 1816 gave them the highest proportion of seats that they were ever able to secure before the national party ceased to function as of 1824. In the same period, the Democratic-Republicans enjoyed majorities never again approached by any American political party until the era of Reconstruction in the late 1860s.

1816 and 1817 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1816 and 1817 were elections for the United States Senate that had the Democratic-Republican Party gain a net of two seats from the admission of a new state, and which coincided with the presidential election.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.

1816 in France

Events from the year 1816 in France

1816 in Ireland

Events from the year 1816 in Ireland.

1816 in Sweden

Events from the year 1816 in Sweden


AXA is a French multinational insurance firm headquartered in the 8th arrondissement of Paris that engages in global insurance, investment management, and other financial services.

The AXA Group operates primarily in Western Europe, North America, the Asia Pacific region, and the Middle East, with presence also in Africa. AXA is a conglomerate of independently run businesses, operated according to the laws and regulations of many different countries. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.


Aruba ( ə-ROO-bə; Dutch: [aːˈrubaː]; Papiamento: [aˈruba]) is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and 29 kilometres (18 mi) north of the coast of Venezuela. It measures 32 kilometres (20 mi) long from its northwestern to its southeastern end and 10 kilometres (6 mi) across at its widest point. Together with Bonaire and Curaçao, Aruba forms a group referred to as the ABC islands. Collectively, Aruba and the other Dutch islands in the Caribbean are often called the Dutch Caribbean.

Aruba is one of the four countries that form the Kingdom of the Netherlands, along with the Netherlands, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten; the citizens of these countries are all Dutch nationals. Aruba has no administrative subdivisions, but, for census purposes, is divided into eight regions. Its capital is Oranjestad.

Unlike much of the Caribbean region, Aruba has a dry climate and an arid, cactus-strewn landscape. This climate has helped tourism as visitors to the island can reliably expect warm, sunny weather. It has a land area of 179 km2 (69.1 sq mi) and is densely populated, with a total of 102,484 inhabitants at the 2010 Census. It lies outside Hurricane Alley.


Banjul, officially the City of Banjul and formerly known as Bathurst, is the capital and fourth largest city of The Gambia. It is the centre of the eponymous administrative division which is home to an estimated 400,000 residents, making it The Gambia's largest and densely populated metropolitan area. Banjul is on St Mary's Island (Banjul Island), where the Gambia River enters the Atlantic Ocean. The population of the city proper is 31,301, with the Greater Banjul Area, which includes the City of Banjul and the Kanifing Municipal Council, at a population of 413,397 (2013 census). The island is connected to the mainland to the west and the rest of Greater Banjul Area via bridges. There are also ferries linking Banjul to the mainland at the other side of the river.


Guadeloupe (; French pronunciation: ​[ɡwadəlup]; Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. Administratively, it is an overseas region consisting of a single overseas department. With a land area of 1,628 square kilometres (629 square miles) and an estimated population of 400,132 as of January 2015, it is the largest and most populous European Union territory in North America.Guadeloupe's main islands are Basse-Terre, Grande-Terre, Marie-Galante, La Désirade, and the Îles des Saintes.

Guadeloupe, like the other overseas departments, is an integral part of France. As a constituent territory of the European Union and the Eurozone, the euro is its official currency and any European Union citizen is free to settle and work there indefinitely. As an overseas department, however, it is not part of the Schengen Area. The official language is French, but Antillean Creole is spoken virtually by the entire population except recent arrivals from metropolitan France. The island is called "Gwadada" by the locals.

Kingdom of Naples

The Kingdom of Naples (Latin: Regnum Neapolitanum; Catalan: Regne de Nàpols; Spanish: Reino de Nápoles; French: Royaume de Naples; Italian: Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816. It was created as a result of the War of the Sicilian Vespers (1282–1302), when the island of Sicily revolted and was conquered by the Crown of Aragon, becoming a separate Kingdom of Sicily. Naples continued to be officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily, the name of the formerly unified kingdom. For much of its existence, the realm was contested between French and Spanish dynasties. In 1816, it was reunified with the island kingdom of Sicily once again to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 14

This is a list of all the United States Supreme Court cases from volume 14 of the United States Reports. This was the first volume to be reported by Henry Wheaton.

