17th Airborne Division (United States)

The 17th Airborne Division was an airborne infantry division of the United States Army during World War II, commanded by Major General William M. Miley.

It was officially activated as an airborne division in April 1943 but was not immediately sent to a combat theater, remaining in the United States to complete its training. During this training process, the division took part in several training exercises, including the Knollwood Maneuver, in which it played a vital part in ensuring that the airborne division remained as a military formation in the U.S. Army. As such it did not take part in the first two large-scale airborne operations conducted by the Allies, Operation Husky and Operation Neptune, transferring to Britain only after the end of Operation Overlord.

When the division arrived in Britain, it came under the command of Maj. Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway's XVIII Airborne Corps, a part of the Maj. Gen. Lewis H. Brereton's First Allied Airborne Army, but was not chosen to participate in Operation Market Garden, the airborne landings in the Netherlands, as Allied planners believed it had arrived too late and could not be "trained up" in time for the operation. However, after the end of Operation Market Garden the division was shipped to France and then Belgium to fight in the Ardennes during the Battle of the Bulge. The 17th gained its first Medal of Honor during its time fighting in the Ardennes, and was then withdrawn to Luxembourg to prepare for an assault over the River Rhine. In March 1945, the division participated in its first, and only, airborne operation, dropping alongside the British 6th Airborne Division as a part of Operation Varsity, where it gained three more Medals of Honor. The division then advanced through Northern Germany until the end of World War II, when it briefly undertook occupation duties in Germany before shipping back to the United States. There, it was officially inactivated in September 1945, although it was briefly reactivated as a training division between 1948 and 1949.

17th Airborne Division
USA - 17 ABN DIV
17th Airborne Division shoulder sleeve insignia
Active15 April 1943 – 16 September 1945
3 July 1948 – 1949
Country United States
Branch United States Army
TypeAirborne
SizeDivision
Nickname(s)"Golden Talons"
Motto(s)Thunder From Heaven
EngagementsWorld War II
Commanders
Notable
commanders
William M. Miley
Insignia
The Parachute Badge: Worn by U.S. Army paratroopers
US Army Airborne basic parachutist badge
The Glider Badge: Worn by U.S. Army airborne soldiers who rode gliders into combat
GliderInfantryBadge

Formation

The German Armed Forces pioneered the use of large-scale airborne formations, first during the invasion of Norway and Denmark and later that year during the assaults on the Netherlands and Belgium in 1940 and later in the Battle of Crete in 1941.[1] The Allied governments were aware of the success of these operations (but not of the heavy German casualties incurred, particularly during the assault on the Netherlands and the invasion of Crete) and decided to form their own airborne formations.[2] This decision would eventually lead to the creation of five American and two British airborne divisions, as well as many smaller units.[3][4] The 17th Airborne Division was activated on 15 April 1943 at Camp Mackall in North Carolina, under the command of the newly promoted Major General William Miley. The division was originally composed of the 513th Parachute Infantry Regiment, activated on 11 January 1943 at Fort Benning, the 193rd Glider Infantry Regiment, and the 194th Glider Infantry Regiment.[5] The official dedication ceremony for the unit took place on 1 May 1943, with thousands of civilian and military spectators, including Major General Eldridge G. Chapman, overall commander of Airborne Command and of all American airborne forces during World War II.[6]

Image-William Miley
William Miley, seen here as a brigadier general, commanded the 17th Airborne Division for the entirety of its activation.

Once activated, the division remained in the United States for training and exercises. As the division, like all airborne units, was intended to be an elite formation, the training regime was extremely arduous.[7] There were 250 feet (76 m) and 34 feet (10 m) towers built from which prospective airborne troops would jump off of to simulate landing by parachute, lengthy forced marches and practice jumps from transport aircraft; to pause in the doorway of an aircraft during a practice jump resulted in an automatic failure for the candidate. The resultant failure rate was accordingly high, but there was never a shortage of candidates, especially for the American divisions, as the rate of pay was much higher than that of an ordinary infantryman.[7] As the division trained, a debate developed in the U.S. Army over whether the best use of airborne forces was en masse or as small compact units. On 9 July 1943, the first large-scale Allied airborne operation–the Allied invasion of Sicily (Operation Husky)–was carried out by elements of the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division and the British 1st Airborne Division.[8] The Commanding General (CG) of the U.S. 11th Airborne Division, Major General Joseph May Swing, had been temporarily assigned to act as airborne advisor to General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Supreme Allied Commander in the Mediterranean, for the invasion of Sicily, and had observed the airborne assault, which went badly. The U.S. 82nd Airborne Division had been deployed by both parachute and glider and had suffered high casualties, leading to a perception that it had failed to achieve many of its objectives.[9]

