1808 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1808 was the sixth quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, November 4, to Wednesday, December 7, 1808. The Democratic-Republican candidate James Madison defeated Federalist candidate Charles Cotesworth Pinckney decisively. Madison's victory made him the first individual to succeed a president of the same party.

Madison had served as Secretary of State since President Thomas Jefferson took office in 1801. Jefferson, who had declined to run for a third term, threw his strong support behind Madison, a fellow Virginian. Sitting Vice President George Clinton and former Ambassador James Monroe both challenged Madison for leadership of the party, but Madison won his party's nomination and Clinton was re-nominated as vice president. The Federalists chose to re-nominate Pinckney, a former ambassador who had served as the party's 1804 nominee.

Despite the unpopularity of the Embargo Act of 1807, Madison won the vast majority of electoral votes outside of the Federalist stronghold of New England. Clinton received six electoral votes for president from his home state of New York. This election was the first of two instances in American history in which a new president was selected but the incumbent vice president won re-election, the other being in 1828.

1808 United States presidential election

November 4 – December 7, 1808

175 electoral votes of the Electoral College
89 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout36.8%[1] Increase 13.0 pp
  James Madison CharlesCPinckney crop
Nominee James Madison Charles C. Pinckney
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Home state Virginia South Carolina
Running mate George Clinton Rufus King
Electoral vote 122 47
States carried 12 5
Popular vote 124,732 62,431
Percentage 64.7% 32.4%

1808 United States presidential election in Massachusetts1808 United States presidential election in New Hampshire1808 United States presidential election in Massachusetts1808 United States presidential election in Rhode Island1808 United States presidential election in Connecticut1808 United States presidential election in New York1808 United States presidential election in Vermont1808 United States presidential election in New Jersey1808 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania1808 United States presidential election in Delaware1808 United States presidential election in Maryland1808 United States presidential election in Virginia1808 United States presidential election in Ohio1808 United States presidential election in Kentucky1808 United States presidential election in Tennessee1808 United States presidential election in North Carolina1808 United States presidential election in South Carolina1808 United States presidential election in GeorgiaElectoralCollege1808.svg
Presidential election results map. Green denotes states won by Madison, burnt orange denotes states won by Pinckney, light green denotes states won by Clinton. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Thomas Jefferson
Democratic-Republican

Elected President

James Madison
Democratic-Republican

Nominations

Democratic-Republican Party nomination

Democratic-Republican Party
Democratic-Republican Party Ticket, 1808
James Madison George Clinton
for President for Vice President
James Madison
George Clinton by Ezra Ames
5th
U.S. Secretary of State
(1801–1809)
4th
Vice President of the United States
(1805–1812)
Campaign

Presidential candidates

James Madison

Secretary of State
James Madison

James Monroe White House portrait 1819

Former U.S. Minister to the United Kingdom
James Monroe
of Virginia

George Clinton by Ezra Ames

Vice President
George Clinton

Vice-Presidential candidates

George Clinton by Ezra Ames

Vice President
George Clinton

Henry Dearborn by Gilbert Stuart.jpeg

Secretary of War
Henry Dearborn

Caucus

Nominations for the 1808 presidential election were made by congressional caucuses. With Thomas Jefferson ready to retire, supporters of Secretary of State James Madison of Virginia worked carefully to ensure that Madison would succeed Jefferson. Madison's primary competition came from former Ambassador James Monroe of Virginia and Vice President George Clinton. Monroe was supported by a group known as the tertium quids, who supported a weak central government and were dissatisfied by the Louisiana Purchase and the Compact of 1802. Clinton's support came from Northern Democratic-Republicans who disapproved of the Embargo Act (which they saw as potentially leading towards war with Great Britain) and who sought to end the Virginia Dynasty. The Congressional caucus met in January 1808, choosing Madison as its candidate for president and Clinton as its candidate for vice president.[2]

Many supporters of Monroe and Clinton refused to accept the result of the caucus. Monroe was nominated by a group of Virginia Democratic-Republicans, and although he did not actively try to defeat Madison, he also refused to withdraw from the race.[3] Clinton was also supported by a group of New York Democratic-Republicans for president even as he remained the party's official vice presidential candidate.[4]

Balloting

Presidential Ballot Total Vice Presidential Ballot Total
James Madison 83 George Clinton 79
James Monroe 3 John Langdon 5
George Clinton 3 Henry Dearborn 3
John Quincy Adams 1

