1800s (decade)

The 1800s decade lasted from January 1, 1800, to December 31, 1809. The term "eighteen-hundreds" can also mean the years between 1800 and 1899 (the years beginning with "18"), and is almost synonymous with the 19th century (1801–1900). This article refers to the decade comprising 1800–1809.

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Overview

Colonisation 1800
Colonial empires in the world in 1800

Politics and wars

Jacques-Louis David - The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries - Google Art Project 2
This decade saw the rise of Napoleon I, who led the French army to conquer a substantial portion of Europe during this time.

Napoleonic Wars

The European political landscape was dominated by the Napoleonic Wars, a series of conflicts declared against Napoleon's First French Empire and changing sets of European allies by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815. As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionized European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly due to the application of modern mass conscription. French power rose quickly, conquering most of Europe by the end of the decade. The decade brought hard times.

On 9 November 1799 (18 Brumaire), Napoleon overthrew the French government, replacing it with the Consulate, in which he was First Consul. On 2 December 1804, after a failed assassination plot, he crowned himself Emperor. In 1805, Napoleon planned to invade Britain, but a renewed British alliance with Russia and Austria (Third Coalition), forced him to turn his attention towards the continent, while at the same time failure to lure the superior British fleet away from the English Channel, ending in a decisive French defeat at the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October put an end to hopes of an invasion of Britain. On 2 December 1805, Napoleon defeated a numerically superior Austro-Russian army at Austerlitz, forcing Austria's withdrawal from the coalition (see Treaty of Pressburg) and dissolving the Holy Roman Empire. In 1806, a Fourth Coalition was set up, on 14 October Napoleon defeated the Prussians at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, marched through Germany and defeated the Russians on 14 June 1807 at Friedland. The Treaties of Tilsit divided Europe between France and Russia and created the Duchy of Warsaw.

The War of the Fifth Coalition, fought in the year 1809, pitted a coalition of the Austrian Empire and the United Kingdom against the French Empire and Bavaria. Major engagements between France and Austria, the main participants, unfolded over much of Central Europe from April to July, with very high casualty rates. Britain, already involved on the European continent in the ongoing Peninsular War, sent another expedition, the Walcheren Campaign, to the Netherlands in order to relieve the Austrians, although this effort had little impact on the outcome of the conflict. After much campaigning in Bavaria and across the Danube valley, the war ended favorably for the French after the bloody struggle at Wagram in early July, resulting in the Treaty of Schönbrunn . Although fighting in the Iberian Peninsula continued, the War of the Fifth Coalition was the last major conflict on the European continent until the French invasion of Russia in 1812 sparked the Sixth Coalition.

Other wars and political upheavals

Slavery

This decade marked the height of the Atlantic slave trade to the United States. During the period of 1798 and 1808, approximately 200,000 slaves were imported from Africa to the United States.[1] Still, the abolitionist movement began to gain ground in this period. Britain enacted the Slave Trade Act 1807, which barred the trade of slaves in Great Britain (though slavery was still legal). The United States enacted a similar ban in 1808.[2] However, Napoleon revoked the French Empire's ban on slavery with the Law of 20 May 1802.

Prominent political events

World leaders

Colonies

Science and technology

Electricity

VoltaBattery
A voltaic pile on display in the Tempio Voltiano.

This decade contained some of the earliest experiments in electrochemistry. In 1800 Alessandro Volta constructed a voltaic pile, the first device to produce a large electric current, later known as the electric battery. Napoleon, informed of his works, summoned him in 1801 for a command performance of his experiments. He received many medals and decorations, including the Légion d'honneur.

Also in 1800, William Nicholson and Johann Wilhelm Ritter succeeded in decomposing water into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis. Soon thereafter Ritter discovered the process of electroplating. He also observed that the amount of metal deposited and the amount of oxygen produced during an electrolytic process depended on the distance between the electrodes. By 1801 Ritter observed thermoelectric currents and anticipated the discovery of thermoelectricity by Thomas Johann Seebeck.

In 1806, Humphry Davy decomposed potash and soda, employing a voltaic pile of approximately 250 cells, showing that these substances were respectively the oxides of potassium and sodium, which metals previously had been unknown. Employing a battery of 2,000 elements of a voltaic pile and charcoal enclosed in a vacuum, Davy gave the first public demonstration of the electric arc lamp in 1809.[3]

Transportation

Steam transportation started to become viable during this decade. In 1803, William Symington's Charlotte Dundas, generally considered to be the world's first practical steamboat, made her first voyage. Later, in 1807, Robert Fulton's North River Steamboat, the world's first commercially successful steamboat, made her maiden voyage.

In 1801, Richard Trevithick ran a full-sized steam 'road locomotive' on the road in Camborne, England,[4] followed by his 10-seater London Steam Carriage in 1803.[4] In 1804, Trevithick built a prototype steam-powered railway locomotive.

The first railway began operating during this time. The Surrey Iron Railway in Great Britain was established by the British Parliament in 1801,[5] and began operation on 26 July 1803. The railway relied on horse-drawn haulage than powered locomotives.

