1802

1802 (MDCCCII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1802nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 802nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 2nd year of the 19th century, and the 3rd year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1802, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1802 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1802
MDCCCII
French Republican calendar10–11
Ab urbe condita2555
Armenian calendar1251
ԹՎ ՌՄԾԱ
Assyrian calendar6552
Balinese saka calendar1723–1724
Bengali calendar1209
Berber calendar2752
British Regnal year42 Geo. 3 – 43 Geo. 3
Buddhist calendar2346
Burmese calendar1164
Byzantine calendar7310–7311
Chinese calendar辛酉(Metal Rooster)
4498 or 4438
    — to —
壬戌年 (Water Dog)
4499 or 4439
Coptic calendar1518–1519
Discordian calendar2968
Ethiopian calendar1794–1795
Hebrew calendar5562–5563
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1858–1859
 - Shaka Samvat1723–1724
 - Kali Yuga4902–4903
Holocene calendar11802
Igbo calendar802–803
Iranian calendar1180–1181
Islamic calendar1216–1217
Japanese calendarKansei 14 / Kyōwa 1
(享和元年)
Javanese calendar1728–1729
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4135
Minguo calendar110 before ROC
民前110年
Nanakshahi calendar334
Thai solar calendar2344–2345
Tibetan calendar阴金鸡年
(female Iron-Rooster)
1928 or 1547 or 775
    — to —
阳水狗年
(male Water-Dog)
1929 or 1548 or 776
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Portrait de Napoléon Bonaparte en premier consul
August 2: Napoleon is confirmed as the First Consul of France.

Events

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

  • October 2 – War ends between Sweden and Tripoli. The United States also negotiates peace, but war continues over the size of compensation.
  • October 15 – French Army General Michel Ney enters Switzerland with 40,000 troops, on orders of Napoleon Bonaparte.[11]
  • October 16 – The port of New Orleans and the lower Mississippi River are closed to American traffic by order of the city's Spanish administrator, Juan Ventura Morales, threatening the economy in the western United States, and prompting the need for the Louisiana Purchase.[12]
  • November 16 – The newly elected British House of Lords is inaugurated by King George III, who tells the members, "In my intercourse with foreign powers, I have been actuated by a sincere disposition of the maintenance of peace," but adds that "My conduct will be invariably regulated by a due consideration of the actual situation of Europe, and by a watchful solicitude for the permanent welfare of my people." [13]
  • December 2 – The Health and Morals of Apprentices Act in the United Kingdom comes into effect, regulating conditions for child labour in factories. Although poorly enforced, it pioneers a series of Factory Acts.

Births

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

Deaths

January–June

July–December

References

  1. ^ Christopher Hitchens, The Parthenon Marbles: The Case for Reunification (Verso Books, 2016)
  2. ^ Coleman, Helen Turnbull Waite (1956). Banners in the Wilderness: The Early Years of Washington and Jefferson College. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 206. OCLC 2191890.
  3. ^ Carolyn E. Fick, The Making of Haiti: The Saint Domingue Revolution from Below (University of Tennessee Press, 1990) p210–211
  4. ^ "Rome", in Biography of the Principal Sovereigns of Europe who Have Reigned Since the French Revolution (Ogle, Duncan, and Co., 1822) p99
  5. ^ a b Ivan Lindsay, The History of Loot and Stolen Art: from Antiquity until the Present Day (Andrews UK Ltd., 2014)
  6. ^ Timothy Jones, Beethoven: The 'Moonlight' and Other Sonatas, Op. 27 and Op. 31 (Cambridge University Press, 1999) p20, p129
  7. ^ Pamela Pilbeam, Madame Tussaud: And the History of Waxworks (A&C Black, 2006) p65
  8. ^ "Nguyen Anh (Emperor Gia Long)", by Nguyen The Anh, in Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, ed. by Keat Gin Ooi (ABC-CLIO, 2004) p870
  9. ^ Robert Hirsch, Seizing the Light: A Social & Aesthetic History of Photography (Taylor & Francis, 2017)
  10. ^ "E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company", by Richard Junger, in The Advertising Age Encyclopedia of Advertising (Routledge, 2015) p500
  11. ^ Andrew Roberts, Napoleon: A Life (Penguin, 2014)
  12. ^ "Mississippi River", by Gene A. Smith, in The Louisiana Purchase: A Historical and Geographical Encyclopedia, Junius P. Rodriguez, ed. (ABC-CLIO, 2002) p226
  13. ^ William Belsham, History of Great Britain: From the Revolution, 1688, to the Conclusion of the Treaty of Amiens, 1802, Volume 12 (Phillips, 1805) p485
1802 English cricket season

