1810 United States Census

The United States Census of 1810 was the third Census conducted in the United States. It was conducted on August 6, 1810. It showed that 7,239,881 people were living in the United States, of which 1,191,362 were slaves.

The 1810 Census included one new state: Ohio. The original census returns for the District of Columbia, Georgia, Mississippi, New Jersey, and Ohio were lost or destroyed over the years.[1] Most of Tennessee's original forms were also lost, other than Grainger and Rutherford counties.[2]

This was the first census in which New York was ranked as the most populous state. It would occupy this spot for the next fifteen censuses, before being overtaken by California in 1970. This would also be the last census until 1860 in which Philadelphia was ranked as the second-most populous city.

1810 United States Census
Seal of the United States Census Bureau
1810 US Census
A page of the 1810 United States Census
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenAugust 6, 1810
Total population7,239,881

Census questions

The 1810 Census form contained the following information (identical to the 1800 census):

  1. City or township
  2. Name of the head of family
  3. Number of free white males under age 10
  4. Number of free white males age 10-15
  5. Number of free white males age 16-25
  6. Number of free white males age 26-44
  7. Number of free white males age 45 and over
  8. Number of free white females under age 10
  9. Number of free white females age 10-15
  10. Number of free white females age 16-25
  11. Number of free white females age 26-44
  12. Number of free white females age 45 and over
  13. Number of all other free persons
  14. Number of slaves

Note to researchers

Census taking was not yet an exact science. Before 1830, enumerators lacked pre-printed forms, and some drew up their own, resulting in pages without headings. Some enumerators did not tally their results. As a result, census records for many towns before 1830 are idiosyncratic. This is not to suggest that they are less reliable than subsequent censuses, but that they may require more work on the part of the researcher.

Data availability

No microdata from the 1810 population census are available, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.

State rankings

Rank State Population
01 New York 959,049
02 Virginia 877,683
03 Pennsylvania 810,091
04 North Carolina 556,526
05 Massachusetts 472,040
06 South Carolina 415,115
07 Kentucky 406,511
08 Maryland 380,546
09 Connecticut 262,042
10 Tennessee 261,727
11 Georgia 251,407
12 New Jersey 245,555
13 Ohio 230,760
X Maine [3] 228,705
14 Vermont 217,713
15 New Hampshire 214,360
X West Virginia [4] 105,469
16 Rhode Island 76,931
X Louisiana 76,556
17 Delaware 72,674
X Mississippi 31,306
X Indiana 24,520
X Missouri 19,783
X District of Columbia [5] 15,471
X Illinois 12,282
X Alabama 9,046
X Michigan 4,762
X Arkansas 1,062

City rankings

Rank City State Population[6] Region (2016)[7]
01 New York New York 96,373 Northeast
02 Philadelphia Pennsylvania 53,722 Northeast
03 Baltimore Maryland 46,555 South
04 Boston Massachusetts 33,787 Northeast
05 Charleston South Carolina 24,711 South
06 Northern Liberties Pennsylvania 19,874 Northeast
07 New Orleans Louisiana 17,242 South
08 Southwark Pennsylvania 13,707 Northeast
09 Salem Massachusetts 12,613 Northeast
10 Albany New York 10,762 Northeast
11 Providence Rhode Island 10,071 Northeast
12 Richmond Virginia 9,735 South
13 Norfolk Virginia 9,193 South
14 Washington District of Columbia 8,208 South
15 Newport Rhode Island 7,907 Northeast
16 Newburyport Massachusetts 7,634 Northeast
17 Alexandria District of Columbia 7,227 South
18 Portland Maine 7,169 Northeast
19 Portsmouth New Hampshire 6,934 Northeast
20 Nantucket Massachusetts 6,807 Northeast
21 Gloucester Massachusetts 5,943 Northeast
22 Schenectady New York 5,903 Northeast
23 Marblehead Massachusetts 5,900 Northeast
24 New Haven Connecticut 5,772 Northeast
25 Petersburg Virginia 5,668 South
26 New Bedford Massachusetts 5,651 Northeast
27 Lancaster Pennsylvania 5,405 Northeast
28 Savannah Georgia 5,215 South
29 Charlestown Massachusetts 4,959 Northeast
30 Georgetown District of Columbia 4,948 South
31 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 4,768 Northeast
32 Beverly Massachusetts 4,608 Northeast
33 Brooklyn New York 4,402 Northeast
34 Middleborough Massachusetts 4,400 Northeast
35 Lexington Kentucky 4,326 South
36 Plymouth Massachusetts 4,228 Northeast
37 Lynn Massachusetts 4,087 Northeast
38 Hudson New York 4,048 Northeast
39 Hartford Connecticut 3,955 Northeast
40 Reading Pennsylvania 3,462 Northeast
41 New London Connecticut 3,238 Northeast
42 Trenton New Jersey 3,002 Northeast
43 Elizabeth New Jersey 2,977 Northeast
44 Norwich Connecticut 2,976 Northeast
45 York Pennsylvania 2,847 Northeast
46 Cincinnati Ohio 2,540 Midwest