Federalist Party nomination

Federalist Party
Federalist Party Ticket, 1808
Charles C. Pinckney Rufus King
for President for Vice President
CharlesCPinckney crop
Rufus King - National Portrait Gallery
Former U.S. Minister
to France

(1796–1797)
Former U.S. Minister
to Great Britain

(1796–1803)
Campaign

The Federalist caucus met in September 1808 and re-nominated the party's 1804 ticket, which consisted of General Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina and former Senator Rufus King of New York.[5]

General election

Campaign

The election was marked by opposition to Jefferson's Embargo Act of 1807, a halt to trade with Europe that disproportionately hurt New England merchants and was perceived as favoring France over Britain. Nonetheless, Jefferson was still very popular with Americans generally and Pinckney was soundly defeated by Madison, though not as badly as in 1804. Pinckney received few electoral votes outside of New England.

Results

ElectoralCollege1808-Large

Pinckney retained the electoral votes of the two states that he carried in 1804 (Connecticut and Delaware), and he also picked up New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and three electoral districts in North Carolina besides the two electoral districts in Maryland that he carried earlier. Except for the North Carolina districts, all of the improvement was in New England.

Monroe won a portion of the popular vote in Virginia and North Carolina,[3] while the New York legislature split its electoral votes between Madison and Clinton.[4]

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote(a), (b) Electoral
vote(c)
Running mate
Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote(c)
James Madison Democratic-Republican Virginia 124,732 64.7% 122 George Clinton (incumbent) New York 113
John Langdon New Hampshire 9
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney Federalist South Carolina 62,431 32.4% 47 Rufus King New York 47
George Clinton Democratic-Republican New York 6 James Madison Virginia 3
James Monroe Virginia 3
James Monroe Democratic-Republican Virginia 4,848 2.5% 0 None N/A 0
Unpledged electors None N/A 680 0.4% 0 N/A N/A 0
Total 192,691 100% 175 175
Needed to win 88 88

Source (Popular Vote): U.S. President National Vote. Our Campaigns. (February 10, 2006).
Source (Popular Vote): A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787-1825[6]
Source (Electoral Vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 30, 2005.

(a) Only 10 of the 17 states chose electors by popular vote.
(b) Those states that did choose electors by popular vote had widely varying restrictions on suffrage via property requirements.
(c) One Elector from Kentucky did not vote.

Popular vote
Madison
64.7%
Pinckney
27.2%
Electoral vote—President
Madison
69.3%
Pinckney
26.7%
Clinton
3.4%
Electoral vote—Vice President
Clinton
64.2%
King
26.7%
Langdon
5.1%
Madison
1.7%
Madison
1.7%
Unpledged electors
0.6%

Electoral college selection

PresidentialCounty1808
Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage of the winning candidate in each county. Shades of blue are for Madison (Democratic-Republican), shades of yellow are for Pinckney (Federalist), and shades of green are for Monroe (Democratic-Republican).
Method of choosing electors State(s)
Each Elector appointed by state legislature Connecticut
Delaware
Georgia
Massachusetts
New York
South Carolina
Vermont
Each Elector chosen by voters statewide New Hampshire
New Jersey
Ohio
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Virginia
State is divided into electoral districts, with one Elector chosen per district by the voters of that district Kentucky
Maryland
North Carolina
Tennessee

See also

References

  1. ^ "National General Election VEP Turnout Rates, 1789-Present". United States Election Project. CQ Press. Archived from the original on November 14, 2016.
  2. ^ Sabato, Larry; Ernst, Howard (January 1, 2009). Encyclopedia of American Political Parties and Elections. Infobase Publishing. pp. 302–304.
  3. ^ a b Ammon, Harry (1963). "James Monroe and the Election of 1808 in Virginia". The William and Mary Quarterly. 20 (1): 33–56. JSTOR 1921354.
  4. ^ a b Kaminski, John P. (1993). George Clinton: Yeoman Politician of the New Republic. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 281–288. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  5. ^ Deskins, Donald Richard; Walton, Hanes; Puckett, Sherman (2010). Presidential Elections, 1789-2008: County, State, and National Mapping of Election Data. University of Michigan Press. pp. 49–50.
  6. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu. Archived from the original on May 13, 2018.