1802 was the 16th season of cricket in England since the foundation of Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC). Cricket by this time was being heavily impacted by the Napoleonic War. E. H. Budd, who went on to become one of the most famous batsmen of the early 19th century, made his debut in important matches.

1802 United Kingdom general election

The 1802 United Kingdom general election was the election to the House of Commons of the second Parliament of the United Kingdom. It was the first to be held after the Union of Great Britain and Ireland. The first Parliament had been composed of members of the former Parliaments of the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland.

The Parliament of Great Britain held its last general election in 1796. The final election for the Parliament of Ireland was held in 1797.

The first united Parliament was dissolved on 29 June 1802. The new Parliament was summoned to meet on 31 August 1802, for a maximum seven-year term from that date. (The maximum term could be and normally was curtailed, by the monarch dissolving the Parliament, before its term expired.)

1802 United States elections

The 1802 United States elections occurred in the middle of Democratic-Republican President Thomas Jefferson's first term, during the First Party System. Members of the 8th United States Congress were chosen in this election. Democratic-Republicans picked up several seats in both chambers of Congress, solidifying their control over the House and Senate.

In the House, 36 seats were added following the 1800 census. Democratic-Republicans picked up a large number of seats, increasing their majority.In the Senate, Democratic-Republicans won major gains, increasing their previously-narrow majority.

1802 and 1803 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 8th Congress were held at various dates in each state, from April 26, 1802 (in New York) to December 14, 1803 (in New Jersey) during Thomas Jefferson's first term in office. It was common in the early years of the United Congress for some states to elect representatives to a Congress after it had already convened. In the case of the 8th Congress, the representatives from New Jersey were only elected after its first meeting on October 17, 1803.

The membership of the House increased significantly as a result of population gains revealed in the United States Census of 1800. The greatest growth was in territories that constituted the western regions of the country at the time, a tremendous boost for Democratic-Republican candidates. Nearly all of the new seats created in reapportionment after the 1800 census went to Democratic-Republicans, closely aligned as they were with the agrarian interests of Western farmers. As a result, the Democratic-Republicans won the largest proportion of seats that either they or the competing Federalists had ever been able to secure in any earlier Congress, a supermajority greater than two-thirds of the total number.

1802 and 1803 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1802 and 1803 were elections for the United States Senate which had the Democratic-Republican Party assume an overwhelming control thereof.

As these election were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

1802 in Denmark

Events from the year 1802 in Denmark.

1802 in France

Events from the year 1802 in France.

1802 in Ireland

Events from the year 1802 in Ireland.

1802 in Sweden

Events from the year 1802 in Sweden

Alexandre Dumas

Alexandre Dumas (UK: , US: ; French: [alɛksɑ̃dʁ dyma]; born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie [dyma davi də la pajətʁi]; 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas père (French for 'father'), was a French writer. His works have been translated into many languages, and he is one of the most widely read French authors. Many of his historical novels of high adventure were originally published as serials, including The Count of Monte Cristo, The Three Musketeers, Twenty Years After, and The Vicomte de Bragelonne: Ten Years Later. His novels have been adapted since the early twentieth century for nearly 200 films. Dumas' last novel, The Knight of Sainte-Hermine, unfinished at his death, was completed by scholar Claude Schopp and published in 2005. It was published in English in 2008 as The Last Cavalier.