  1. ^ Dollarhide, William (2001). The Census Book: A Genealogists Guide to Federal Census Facts, Schedules and Indexes. North Salt Lake, Utah: HeritageQuest. p. 8.
  2. ^ "Tennessee Census Availability at TSLA and Online". March 5, 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
  3. ^ Between 1790 and 1820, the District of Maine was part of the state of Massachusetts.
  4. ^ Between 1790 and 1860, the state of West Virginia was part of Virginia; the data for each states reflect the present-day boundaries.
  5. ^ The District of Columbia is not a state but was created with the passage of the Residence Act of 1790. The territory that formed that federal capital was originally donated by both Maryland and Virginia; however, the Virginia portion was returned by Congress in 1846.
  6. ^ Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  7. ^ "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.

External links

Allentown, Pennsylvania

Allentown (Pennsylvania Dutch: Allenschteddel) is a city located in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, United States. It is Pennsylvania's third most populous city and the 231st largest city in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 118,032 and is currently the fastest growing city in all of Pennsylvania. It is the largest city in the metropolitan area known as the Lehigh Valley, which had a population of 821,623 residents as of 2010. Allentown constitutes a portion of the New York City Combined Statistical Area and is the county seat of Lehigh County. In 2012, the city celebrated the 250th anniversary of its founding in 1762.Located on the Lehigh River, Allentown is the largest of three adjacent cities, in Northampton and Lehigh counties, that make up a region of eastern Pennsylvania known as the Lehigh Valley, the other two cities being Bethlehem, Pennsylvania and Easton, Pennsylvania. Allentown is 50 miles (80 km) north-northwest of Philadelphia, the sixth most populous city in the United States, 90 miles (140 km) east-northeast of Harrisburg, the state capital, and 90 miles (140 km) west of New York City, the nation's largest city.

The Norfolk Southern Railway's Lehigh Line (formerly the main line of the Lehigh Valley Railroad using former Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad main line trackage), runs through Allentown heading east across the Delaware River. The Norfolk Southern Railway's Reading Line runs through Allentown heading west to Reading, Pennsylvania.

Allentown was cited as a "national success story" in April 2016 by the Urban Land Institute for its downtown redevelopment and transformation, one of only six communities in the country to have been named as such.

Elizabeth, New Jersey

Elizabeth is both the largest city and the county seat of Union County, in New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 124,969, retaining its ranking as New Jersey's fourth most populous city, behind Paterson.

The population increased by 4,401 (3.7%) from the 120,568 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 10,566 (+9.6%) from the 110,002 counted in the 1990 Census. For 2017, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated a population of 130,215, an increase of 4.2% from the 2010 enumeration, ranking the city the 212th-most-populous in the nation.In 2008, Elizabeth was named one of "America's 50 Greenest Cities" by Popular Science magazine, the only city in New Jersey selected.

Mayors of Allentown, Pennsylvania

The city of Allentown, Pennsylvania was founded in 1762 as Northampton Town by William Allen, a wealthy shipping merchant. During its first fifty years of existence, Northampton Town was a small unincorporated settlement, consisting of a few homes, stores and taverns.

New Brunswick, New Jersey

New Brunswick is a city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States, in the New York City metropolitan area. The city is the county seat of Middlesex County, and the home of Rutgers University. New Brunswick is on the Northeast Corridor rail line, 27 miles (43 km) southwest of Manhattan, on the southern bank of the Raritan River. As of 2016, New Brunswick had a Census-estimated population of 56,910, representing a 3.1% increase from the 55,181 people enumerated at the 2010 United States Census, which in turn had reflected an increase of 6,608 (+13.6%) from the 48,573 counted in the 2000 Census. Due to the concentration of medical facilities in the area, including Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital and Saint Peter's University Hospital, as well as Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey's Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick is known as both the Hub City and the Healthcare City. The corporate headquarters and production facilities of several global pharmaceutical companies are situated in the city, including Johnson & Johnson and Bristol-Myers Squibb.

New Brunswick is noted for its ethnic diversity. At one time, one quarter of the Hungarian population of New Jersey resided in the city and in the 1930s one out of three city residents was Hungarian. The Hungarian community continues to exist, alongside growing Asian and Hispanic communities that have developed around French Street near Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital.

North Carolina's 13th congressional district

The Thirteenth congressional district of North Carolina was re-established in 2002 after the state gained population in the 2000 United States Census. Previously, the state had 13 districts from the first election following the 1810 United States Census until the reapportionment following the 1840 United States Census.