Swing Board

General Eisenhower had reviewed the airborne role in Operation Husky, and had concluded that large-scale formations were too difficult to control in combat to be practical.[10] Lieutenant General Lesley J. McNair, commander of Army Ground Forces, had similar misgivings: once an airborne supporter, he had been greatly disappointed by their performance in North Africa and, more recently, Sicily. However, other high-ranking officers believed otherwise, notably the U.S. Army Chief of Staff, George Marshall. He persuaded Eisenhower to set up a review board and to withhold judgement on the effectiveness of divisional-sized airborne forces until a large-scale maneuver could be tried in December.[11] When Swing returned to the United States to resume command of the 11th Airborne Division in mid-September 1943, he had an additional role.[12] McNair ordered him to form a committee–the Swing Board–composed of U.S. Army Air Forces, parachute and glider infantry, and artillery officers to arrange a large-scale maneuver that would effectively decide the fate of the divisional-sized airborne force.[9] As the 11th Airborne Division was in reserve in the United States, and had not yet been earmarked for overseas shipment, the Swing Board chose it as the test formation; it would be opposed by a composite combat team from the 17th Airborne Division with a battalion from the 541st Parachute Infantry Regiment temporarily attached.[13] The maneuver would also provide both divisions with further airborne training, as had occurred several months previously in a large-scale maneuver undertaken by the 82nd and the 101st Airborne Divisions.[14]

Knollwood Maneuver

The objective for the 11th as the attacking force was to capture Knollwood Army Auxiliary Airfield[15] near Fort Bragg in North Carolina, after which the maneuver was named. The defending forces were to try to defend the airport and the surrounding area and repel the airborne assault.[16] The entire operation would be observed by Lieutenant General McNair. His observations and reports to the U.S. War Department, and ultimately General Eisenhower, would do much to decide the success or failure of the exercise.[17] The Knollwood Maneuver took place on the night of 7 December, with the troops of the 11th Airborne Division being delivered to thirteen separate objectives by 200 C-47 Dakota transport aircraft and 234 Waco CG-4A gliders, with eighty-five percent of the airborne troops being delivered to their target without navigational error.[18] The transport aircraft were divided into four groups, each taking off from a different airfield in the Carolinas, with two groups dropping paratroopers and two towing gliders, and between them deployed 4,800 airborne troops in the first wave. These airborne troops then seized the Knollwood Army Auxiliary Airfield from the defending troops and secured the area in which the rest of the division landed, all before daylight.[18] Having secured their initial objectives, the 11th Airborne Division then conducted a coordinated ground attack against a reinforced infantry regiment, as well as several aerial resupply and casualty evacuation missions in coordination with transport aircraft.[18] The exercise was judged to be a great success by those who observed it. McNair reported that the success of the maneuver pleased him, and highlighted the great improvements in airborne training that had occurred in the months between the end of Operation Husky and the Knollwood Maneuver.[19] Due to the success of the units of the 11th Airborne Division during the exercise, the divisional-sized airborne force was deemed to be effective and was allowed by Eisenhower to remain.[19]

World War II

The division also participated in the Second Army maneuvers in the Tennessee Maneuver Area from 6 February 1944.[20] It finished its training on 27 March 1944,[21] and transferred to Camp Forrest on 24 March 1944. The division staged at Camp Myles Standish on 12 August 1944 before departing Boston Port of Embarkation on 20 August 1944.[20] The 17th Airborne Division arrived in the United Kingdom on 26 August.[22]