Prolific in several genres, Dumas began his career by writing plays, which were successfully produced from the first. He also wrote numerous magazine articles and travel books; his published works totalled 100,000 pages. In the 1840s, Dumas founded the Théâtre Historique in Paris.

His father, General Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie, was born in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (present-day Haiti) to Alexandre Antoine Davy de la Pailleterie, a French nobleman, and Marie-Cessette Dumas, a black slave. At age 14 Thomas-Alexandre was taken by his father to France, where he was educated in a military academy and entered the military for what became an illustrious career.

Dumas' father's aristocratic rank helped young Alexandre acquire work with Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans. He later began working as a writer, finding early success. Decades later, in the election of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte in 1851, Dumas fell from favour and left France for Belgium, where he stayed for several years. Upon leaving Belgium, Dumas moved to Russia for a few years before going to Italy. In 1861, he founded and published the newspaper L'Indipendente, which supported the Italian unification effort. In 1864, he returned to Paris.

Though married, in the tradition of Frenchmen of higher social class, Dumas had numerous affairs (allegedly as many as forty). In his lifetime, he was known to have at least four illegitimate children; although twentieth-century scholars found that Dumas fathered three other children out of wedlock. He acknowledged and assisted his son, Alexandre Dumas, to become a successful novelist and playwright. They are known as Alexandre Dumas père ('father') and Alexandre Dumas fils ('son'). Among his affairs, in 1866, Dumas had one with Adah Isaacs Menken, an American actress then less than half his age and at the height of her career.

The English playwright Watts Phillips, who knew Dumas in his later life, described him as "the most generous, large-hearted being in the world. He also was the most delightfully amusing and egotistical creature on the face of the earth. His tongue was like a windmill – once set in motion, you never knew when he would stop, especially if the theme was himself."

Aruba

Aruba ( ə-ROO-bə; Dutch: [aːˈrubaː]; Papiamento: [aˈruba]) is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and 29 kilometres (18 mi) north of the coast of Venezuela. It measures 32 kilometres (20 mi) long from its northwestern to its southeastern end and 10 kilometres (6 mi) across at its widest point. Together with Bonaire and Curaçao, Aruba forms a group referred to as the ABC islands. Collectively, Aruba and the other Dutch islands in the Caribbean are often called the Dutch Caribbean.

Aruba is one of the four countries that form the Kingdom of the Netherlands, along with the Netherlands, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten; the citizens of these countries are all Dutch nationals. Aruba has no administrative subdivisions, but, for census purposes, is divided into eight regions. Its capital is Oranjestad.

Unlike much of the Caribbean region, Aruba has a dry climate and an arid, cactus-strewn landscape. This climate has helped tourism as visitors to the island can reliably expect warm, sunny weather. It has a land area of 179 km2 (69.1 sq mi) and is densely populated, with a total of 102,484 inhabitants at the 2010 Census. It lies outside Hurricane Alley.

Bostrichoidea

Bostrichoidea is a superfamily of beetles. It is the type superfamily of the infraorder Bostrichiformia.

It includes the following subgroups:

Family Bostrichidae Latreille, 1802 - Horned Powder-post Beetles

Subfamily Bostrichinae Latreille, 1802

Subfamily Dinoderinae Thomson, 1863

Subfamily Dysidinae Lesne, 1921

Subfamily Euderiinae Lesne, 1934

Subfamily Lyctinae Billberg, 1820 - Powder-post Beetles

Subfamily Polycaoninae Lesne, 1896

Subfamily Psoinae Blanchard, 1851

Family Dermestidae Latreille, 1804 - Carpet Beetles

Subfamily Attageninae Laporte, 1840

Subfamily Dermestinae Latreille, 1804

Subfamily Megatominae Leach, 1815

Subfamily Orphilinae LeConte, 1861

Subfamily Thorictinae Agassiz, 1846

Subfamily Trinodinae Casey, 1900

Family Endecatomidae LeConte, 1861

Family Ptinidae Latreille, 1802 (formerly Anobiidae)