From 2003 to 2013 the district included most of northern Wake County, all of Person and Caswell counties as well as parts of Rockingham, Granville, Guilford, and Alamance counties.

However, reapportionment after the 2010 census shifted the district more to the south and east. As a result, it lost its share of Alamance, Caswell, Guilford, Person, and Rockingham counties. In place of those five counties, portions of Durham, Edgecombe, Franklin, Nash, Vance, Wayne, and Wilson counties were added. More of Wake County and less of Granville County were also included. While Barack Obama carried the old 13th with 59 percent of the vote in 2008, John McCain would have won it with 54 percent of the vote had it existed under the new lines.

As a result, Congressman Brad Miller (Democrat), who represented the district from its creation in 2003, announced he would not seek re-election to office in 2012. From 2013 to 2017, the district was represented by Republican George Holding.

After a mid-decade redistricting, most of the old 13th was essentially merged with the old 2nd District. A new 13th was created, stretching from the northern suburbs of Charlotte to Greensboro. Republican Ted Budd became the first congressman from this new district.

Thomas Cox (politician)

Thomas Cox (1787 – November 9, 1844) was an American pioneer, politician, and surveyor from what is now Kentucky. His family moved to the Indiana Territory, where Cox joined the territory militia. He was promoted to a lieutenant colonel and may have seen service in the War of 1812. After the war, he became a surveyor to help support his family. He also served in county politics until the state of Illinois was formed in 1818. Cox was elected to its 1st General Assembly as a state senator, serving for two years. He then worked as Register of the U.S. Land Office in Springfield, Illinois, but fell into debt after some poor land speculation deals.

Cox served again in the militia near the end of the Black Hawk War, then was appointed a surveyor of the resulting Black Hawk Purchase. He settled in Jackson County and was elected to the Iowa Territory house of representatives for three one-year terms. In 1840, Cox led a posse against a group of outlaws in what would become known as the Bellevue War. Cox was elected to the state assembly as a councilman in 1842 and served one two-year term.

Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War

This timeline of events leading to the American Civil War is a chronologically ordered list of events and issues which historians recognize as origins and causes of the American Civil War. These events are roughly divided into two periods: the first encompasses the gradual build-up over many decades of the numerous social, economic, and political issues that ultimately contributed to the war's outbreak, and the second encompasses the five-month span following the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States in 1860 and culminating in the capture of Fort Sumter in April 1861.

Scholars have identified many different causes for the war. Among the most polarizing of the underlying issues from which other proximate causes developed was whether the institution of slavery should be retained and even expanded to other territories or whether it should be contained and eventually abolished. Since the early colonial period, slavery had played a major role in the socioeconomic system of British North America and was recognized in the Thirteen Colonies at the time of the United States' Declaration of Independence in 1776. During and after the American Revolution, events and statements by politicians and others brought forth differences, tensions and divisions between citizens of the slave states of the Southern United States and citizens of the free states of the Northern United States (including several newly admitted Western states) over the topics of slavery. In the many decades between the Revolutionary War and the Civil War, such divisions became increasingly irreconcilable and contentious.Events in the 1850s culminated with the election of the anti-slavery Republican Abraham Lincoln as President on November 6, 1860. This provoked the first round of state secession as leaders of the cotton states of the Deep South were unwilling to remain in what they perceived as a second-class political status, with their way of life now threatened by the President himself. Initially, seven states seceded: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas. After the Confederates attacked and captured Fort Sumter, President Lincoln called for volunteers to march south and suppress the rebellion. This pushed four other states in the Upper South (Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Arkansas) also to secede, completing the incorporation of the Confederate States of America by July 1861. Their contributions of territory and soldiers to the Confederacy ensured the war would be prolonged and bloody.

United States Economic Census

The United States Economic Census is the U.S. federal government's official five-year measure of American business and the economy. It is conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, and response is required by law. Forms go out to nearly 4 million businesses, including large, medium and small companies representing all U.S. locations and industries. Respondents are asked to provide a range of operational and performance data for their companies. Trade associations, chambers of commerce, and businesses use information from the economic census for economic development, business decisions, and strategic planning purposes. The next Economic Census will be conducted for the year ending December 2017.The Economic Census, together with the separately conducted censuses of agriculture and governments, covers virtually the entire economy, excepting only for forestry, agricultural support, rail transportation, and employment by private households.

Waterford, Virginia

Waterford is an unincorporated village in the Catoctin Valley of Loudoun County, Virginia, located along Catoctin Creek. Waterford is 47 miles (76 km) northwest of Washington, D.C., and 7 miles (11 km) northwest of Leesburg. The entire village and surrounding countryside is a National Historic Landmark District, noted for its well-preserved 18th and 19th-century character.

In the 1810 United States Census, the population center of the United States was recorded as being just northwest of the village.

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