Further reading

  • Brant, Irving, "Election of 1808" in Arthur Meier Schlesinger and Fred L. Israel, eds. History of American presidential elections, 1789-1968: Volume 1 (1971) pp 185-249
  • Carson, David A. "Quiddism and the Reluctant Candidacy of James Monroe in the Election of 1808," Mid-America 1988 70(2): 79–89

External links

10th United States Congress

The Tenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1807, to March 4, 1809, during the seventh and eighth years of Thomas Jefferson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Second Census of the United States in 1800. Both chambers had an overwhelming Democratic-Republican majority.

11th United States Congress

The Eleventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1809 to March 4, 1811, during the first two years of James Madison's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Second Census of the United States in 1800. Both chambers had a Democratic-Republican majority.

1808

1808 (MDCCCVIII)

was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1808th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 808th year of the 2nd millennium, the 8th year of the 19th century, and the 9th year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1808, the Gregorian calendar was

12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1808 United States elections

The 1808 United States elections elected the members of the 11th United States Congress. The election took place during the First Party System. In the aftermath of the Embargo of 1807, the Federalists picked up Congressional seats for the first time since their defeat in the 1800 election. However, the Democratic-Republican Party maintained control of the Presidency and both houses of Congress.

In the Presidential election, Democratic-Republican Secretary of State James Madison easily defeated Federalist Governor Charles Pinckney of South Carolina. Incumbent Vice President George Clinton was re-elected, making him the first vice president to serve under two different presidents.

In the House, Federalists won moderate gains, but Democratic-Republicans continued to dominate the chamber.In the Senate, Federalists picked up one seat, but Democratic-Republicans retained a dominant majority.

1808 United States presidential election in Connecticut

The 1808 United States presidential election in Connecticut took place between November 4 and December 7, 1808, as part of the 1808 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose nine representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

During this election, Connecticut cast its nine electoral votes to Federalist candidate Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. Four of the five New England states voted for Pinckney, barring Vermont, which voted for Democratic Republican candidate and Secretary of State James Madison, who nationally won the election.

1808 United States presidential election in New Jersey

The 1808 United States presidential election in New Jersey took place between November 4 and December 7, 1808, as part of the 1808 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose eight representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

During this election, New Jersey cast its eight electoral votes to Democratic Republican candidate and Secretary of State James Madison.

1808 United States presidential election in New York

The 1808 United States presidential election in New York took place between November 4 and December 7, 1808, as part of the 1808 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose 19 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

During this election, New York split its 19 electoral votes among two Democratic Republican candidates. Thirteen electoral votes went to Secretary of State James Madison while the remaining six went to incumbent Vice President George Clinton. Clinton had also supported by a group of New York Democratic-Republicans for president even though he had remained the party's official vice presidential candidate.This would be the final election until 1972 in which New York did not have the largest number of electors in the Electoral College.

1808 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania

The 1808 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania took place as part of the 1808 United States presidential election. Voters chose 20 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

Pennsylvania voted for the Democratic-Republican candidate, James Madison, over the Federalist candidate, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. Madison won Pennsylvania by a margin of 56.74%.

1808 United States presidential election in South Carolina

The 1808 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place between November 4 and December 7, 1808, as part of the 1808 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose 10 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

During this election, South Carolina cast its 10 electoral votes to Democratic Republican candidate and Secretary of State James Madison.

1808 United States presidential election in Vermont

The 1808 United States presidential election in Vermont took place between November 4 and December 7, 1808, as part of the 1808 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose six representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

During this election, Vermont cast its six electoral votes to Democratic Republican candidate and Secretary of State James Madison. As the other four New England states cast their electoral votes for Federalist candidate Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Vermont became the only state in New England to vote for Madison.

1808 and 1809 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 11th Congress were held in the various states between April 1808 (in New York) and May 1809 (in Tennessee). The Congress first met on May 22, 1809.

Although the Democratic-Republicans maintained control of the presidency (under James Madison) and Congress after the election of 1808, Federalists made significant gains in the House, mainly due to the unpopularity of the Embargo Act of 1807. In particular, voters in New England, who often had ties to the shipping or manufacturing industries, overwhelmingly chose to send Federalists to Washington. Economic stagnation due to the closing of the export market and fears that Democratic-Republican policies had the potential for leading America into a naval war with France or Britain were key issues that allowed for a brief Federalist resurgence. The Democratic-Republicans were left with a majority under two-thirds for the first time since the election of 1800 and 1801.