Subfamily Alvarenganiellinae Viana and Martínez, 1971

Subfamily Anobiinae Fleming, 1821 - Death-watch Beetles

Subfamily Dorcatominae Thomson, 1859

Subfamily Dryophilinae Gistel, 1848

Subfamily Ernobiinae Pic, 1912

Subfamily Eucradinae LeConte, 1861

Subfamily Mesocoelopodinae Mulsant and Rey, 1864

Subfamily Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 - Spider Beetles

Subfamily Ptininae Latreille, 1802

Subfamily Xyletininae Gistel, 1848

Cerambycinae

Cerambycinae is a subfamily of the longhorn beetle family (Cerambycidae). The subfamily includes over 715 genera, which, in total, consist of some 3,900 species. The subfamily is most widely distributed in the Americas, with 430 species in 130 genera in its neotropical regions. Within the family, the only subfamily of comparable diversity is the Lamiinae.

DuPont

E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, commonly referred to as DuPont (), is an American conglomerate that was founded in July 1802 in Wilmington, Delaware, as a gunpowder mill by French-American chemist and industrialist Éleuthère Irénée du Pont.

In the 20th century, DuPont developed many polymers such as Vespel, neoprene, nylon, Corian, Teflon, Mylar, Kapton, Kevlar, Zemdrain, M5 fiber, Nomex, Tyvek, Sorona, Corfam, and Lycra. DuPont developed Freon (chlorofluorocarbons) for the refrigerant industry, and later other refrigerants. It also developed synthetic pigments and paints including ChromaFlair.

In 2014, DuPont was the world's fourth-largest chemical company based on market capitalization and eighth-largest based on revenue. On August 31, 2017, it merged with the Dow Chemical Company to create DowDuPont, the world's largest chemical company in terms of sales, of which DuPont is now a subsidiary. Its stock price is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.

French Revolutionary Wars

The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted the French Republic against Great Britain, Austria and several other monarchies. They are divided in two periods: the War of the First Coalition (1792–97) and the War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802). Initially confined to Europe, the fighting gradually assumed a global dimension. After a decade of constant warfare and aggressive diplomacy, France had conquered a wide array of territories, from the Italian Peninsula and the Low Countries in Europe to the Louisiana Territory in North America. French success in these conflicts ensured the spread of revolutionary principles over much of Europe.

As early as 1791, the other monarchies of Europe looked with outrage at the revolution and its upheavals; and they considered whether they should intervene, either in support of King Louis XVI, to prevent the spread of revolution, or to take advantage of the chaos in France. Anticipating an attack, France declared war on Prussia and Austria in the spring of 1792 and they responded with a coordinated invasion that was eventually turned back at the Battle of Valmy in September. This victory emboldened the National Convention to abolish the monarchy. A series of victories by the new French armies abruptly ended with defeat at Neerwinden in the spring of 1793. The French suffered additional defeats in the remainder of the year and these difficult times allowed the Jacobins to rise to power and impose the Reign of Terror to unify the nation.

In 1794, the situation improved dramatically for the French as huge victories at Fleurus against the Austrians and at the Black Mountain against the Spanish signaled the start of a new stage in the wars. By 1795, the French had captured the Austrian Netherlands and knocked Spain and Prussia out of the war with the Peace of Basel. A hitherto unknown general named Napoleon Bonaparte began his first campaign in Italy in April 1796. In less than a year, French armies under Napoleon decimated the Habsburg forces and evicted them from the Italian peninsula, winning almost every battle and capturing 150,000 prisoners. With French forces marching towards Vienna, the Austrians sued for peace and agreed to the Treaty of Campo Formio, ending the First Coalition against the Republic.