In 1807, Isaac de Rivas made a hydrogen gas-powered vehicle, the first vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine.[6] James Watt creates first steam engine based on Newcomen's design.

Astronomy

Other advances

Culture

Beethoven 3
Ludwig van Beethoven in 1804

Music

Fashion

Dancing-Dress-1809
High-waisted dancing dress from 1809

Fashion in this period in European and European-influenced countries saw the final triumph of undress or informal styles over the brocades, lace, periwig, and powder of the earlier eighteenth century.

Fashionable women's clothing styles were based on the Empire silhouette — dresses were closely fitted to the torso just under the bust, falling loosely below. Inspired by neoclassical tastes, the short-waisted gowns sported soft, flowing skirts and were often made of white, almost transparent muslin, which was easily washed and draped loosely like the garments on Greek and Roman statues. No respectable woman would leave the house without a hat or bonnet. The antique head-dress, or Queen Mary coif, Chinese hat, Oriental inspired turban, and Highland helmet were popular. As for bonnets, their crowns and brims were adorned with increasingly elaborate ornamentations, such as feathers and ribbons.[8] In fact, ladies of the day embellished their hats frequently, replacing old decorations with new trims or feathers.

1800–1809 was the height of dandyism in men's fashion in Europe, following the example of Beau Brummell. Older men, military officers, and those in conservative professions such as lawyers and physicians retained their wigs and powder into this period, but younger men of fashion wore their hair in short curls, often with long sideburns. This period saw the final abandonment of lace, embroidery, and other embellishment from serious men's clothing outside of formalized court dress. Instead, cut and tailoring became much more important as an indicator of quality.[9]

Other

Wikisource reference work

  • Adams, Henry (1889–90). History of the United States During the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson . New York: Charles Scribner's Sons – via Wikisource. History that in part contains six chapters of narration remarking upon significant individuals of that era with added wikilinks linking back to their Wikipedia articles

References

  1. ^ "U.S.-Africa Chronology". Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  2. ^ Foner, Eric. "Forgotten step towards freedom," New York Times. 30 December 2007,
  3. ^ Maver, William Jr.: "Electricity, its History and Progress", The Encyclopedia Americana; a library of universal knowledge, vol. X, pp. 172ff. (1918). New York: Encyclopedia Americana Corp.
  4. ^ a b C.D. Buchanan (1958). "1". Mixed Blessing: The Motor in Britain. Leonard Hill.
  5. ^ Introduction to Rail 150: The Stockton and Darlington Railway and what followed by Jack Simmons, publ. 1975 by Methuen
  6. ^ Eckermann, Erik (2001). World History of the Automobile. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers. ISBN 0-7680-0800-X.
  7. ^ Hoskin, Michael (1999). The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy. Cambridge University press. pp. 160–161. ISBN 978-0-521-57600-0.
  8. ^ "Regency Fashion and Costume". Archived from the original on 2004-03-06. Retrieved 2010-02-24.
  9. ^ Payne, Blanche: History of Costume from the Ancient Egyptians to the Twentieth Century, pp. 452–455, Harper & Row, 1965. No ISBN for this edition; ASIN B0006BMNFS
00s

00s may refer to:

Hundreds (the third column of magnitude in the decimal system)

The century from 0-99 almost aligned with the 1st century.

00S, McKenzie Bridge State Airport in Oregon

Any century or the term century in general.

1800

1800 (MDCCC)

was an exceptional common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1800th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 800th year of the 2nd millennium, the 100th and last year of the 18th century, and the 1st year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1800, the Gregorian calendar was

11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. As of March 1 (O.S. February 18), when the Julian calendar acknowledged a leap day and the Gregorian calendar did not, the Julian calendar fell one day further behind, bringing the difference to 12 days until 1899.

1800 (disambiguation)

1800 may refer to:

1800, events in the year 1800

19th century, 1801–1900

1800s decade, 1800-1809

UTC+08:00, timezoneTelecommunicationsGSM-1800

1-800; see Toll-free telephone number

1800 ReverseOther

1800 Club, skyscraper in Miami

1800 Tequila, alcoholic drink

Arc 1800, ski resort area, France

AMD Athlon XP 1800+. microprocessor

BMW 1800, car

EMC 1800 hp B-B

Morris 1800, car

Nokia 1800, phone

NS Class 1800, electric locomotive

Pratt & Whitney X-1800

Telmac 1800, microcomputer

Tobu 1800 series train in Japan

Volvo P1800, car

1800s

1800s may refer to:

1800s (decade), the period from 1800 to 1809, almost synonymous with the 181st decade (1801-1810)

the century from 1800 to 1899, almost synonymous with the 19th century (1801–1900)

1801

1801 (MDCCCI)

was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1801st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 801st year of the 2nd millennium, the 1st year of the 19th century, and the 2nd year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1801, the Gregorian calendar was

12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1802

1802 (MDCCCII)

was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1802nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 802nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 2nd year of the 19th century, and the 3rd year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1802, the Gregorian calendar was

12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1803

1803 (MDCCCIII)

was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1803rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 803rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 3rd year of the 19th century, and the 4th year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1803, the Gregorian calendar was

12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1804

1804 (MDCCCIV)

was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1804th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 804th year of the 2nd millennium, the 4th year of the 19th century, and the 5th year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1804, the Gregorian calendar was

12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1805

1805 (MDCCCV)

was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1805th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 805th year of the 2nd millennium, the 5th year of the 19th century, and the 6th year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1805, the Gregorian calendar was

12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. After thirteen years the First French Empire abolished the French Republican Calendar in favour of the Gregorian calendar.