Once in Britain the division was attached to U.S. XVIII Airborne Corps, under Major General Matthew Ridgway, which commanded all American airborne formations, and which in turn became part of the First Allied Airborne Army when it was formed on 21 August, under the command of Lieutenant General Lewis H. Brereton.[23] Although attached to XVIII Airborne Corps, the division was not chosen to participate in Operation Market Garden, a large-scale airborne operation intended to seize several bridges through the Netherlands to allow the Allied armies to bypass the Rhine river and enter Germany. The 17th was passed over in favour of the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions because it had only recently arrived in the European Theater and was considered to be unprepared logistically as it was still collecting its combat equipment.[24] The division, now with Colonel Edson Raff's 507th Parachute Infantry Regiment under command–a veteran unit which had fought in Normandy under command of the 82nd Airborne Division–remained in England as a theater reserve during Market Garden and its aftermath, as the Allied armies continued their advance towards Germany.

Battle of the Bulge

On 16 December 1944 the Wehrmacht launched an offensive in the Ardennes region of Belgium, breaking through Allied lines and rapidly advancing towards Antwerp.[25] On the afternoon of 17 December, General Eisenhower, the Supreme Allied Commander, decided to commit his theater reserve to the Ardennes in an attempt to halt the German advance; this consisted of the 17th, 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions under the control of XVIII Airborne Corps. The three divisions were to be attached to Courtney Hodges's U.S. First Army and were ordered to concentrate around the town of St Vith.[26] However, while the other two airborne divisions were able to immediately make their way to the Ardennes as they were already stationed in France, bad weather prevented the 17th from flying in from where the division was stationed in Britain for several days. On 23 December the weather cleared and the division was finally flown to France by emergency night flights. It moved to an assembly area near Rheims.[26] On Christmas Day, the division was attached to George Patton's U.S. Third Army and ordered to assume a thirty-mile long defensive position that ran along the Meuse River near Charleville.[27]

By 1 January 1945 the threat to Charleville had eased sufficiently for the division to be transferred to another area of the Ardennes, being transported to an area south-west of Bastogne near the village of Morhet on 3 January; there it relieved the 11th Armored Division which had occupied the village prior to its arrival.[28] On 4 January the division entered combat for the first time when it was ordered alongside the 87th Infantry Division to seize a number of key towns to the west of Bastogne, in order to prevent German forces from encircling the town a second time; it had been relieved by the Third Army on 26 December. With the 87th Infantry Division on its left flank, the division advanced towards German positions with the 194th Glider Infantry Regiment and 513th Parachute Infantry Regiment forming the division's assault element; the 193rd Glider Infantry Regiment and the 507th Parachute Infantry Regiment moved behind these two regiments to deal with expected German armoured counter-attacks against them.[28] During its initial advance the division engaged German forces, including infantry and armour, in an attempt to secure a narrow, high-rimmed road to the north-west of Bastogne; during a battle that lasted three days the division suffered nearly 1,000 casualties attempting to hold what the division's official historian labeled 'Dead Man's Ridge'.[29] It was during the opening stages of this battle that the division earned its first Medal of Honor. Staff Sergeant Isadore S. Jachman of the 513th Parachute Infantry engaged and damaged with a bazooka two German tanks that formed part of an armoured column attacking American positions, forcing the column to retreat but simultaneously being killed by machine gun fire.[30] Between 19 and 26 January, the division broke through German lines and captured several towns before linking up with elements of the British 51st Infantry Division. After it had captured the town of Espeler on 26 January the entire division was withdrawn from the front and transported by truck to Luxembourg, effectively ending its participation in the Ardennes campaign.[30][31]