The War of the Second Coalition began in 1798 with the French invasion of Egypt, headed by Napoleon. The Allies took the opportunity presented by the French effort in the Middle East to regain territories lost from the First Coalition. The war began well for the Allies in Europe, where they gradually pushed the French out of Italy and invaded Switzerland—racking up victories at Magnano, Cassano and Novi along the way. However, their efforts largely unraveled with the French victory at Zurich in September 1799, which caused Russia to drop out of the war. Meanwhile, Napoleon's forces annihilated a series of Egyptian and Ottoman armies at the battles of the Pyramids, Mount Tabor and Abukir. These victories and the conquest of Egypt further enhanced Napoleon's popularity back in France and he returned in triumph in the fall of 1799. However, the Royal Navy had won the Battle of the Nile in 1798, further strengthening British control of the Mediterranean.

Napoleon's arrival from Egypt led to the fall of the Directory in the Coup of 18 Brumaire, with Napoleon installing himself as Consul. Napoleon then reorganized the French army and launched a new assault against the Austrians in Italy during the spring of 1800. This brought a decisive French victory at the Battle of Marengo in June 1800, after which the Austrians withdrew from the peninsula once again. Another crushing French triumph at Hohenlinden in Bavaria forced the Austrians to seek peace for a second time, leading to the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801. With Austria and Russia out of the war, the United Kingdom found itself increasingly isolated and agreed to the Treaty of Amiens with Napoleon's government in 1802, concluding the Revolutionary Wars. However, the lingering tensions proved too difficult to contain and the Napoleonic Wars began a few years later with the formation of the Third Coalition, continuing the series of Coalition Wars.

List of United Kingdom by-elections (1801–06)

This is a list of parliamentary by-elections in the United Kingdom held between 1801 and 1806, with the names of the previous incumbent and the victor in the by-election.

In the absence of a comprehensive and reliable source for party and factional alignments in this period, no attempt is made to define them in this article. The House of Commons: 1790-1820 provides some guidance to the complex and shifting political relationships, but it is significant that the compilers of that work make no attempt to produce a definitive list of each member's allegiances.

List of subgroups of the order Coleoptera

This article classifies the subgroups of the order Coleoptera (beetles) down to the level of families, following the system in "Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)", Bouchard, et. al. (2011), with common names from bugguide.net.

Order Coleoptera

Suborder †Protocoleoptera

Superfamily †Tshekardocoleoidea Rohdendorf, 1944

Family †Tshekardocoleidae Rohdendorf, 1944

Family †Labradorocoleidae Ponomarenko, 1969

Family †Oborocoleidae Kukalová, 1969

Superfamily †Permocupedoidea Martynov, 1933

Family †Permocupedidae Martynov, 1933

Family †Taldycupedidae Rohdendorf, 1961

Superfamily †Permosynoidea Tillyard, 1924

Family †Ademosynidae Ponomarenko, 1968

Family †Permosynidae Tillyard, 1924

Suborder Archostemata

Family Crowsoniellidae Iablokoff-Khnzorian, 1983

Family Cupedidae Laporte, 1836

Family Micromalthidae Barber, 1913 (telephone-pole beetle)

Family Ommatidae Sharp and Muir, 1912

Family Jurodidae Ponomarenko, 1985

Family †Triadocupedidae Ponomarenko, 1966

Family †Magnocoleidae Hong, 1998

Family †Obrieniidae Zherikhin and Gratshev, 1994

Suborder Myxophaga

Superfamily †Asiocoleoidea Rohdendorf, 1961

Family †Asiocoleidae Rohdendorf, 1961

Family †Tricoleidae Ponomarenko, 1969

Superfamily †Rhombocoleoidea Rohdendorf, 1961

Family †Rhombocoleidae Rohdendorf, 1961

Superfamily †Schizophoroidea Ponomarenko, 1968

Family †Schizophoridae Ponomarenko, 1968

Family †Catiniidae Ponomarenko, 1968

Family †Schizocoleidae Rohdendorf, 1961

Superfamily Lepiceroidea Hinton, 1936 (1882)

Family Lepiceridae Hinton, 1936 (1882)

Superfamily Sphaeriusoidea Erichson, 1845

Family Torridincolidae Steffan, 1964

Family Hydroscaphidae LeConte, 1874

Family Sphaeriusidae Erichson, 1845

Suborder Adephaga

Family †Tritarsidae Hong, 2002

Family Gyrinidae Latreille, 1810 (whirligig beetles)

