17th century

The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601, to December 31, 1700, in the Gregorian calendar. It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent (whose impact on the world was increasing) was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, and according to some historians, the General Crisis. The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years' War,[1] the Great Turkish War, and the Dutch-Portuguese War. It was during this period also that European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe.[2]

S%C3%A9bastien Leclerc I, Louis XIV Visiting the Royal Academy of Sciences, 1671
Louis XIV visiting the Académie des sciences in 1671. "It is widely accepted that 'modern science' arose in the Europe of the 17th century, introducing a new understanding of the natural world." —Peter Barrett[3]
GezichtOpNieuwAmsterdam
New Amsterdam as it appeared in 1664. Under British rule it became known as New York City.
Tokugawa Ieyasu2
Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu is the founder of Japan's last shogunate, which lasted well into the 19th century
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Miyamoto Musashi, Self-portrait, samurai, writer and artist, c. 1640
Hendrick Avercamp - A Scene on the Ice - WGA01076
A scene on the ice, Dutch Republic, first half of 17th century
Polska rullen - Livrustkammaren - 55709
Persian Ambassador during his entry into Kraków for the wedding ceremonies of King Sigismund III of Poland in 1605.
Albrecht Wallenstein.jpeg
Catholic general Albrecht von Wallenstein
Jan van der Hoecke - The Battle of N%C3%B6rdlingen, 1634
Battle of Nördlingen (1634). The Catholic Imperial army, bolstered by professional Spanish troops won a great victory in the battle over the combined Protestant armies of Sweden and their German allies
The Nightwatch by Rembrandt
The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642. Oil on canvas; on display at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
1622 massacre jamestown de Bry
The massacre of settlers in 1622. The massacre was instrumental in causing English colonists to view all natives as enemies.
Europe map 1648
Map of Europe in 1648 at the end of the Thirty Years' War
Lasalle au Mississippi
Claiming Louisiana for France
IV Mehmet
Sultan Mehmed IV
Matejko Khmelnytsky with Tugay Bey
Bohdan Khmelnytsky (left) with Tugay Bey (right) at Lviv, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1885
Taniec tatarski
Crimean Tatar soldier fighting with the soldier of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Europe's steppe frontier was in a state of semi-permanent warfare until the 18th century.

In the Islamic world, the Ottoman, Safavid Persian and Mughal empires grew in strength. In India The Marathas dominated the political scene from the middle of the 17th century to the early 19th century as the Maratha Empire founded by Chatrapati Shivajiraje Bhosale. In Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa shogunate at the beginning of the century, beginning the Edo period; the isolationist Sakoku policy began in the 1630s and lasted until the 19th century. In China, the collapsing Ming dynasty was challenged by a series of conquests led by the Manchu warlord Nurhaci, which were consolidated by his son Hong Taiji and finally consummated by his grandson, the Shunzi Emperor, founder of the Qing dynasty.

European politics were dominated by the Kingdom of France of Louis XIV, where royal power was solidified domestically in the civil war of the Fronde. The semi-feudal territorial French nobility was weakened and subjugated to the power of an absolute monarchy through the reinvention of the Palace of Versailles from a hunting lodge to a gilded prison, in which a greatly expanded royal court could be more easily kept under surveillance. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France to be expanded. It was during this century that English monarch became a symbolic figurehead and Parliament was the dominant force in government – a contrast to most of Europe, in particular France.

By the end of the century, Europeans were aware of logarithms, electricity, the telescope and microscope, calculus, universal gravitation, Newton's Laws of Motion, air pressure and calculating machines due to the work of the first scientists of the Scientific Revolution, including Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, René Descartes, Pierre Fermat, Blaise Pascal, Robert Boyle, Christiaan Huygens, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton, and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. It was also a period of development of culture in general (especially theater, music, visual arts and philosophy).

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Timelines:
State leaders:
Decades:
Categories: Births – Deaths
Establishments – Disestablishments

Events

1600s

1610s

Jan Pieterszoon Coen
Jan Pieterszoon Coen (8 January 1587 – 21 September 1629), the founder of Batavia, was an officer of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.

1620s

1630s

1640s

1650s

1660s

AMH-6145-NA View of Canton
View of Canton with merchant ship of the Dutch East India Company, c. 1665

1670s

1680 van der Meulen Louis XIV bei Lobith anagoria
French invasion of the Netherlands, which Louis XIV initiated in 1672, starting the Franco-Dutch War
Atlas Van der Hagen-KW1049B10 050-De belegering van Wenen door de Turken in 1683.jpeg
The Battle of Vienna marked the historic end of the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Europe.

1680s

1690s

Significant people

Anna of Austria by Rubens (1622-1625, Norton Simon Museum)
Anne of Austria, Queen of France

Musicians

Visual artists

Literature

Explorers

Science and philosophy

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Major changes in philosophy and science take place, often characterized as the Scientific revolution.

References

  1. ^ "The Thirty-Years-War". Western New England College. Archived from the original on 1999-10-09. Retrieved 2008-05-24.
  2. ^ "The Seventeenth-Century Decline". The Library of Iberian resources online. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
  3. ^ Peter Barrett (2004), Science and Theology Since Copernicus: The Search for Understanding, p. 14, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 0-567-08969-X
  4. ^ a b c d Ricklefs (1991), page 28
  5. ^ a b c d e Ricklefs (1991), page 29
  6. ^ History of UST UST.edu.ph. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
  7. ^ The Tatar Khanate of Crimea
  8. ^ Miller, George (ed.) (1996). To The Spice Islands and Beyond: Travels in Eastern Indonesia. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. xvi. ISBN 967-65-3099-9.
  9. ^ "Suffolk's history of witch trials". 2009-12-02. Retrieved 2018-02-14.
  10. ^ Alan Macfarlane (1997). The savage wars of peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian trap. Wiley . p. 64. ISBN 0-631-18117-2
  11. ^ Karen J. Cullen (2010). "Famine in Scotland: The 'Ill Years' of the 1690s". Edinburgh University Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-7486-3887-3
  12. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 63

Further reading

  • Chang, Chun-shu, and Shelley Hsueh-lun Chang. Crisis and Transformation in Seventeenth-Century China" (1998).
  • Reid, A. J. S. Trade and State Power in 16th & 17th Century Southeast Asia (1977).
  • Spence, J. D. The Death of Woman Wang: Rural Life in China in the 17th Century (1978).

Focus on Europe

  • Clark, George. The Seventeenth Century (2nd ed. 1945).
  • Hampshire, Stuart. The Age of Reason the 17th Century Philosophers, Selected, with Introduction and Interpretive Commentary (1961).
  • Lewitter, Lucian Ryszard. "Poland, the Ukraine and Russia in the 17th Century." The Slavonic and East European Review (1948): 157–171. in JSTOR
  • Ogg, David. Europe in the Seventeenth Century (6th ed. 1965).
  • Rowbotham, Sheila. Hidden from history: Rediscovering women in history from the 17th century to the present (1976).
  • Trevor-Roper, Hugh R. "The general crisis of the 17th century." Past & Present 16 (1959): 31–64.

External links

  • Vistorica: Timelines of 17th century events, science, culture and persons

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