1808 and 1809 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1808 and 1809 were elections that had the Federalist Party gain one seat in the United States Senate, and which coincided with the 1808 presidential election. The Federalists had gone into the elections with such a small share of Senate seats (6 out of 34, or 18%) that even if they had won every election, they would have still remained a minority caucus.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

1812 United States presidential election in South Carolina

The 1808 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place between October 30 and December 2, 1812, as part of the 1812 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose eleven representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

During this election, South Carolina cast its 11 electoral votes to Democratic Republican candidate and incumbent President James Madison.

1816 United States presidential election in New Jersey

The 1808 United States presidential election in New Jersey took place between November 1 to December 4, 1816, as part of the 1816 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose eight representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

During this election, New Jersey cast its eight electoral votes to Democratic Republican candidate and Secretary of State James Monroe.

1816 United States presidential election in New York

The 1808 United States presidential election in New York took place between November 1 to December 4, 1816, as part of the 1816 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose 29 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

During this election, New York cast its 29 electoral votes to Democratic Republican candidate and Secretary of State James Monroe.

1816 United States presidential election in South Carolina

The 1808 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place between November 1 to December 4, 1816, as part of the 1816 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose eleven representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

During this election, South Carolina cast its 11 electoral votes to Democratic Republican candidate and Secretary of State James Monroe.

List of elections in 1808

The following elections occurred in the year 1808.

United States presidential election

The election of president and vice president of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U.S. states or in Washington, D.C. cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the U.S. Electoral College, known as electors. These electors then in turn cast direct votes, known as electoral votes, for president, and for vice president. The candidate who receives an absolute majority of electoral votes (at least 270 out of a total of 538, since the Twenty-Third Amendment granted voting rights to citizens of Washington, D.C.) is then elected to that office. If no candidate receives an absolute majority of the votes for President, the House of Representatives chooses the winner; if no one receives an absolute majority of the votes for Vice President, then the Senate chooses the winner.

The Electoral College and its procedure are established in the U.S. Constitution by Article II, Section 1, Clauses 2 and 4; and the Twelfth Amendment (which replaced Clause 3 after its ratification in 1804). Under Clause 2, each of the states casts as many electoral votes as the total number of its Senators and Representatives in Congress, while, per the Twenty-third Amendment ratified in 1961, Washington, D.C. casts the same number of electoral votes as the least-represented state, which is three. Also under Clause 2, the manner for choosing electors is determined by each state legislature, not directly by the federal government. Many state legislatures previously selected their electors directly, but over time all of them switched to using the popular vote to help determine electors, which persists today. Once chosen, electors generally cast their electoral votes for the candidate who won the plurality in their state, but at least 21 states do not have provisions that specifically address this behavior; those who vote in opposition to the plurality are known as "faithless" or "unpledged electors". In modern times, faithless and unpledged electors have not affected the ultimate outcome of an election, so the results can generally be determined based on the state-by-state popular vote.

Presidential elections occur quadrennially with registered voters casting their ballots on Election Day, which since 1845 has been the first Tuesday after November 1. This date coincides with the general elections of various other federal, state, and local races; since local governments are responsible for managing elections, these races typically all appear on one ballot. The Electoral College electors then formally cast their electoral votes on the first Monday after December 12 at their respective state capitals. Congress then certifies the results in early January, and the presidential term begins on Inauguration Day, which since the passage of the Twentieth Amendment has been set at January 20.

The nomination process, consisting of the primary elections and caucuses and the nominating conventions, was not specified in the Constitution, but was developed over time by the states and political parties. These primary elections are generally held between January and June before the general election in November, while the nominating conventions are held in the summer. Though not codified by law, political parties also follow an indirect election process, where voters in the 50 U.S. states, Washington, D.C., and U.S. territories, cast ballots for a slate of delegates to a political party's nominating convention, who then in turn elect their party's presidential nominee. Each party may then choose a vice presidential running mate to join the ticket, which is either determined by choice of the nominee or by a second round of voting. Because of changes to national campaign finance laws since the 1970s regarding the disclosure of contributions for federal campaigns, presidential candidates from the major political parties usually declare their intentions to run as early as the spring of the previous calendar year before the election (almost 18 months before Inauguration Day).

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