Family Trachypachidae Thomson, 1857 (false ground beetles)

Family Rhysodidae Laporte, 1840

Family Carabidae Latreille, 1802 (ground beetles)

Family Haliplidae Aubé, 1836 (crawling water beetles)

Family †Triaplidae Ponomarenko, 1977

Family †Colymbotethidae Ponomarenko, 1994

Family †Parahygrobiidae Ponomarenko, 1977

Family †Coptoclavidae Ponomarenko, 1961

Family †Liadytidae Ponomarenko, 1977

Family Meruidae Spangler and Steiner, 2005

Family Noteridae Thomson, 1860 (burrowing water beetles)

Family Amphizoidae LeConte, 1853

Family Aspidytidae Ribera, Beutel, Balke and Vogler, 2002

Family Hygrobiidae Régimbart, 1879 (1837)

Family Dytiscidae Leach, 1815 (predaceous diving beetles)

Suborder Polyphaga

Series Staphyliniformia

Superfamily Hydrophiloidea Latreille, 1802

Family Hydrophilidae Latreille, 1802 (water scavenger beetles)

Family Sphaeritidae Shuckard, 1839

Family Synteliidae Lewis, 1882

Family Histeridae Gyllenhal, 1808

Superfamily Staphylinoidea Latreille, 1802

Family Hydraenidae Mulsant, 1844

Family Ptiliidae Erichson, 1845

Family Agyrtidae Thomson, 1859

Family Leiodidae Fleming, 1821

Family Silphidae Latreille, 1806

Family Staphylinidae Latreille, 1802 (rove beetles)

Series Scarabaeiformia

Superfamily Scarabaeoidea Latreille, 1802

Family Pleocomidae LeConte, 1861 (rain beetles)

Family Geotrupidae Latreille, 1802 (earth-boring scarab beetles)

Family Belohinidae Paulian, 1959

Family Passalidae Leach, 1815 (bess beetles)

Family Trogidae MacLeay, 1819 (hide beetles)

Family Glaresidae Kolbe, 1905

Family Diphyllostomatidae Holloway, 1972

Family Lucanidae Latreille, 1804 (stag beetles)

Family Ochodaeidae Mulsant and Rey, 1871 (sand-loving scarab beetles)

Family Hybosoridae Erichson, 1847

Family Glaphyridae MacLeay, 1819 (bumble bee scarab beetles)

Family Scarabaeidae Latreille, 1802 (scarab beetles)

Family †Coprinisphaeridae Genise, 2004

Family †Pallichnidae Genise, 2004

Series Elateriformia

Superfamily Scirtoidea Fleming, 1821

Family Decliniidae Nikitsky, Lawrence, Kirejtshuk and Gratshev, 1994

Family Eucinetidae Lacordaire, 1857

Family Clambidae Fischer von Waldheim, 1821

Family Scirtidae Fleming, 1821

Family †Elodophthalmidae Kirejtshuk and Azar, 2008

Family †Mesocinetidae Kirejtshuk and Ponomarenko, 2010

Superfamily Dascilloidea Guérin-Méneville, 1843 (1834)

Family Dascillidae Guérin-Méneville, 1843 (1834)

Family Rhipiceridae Latreille, 1834

Superfamily Buprestoidea Leach, 1815

Family Schizopodidae LeConte, 1859

Family Buprestidae Leach, 1815

Superfamily Byrrhoidea Latreille, 1804

Family Byrrhidae Latreille, 1804

Family Elmidae Curtis, 1830

Family Dryopidae Billberg, 1820 (1817)