1806

1806 (MDCCCVI)

was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1806th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 806th year of the 2nd millennium, the 6th year of the 19th century, and the 7th year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1806, the Gregorian calendar was

12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1807

1807 (MDCCCVII)

was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1807th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 807th year of the 2nd millennium, the 7th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1807, the Gregorian calendar was

12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1808

1808 (MDCCCVIII)

was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1808th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 808th year of the 2nd millennium, the 8th year of the 19th century, and the 9th year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1808, the Gregorian calendar was

12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1809

1809 (MDCCCIX)

was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1809th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 809th year of the 2nd millennium, the 9th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1809, the Gregorian calendar was

12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Aleutian World War II National Historic Area

The Aleutian World War II National Historic Area is a U.S. National Historic Site on Amaknak Island in the Aleutian Island Chain of Alaska. It offers visitors a glimpse of both natural and cultural history, and traces the historic footprints of the U.S. Army Base, Fort Schwatka, located at the Ulakta Head on Mount Ballyhoo. The fort, 800 miles west of Anchorage, the nearest large urban center, was one of four coastal defense posts built to protect Dutch Harbor (crucial back door to the United States) during World War II; Fort Schwatka is also the highest coastal battery ever constructed in the United States. Engineers designed the concrete observation posts and command stations to withstand earthquakes and 100 mph winds. Although today, many of the bunkers and wooden structures of Fort Schwatka have collapsed, the gun mounts and lookouts are among the most intact in the country.

In 1996, the United States Congress designated this a National Historic Area as a way of educating future generations both about the history of the Aleut people, and the role the Aleutian Islands played in the defense of the United States in World War II.

Cordwood construction

Cordwood construction (also called "cordwood masonry", "cordwood building", "stackwall construction", "stovewood construction" or "stackwood construction") is a term used for a natural building method in which short logs are piled crosswise to build a wall, using mortar or cob to permanently secure them. This technique can use local materials at minimal cost.

Fort of Santa Catalina, Lima

The Fort of Santa Catalina (Spanish: Fuerte de Santa Catalina) in Lima, Peru, is a Neoclassical style building that partly survives and it is in a good condition, and it is one of the few examples representative of the military colonial architecture that still exists in Peru. It dates to the 1800s decade and was built on a land called "Huerta de los Llanos" and "Huerta Perdida" or that of the "Cuero", which belonged to the Monasteries of Santa Catalina de Siena and de la Concepción respectively. The property is registered as property of the Peruvian State in the Margesí of National Heritages: Asiento 12, Foja 37, Volume I of the Book of Properties of Lima having, at present, a total area of 25,250 square meters. The Liman traditionalist Ricardo Palma, in one of his tradiciones peruanas, affirms that during the Viceroy Gabriel de Avilés's government the factory of the Barracks of Santa Catalina was started for a artillery barracks, under the direction of the then colonel, and later Viceroy, Don Joaquín de la Pezuela.

Humoresque

Humoresque (or Humoreske) is a genre of Romantic music characterized by pieces with fanciful humor in the sense of mood rather than wit .

Incroyables and Merveilleuses

The Incroyables (French: [ɛ̃kʁwajabl], "incredibles") and their female counterparts, the Merveilleuses (French: [mɛʁvɛjøz], "marvelous women", roughly equivalent to "fabulous divas"), were members of a fashionable aristocratic subculture in Paris during the French Directory (1795–1799). Whether as catharsis or in a need to reconnect with other survivors of the Reign of Terror, they greeted the new regime with an outbreak of luxury, decadence, and even silliness. They held hundreds of balls and started fashion trends in clothing and mannerisms that today seem exaggerated, affected, or even effete (decadent, self-indulgent). Some devotees of the trend preferred to be called "incoyable" or "meveilleuse", thus avoiding the letter R, as in "révolution." When this period ended, society took a more sober and modest turn.

Members of the ruling classes were also among the movement's leading figures, and the group heavily influenced the politics, clothing, and arts of the period. They emerged from the muscadins, a term for dandyish anti-Jacobin street gangs in Paris from 1793 who were important politically for some two years; the terms are often used interchangeably, though the muscadins were of a lower social background, being largely middle-class.

Kalø Castle

Kalø Castle (Danish: Kalø Slot) is a ruined castle located in eastern Jutland, in Denmark, 20 km from the city of Aarhus within Mols Bjerge National Park.

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