Henry v. Ball, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 1 (1816)

Davis v. Wood, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 6 (1816)

The Samuel, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 9 (1816)

The Octavia, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 20 (1816)

The Mary and Susan, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 25 (1816)

The Mary and Susan, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 46 (1816)

The Rugen, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 62 (1816)

Thompson v. Gray, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 75 (1816)

Anderson v. Longden, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 85 (1816)

Corporation of New Orleans v. Winter, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 91 (1816)

The Aurora, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 96 (1816)

The Venus, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 112 (1816)

Preston v. Browder, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 115 (1816)

The Astrea, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 125 (1816)

Matson v. Hord, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 130 (1816)

Taylor v. Walton, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 141 (1816)

Barr v. Lapsley, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 151 (1816)

Danforth's Lessee v. Thomas, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 155 (1816)

The Antonia Johanna, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 159 (1816)

The Nereide, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 171 (1816)

Hepburn and Dundas's Heirs v. Dunlop & Co., 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 179 (1816)

The St. Joze Indiano, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 208 (1816)

Renner & Bussard v. Marshall, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 215 (1816)

Morean v. United States Ins. Co., 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 219 (1816)

Welch v. Mandeville, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 233 (1816)

L'Invincible, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 238 (1816)

The Edward, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 261 (1816)

Mutual Assurance Soc. v. Watts' Executor, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 279 (1816)

Walden v. Heirs of Gratz, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 292 (1816)

The Harrison, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 298 (1816)

Harden v. Fisher, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 300 (1816)

Martin v. Hunter's Lessee, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 304 (1816)

The Commercen, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 382 (1816)

The George, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 408 (1816)

United States v. Coolidge, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 415 (1816)

The St. Nicholas, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 417 (1816)

Russel v. Trustees of Transylvania Univ., 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 432 (1816)

The Elsineur, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 439 (1816)

The Hiram, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 440 (1816)

Ammidon v. Smith, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 447 (1816)

Jones v. Shore's Executor, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 462 (1816)

Patton's Lessee v. Easton, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 476 (1816)

Ross v. Reed, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 482 (1816)

Pope County, Illinois

Pope County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 4,470, making it the second-least populous county in Illinois. Its county seat is Golconda. The county was organized in 1816 from portions of Gallatin and Johnson counties and named after Nathaniel Pope, a politician and jurist from the Illinois Territory and State of Illinois.

Solar eclipse of November 19, 1816

A total solar eclipse occurred on November 19, 1816. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is larger than the Sun's, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across Earth's surface, with the partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometres wide.

The Barber of Seville

The Barber of Seville, or The Useless Precaution (Italian: Il barbiere di Siviglia, ossia L'inutile precauzione [il barˈbjɛːre di siˈviʎʎa osˈsiːa liˈnuːtile prekautˈtsjoːne]) is an opera buffa in two acts by Gioachino Rossini with an Italian libretto by Cesare Sterbini. The libretto was based on Pierre Beaumarchais's French comedy Le Barbier de Séville (1775). The première of Rossini's opera (under the title Almaviva, o sia L'inutile precauzione) took place on 20 February 1816 at the Teatro Argentina, Rome, with designs by Angelo Toselli.

Rossini's Barber has proven to be one of the greatest masterpieces of comedy within music, and has been described as the opera buffa of all "opere buffe". After two hundred years, it remains a popular work.

United States Senate Committee on Armed Services

The Committee on Armed Services (sometimes abbreviated SASC for Senate Armed Services Committee on its Web site) is a committee of the United States Senate empowered with legislative oversight of the nation’s military, including the Department of Defense, military research and development, nuclear energy (as pertaining to national security), benefits for members of the military, the Selective Service System and other matters related to defense policy. The Armed Services Committee was created as a result of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 following U.S. victory in the Second World War. It merged the responsibilities of the Committee on Naval Affairs (established in 1816) and the Committee on Military Affairs (also established in 1816).

Considered one of the most powerful Senate committees, its broad mandate allowed it to report some of the most extensive and revolutionary legislation during the Cold War years, including the National Security Act of 1947. The committee tends to take a more bipartisan approach than other committees, as many of its members formerly served in the military or have major defense interests located in the states they come from.

United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary

The United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, informally the Senate Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of 22 U.S. Senators whose role is to oversee the Department of Justice (DOJ), consider executive nominations, and review pending legislation.The Judiciary Committee's oversight of the DOJ includes all of the agencies under the DOJ's jurisdiction, such as the FBI. It also has oversight of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The Committee considers presidential nominations for positions in the DOJ, the Office of National Drug Control Policy, the State Justice Institute, and certain positions in the Department of Commerce and DHS. It is also in charge of holding hearings and investigating judicial nominations to the Supreme Court, the U.S. court of appeals, the U.S. district courts, and the Court of International Trade. The Standing Rules of the Senate confer jurisdiction to the Senate Judiciary Committee in certain areas, such as considering proposed constitutional amendments and legislation related to federal criminal law, human rights law, immigration, intellectual property, antitrust law, and internet privacy.

Year Without a Summer

The year 1816 is known as the Year Without a Summer (also the Poverty Year and Eighteen Hundred and Froze To Death) because of severe climate abnormalities that caused average global temperatures to decrease by 0.4–0.7 °C (0.7–1.3 °F). This resulted in major food shortages across the Northern Hemisphere.Evidence suggests that the anomaly was predominantly a volcanic winter event caused by the massive 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). This eruption was the largest eruption in at least 1,300 years (after the extreme weather events of 535–536), and perhaps exacerbated by the 1814 eruption of Mayon in the Philippines.

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