Family Lutrochidae Kasap and Crowson, 1975

Family Limnichidae Erichson, 1846

Family Heteroceridae MacLeay, 1825

Family Psephenidae Lacordaire, 1854

Family Cneoglossidae Champion, 1897

Family Ptilodactylidae Laporte, 1836

Family Podabrocephalidae Pic, 1930

Family Chelonariidae Blanchard, 1845

Family Eulichadidae Crowson, 1973

Family Callirhipidae Emden, 1924

Superfamily Elateroidea Leach, 1815

Family Rhinorhipidae Lawrence, 1988

Family Artematopodidae Lacordaire, 1857

Family Brachypsectridae LeConte and Horn, 1883

Family Cerophytidae Latreille, 1834

Family Eucnemidae Eschscholtz, 1829

Family Throscidae Laporte, 1840 nomen protectum

Family †Praelateriidae Dolin, 1973

Family Elateridae Leach, 1815 (click beetles)

Family Plastoceridae Crowson, 1972

Family Drilidae Blanchard, 1845

Family Omalisidae Lacordaire, 1857

Family †Berendtimiridae Winkler, 1987

Family Lycidae Laporte, 1836

Family Telegeusidae Leng, 1920

Family Phengodidae LeConte, 1861

Family Rhagophthalmidae Olivier, 1907

Family Lampyridae Rafinesque, 1815 (fireflies)

Family Omethidae LeConte, 1861

Family Cantharidae Imhoff, 1856 (1815) (soldier beetles)

Series Derodontiformia

Superfamily Derodontoidea LeConte, 1861

Family Derodontidae LeConte, 1861

Family Nosodendridae Erichson, 1846

Family Jacobsoniidae Heller, 1926

Series Bostrichiformia

Superfamily Bostrichoidea Latreille, 1802

Family Dermestidae Latreille, 1804 (carpet beetles)

Family Endecatomidae LeConte, 1861

Family Bostrichidae Latreille, 1802

Family Ptinidae Latreille, 1802

Series Cucujiformia

Superfamily Lymexyloidea Fleming, 1821

Family Lymexylidae Fleming, 1821

Superfamily Cleroidea Latreille, 1802

Family Phloiophilidae Kiesenwetter, 1863

Family Trogossitidae Latreille, 1802

Family Chaetosomatidae Crowson, 1952

Family Metaxinidae Kolibáč, 2004

Family Thanerocleridae Chapin, 1924

Family Cleridae Latreille, 1802 (checkered beetles)

Family Acanthocnemidae Crowson, 1964

Family Phycosecidae Crowson, 1952

Family Prionoceridae Lacordaire, 1857

Family Mauroniscidae Majer, 1995

Family Melyridae Leach, 1815 (soft-winged flower beetles)

Superfamily Cucujoidea Latreille, 1802

Family †Parandrexidae Kirejtshuk, 1994

Family †Sinisilvanidae Hong, 2002

Family Boganiidae Sen Gupta and Crowson, 1966

Family Byturidae Gistel, 1848

Family Helotidae Chapuis, 1876

Family Protocucujidae Crowson, 1954

Family Sphindidae Jacquelin du Val, 1860

Family Biphyllidae LeConte, 1861

Family Erotylidae Latreille, 1802

Family Monotomidae Laporte, 1840

Family Hobartiidae Sen Gupta and Crowson, 1966

Family Cryptophagidae Kirby, 1826

Family Agapythidae Sen Gupta and Crowson, 1969

Family Priasilphidae Crowson, 1973

Family Phloeostichidae Reitter, 1911

Family Silvanidae Kirby, 1837

Family Cucujidae Latreille, 1802

Family Myraboliidae Lawrence and Britton, 1991

Family Cavognathidae Sen Gupta and Crowson, 1966

Family Lamingtoniidae Sen Gupta and Crowson, 1969

Family Passandridae Blanchard, 1845

Family Phalacridae Leach, 1815

Family Propalticidae Crowson, 1952

Family Laemophloeidae Ganglbauer, 1899

Family Tasmosalpingidae Lawrence and Britton, 1991

Family Cyclaxyridae Gimmel, Leschen and Ślipiński, 2009

Family Kateretidae Kirby, 1837

Family Nitidulidae Latreille, 1802

Family Smicripidae Horn, 1880

Family Bothrideridae Erichson, 1845

Family Cerylonidae Billberg, 1820

Family Alexiidae Imhoff, 1856

Family Discolomatidae Horn, 1878

Family Endomychidae Leach, 1815

Family Coccinellidae Latreille, 1807 (ladybirds or lady beetles)

Family Corylophidae LeConte, 1852

Family Akalyptoischiidae Lord, Hartley, Lawrence, McHugh and Miller, 2010

Family Latridiidae Erichson, 1842

Superfamily Tenebrionoidea Latreille, 1802

Family Mycetophagidae Leach, 1815

Family Archeocrypticidae Kaszab, 1964

Family Pterogeniidae Crowson, 1953

Family Ciidae Leach, 1819

Family Tetratomidae Billberg, 1820

Family Melandryidae Leach, 1815

Family Mordellidae Latreille, 1802 (tumbling flower beetles)

Family Ripiphoridae Gemminger, 1870 (1855)

Family Zopheridae Solier, 1834

Family Ulodidae Pascoe, 1869

Family Promecheilidae Lacordaire, 1859

Family Chalcodryidae Watt, 1974

Family Trachelostenidae Lacordaire, 1859

Family Tenebrionidae Latreille, 1802 (darkling beetles)

Family Prostomidae Thomson, 1859

Family Synchroidae Lacordaire, 1859

Family Stenotrachelidae Thomson, 1859

Family Oedemeridae Latreille, 1810

Family Meloidae Gyllenhal, 1810 (blister beetles)

Family Mycteridae Oken, 1843 (palm beetles and flower beetles)

Family Boridae Thomson, 1859

Family Trictenotomidae Blanchard, 1845

Family Pythidae Solier, 1834

Family Pyrochroidae Latreille, 1806

Family Salpingidae Leach, 1815

Family Anthicidae Latreille, 1819

Family Aderidae Csiki, 1909

Family Scraptiidae Gistel, 1848

Superfamily Chrysomeloidea Latreille, 1802

Family Oxypeltidae Lacordaire, 1868

Family Vesperidae Mulsant, 1839

Family Disteniidae Thomson, 1861

Family Cerambycidae Latreille, 1802 (longhorn beetles)

Family Megalopodidae Latreille, 1802

Family Orsodacnidae Thomson, 1859

Family Chrysomelidae Latreille, 1802 (leaf beetles)

Superfamily Curculionoidea Latreille, 1802

Family Nemonychidae Bedel, 1882

Family Anthribidae Billberg, 1820

Family †Ulyanidae Zherikhin, 1993

Family Belidae Schönherr, 1826

Family Caridae Thompson, 1992

Family Attelabidae Billberg, 1820

Family Brentidae Billberg, 1820

Family Dryophthoridae Schönherr, 1825

Family Brachyceridae Billberg, 1820

Family Curculionidae Latreille, 1802 (snout beetles, weevils, and bark beetles)

Royal Military College, Sandhurst

The Royal Military College (RMC), founded in 1801 and established in 1802 at Great Marlow and High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, England, but moved in October 1812 to Sandhurst, Berkshire, was a British Army military academy for training infantry and cavalry officers of the British and Indian Armies.

The RMC was reorganised at the outbreak of the Second World War, but some of its units remained operational at Sandhurst and Aldershot. In 1947, the Royal Military College was merged with the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, to form the present-day all-purpose Royal Military Academy Sandhurst.

Treaty of Amiens

The Treaty of Amiens (French: la paix d'Amiens) temporarily ended hostilities between France and the United Kingdom during the French Revolutionary Wars. It was signed in the city of Amiens on 25 March 1802 (4 Germinal X in the French Revolutionary calendar) by Joseph Bonaparte and Marquess Cornwallis as a "Definitive Treaty of Peace." The consequent peace lasted only one year (18 May 1803) and was the only period of general peace in Europe between 1793 and 1814.

Under the treaty, Britain recognised the French Republic. Together with the Treaty of Lunéville (1801), the Treaty of Amiens marked the end of the Second Coalition, which had waged war against Revolutionary France since 1798.

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