Operation Varsity

Preparation

After participating in the Battle of the Bulge, the division was moved behind the front-lines as a reserve formation and theater reserve, whilst the Allies continued their advance towards the German interior. However, even as the division received replacements and trained, it had already been selected to take part in a highly ambitious airborne operation code-named Operation Eclipse. This operation, which got to such an advanced stage that plans had been created and divisional commanders briefed, called for the 17th and 82nd Airborne divisions, along with a brigade from the British 6th Airborne Division, to be dropped in daylight in and around Berlin to capture the city.[32] The operation received the support of General Henry H. Arnold, the Chief of the United States Army Air Corps, but planning ended on 28 March, when General Eisenhower sent a message to Joseph Stalin indicating that the Allied armies would not attempt to capture Berlin, thereby making Eclipse obsolete.[32] Eclipse and several other similarly ambitious airborne operations came to nothing, but in February the division finally received word that it would be involved in an Allied airborne operation to cross the River Rhine in support of the Anglo-Canadian 21st Army Group that would take place during March.[33]

466th prep opvarsity
Members of the 466th Parachute Field Artillery Battalion prepare for Operation Varsity.

By March 1945, the Allies had advanced into Germany and had reached the River Rhine. The Rhine was a formidable natural obstacle to the Allied advance,[34] but if breached would allow the Allies to access the North German Plain and ultimately advance on Berlin and other major cities in Northern Germany. Following the 'Broad Front Approach' laid out by General Eisenhower, it was decided to attempt to breach the Rhine in several areas.[35] British Field Marshal Sir Bernard Montgomery, commanding the 21st Army Group, devised a plan to allow the forces under his command to breach the Rhine, which he entitled Operation Plunder, and which was subsequently authorized by Eisenhower. Plunder envisioned the British Second Army, under Lieutenant-General Miles Dempsey and the U.S. Ninth Army under Lieutenant General William Simpson crossing the Rhine at Rees, Wesel, and an area south of the Lippe Canal. To ensure that the operation was a success, Montgomery insisted that an airborne component was inserted into the plans for the operation to support the amphibious assaults that would take place, which was code-named Operation Varsity.[36] Three airborne divisions were initially chosen to take part in Varsity, these being the British 6th Airborne Division, the U.S. 13th Airborne Division and the 17th Airborne Division, all of which were assigned to the U.S. XVIII Airborne Corps.[37]

However, as planning for Operation Varsity began, it soon became obvious that there was a lack of suitable transport aircraft to transport all three airborne divisions.[38] As such the 13th Airborne Division was dropped from the operational plan, primarily because it had no combat experience, whereas the 6th Airborne Division had participated in Operation Tonga, the British airborne landings during Operation Neptune, and the 17th had seen combat in the Ardennes.[38] The plan for the operation was therefore altered to accommodate the two remaining airborne divisions. This would be the first airborne operation the 17th would take part in, and indeed would be its only before it was disbanded. The two airborne divisions would be dropped behind German lines, with their objective to land around Wesel and disrupt enemy defences in order to aid the advance of the British Second Army. To achieve this, both divisions would be dropped near the town of Hamminkeln, and were tasked with a number of objectives; they were to seize the Diersfordter Wald, a forest that overlooked the Rhine and had a road linking several towns together; several bridges over a smaller waterway, the Issel, were to be seized to facilitate the advance; and the town of Hamminkeln was to be captured.[39] Once these objectives were taken, the airborne troops would consolidate their positions and await the arrival of Allied ground forces, defending the territory captured against the German forces known to be in the area.

The 17th Airborne was to land its units in the southern portion of the area chosen for the operation, engaging the German forces that were defending the area, securing the Diersfordterwald Forest which dominated the surrounding area and capturing three bridges that spanned the River Issel.[40] It would then hold the territory it had captured until it linked up units from the British 6th Airborne Division, which would land in the northern section of the operational area, and finally advance alongside 21st Army Group once the Allied ground forces had made contact with the airborne forces. To avoid heavy casualties such as those incurred by the British 1st Airborne Division during Operation Market Garden, both Allied airborne divisions would be dropped only after Allied ground units had secured crossings over the Rhine; the two divisions would also be dropped only a relatively short distance behind German lines, to ensure that reinforcements would be able to link up with them after only a few hours and they would not be isolated.[41]

Battle

Operation Varsity map
Map of the Operation Varsity planned drop zones.

Operation Plunder began at 21:00 on 23 March after a week-long aerial bombardment of Luftwaffe airfields and the German transport system, involving more than ten thousand Allied aircraft.[42] By the early hours of 24 March units of 21st Army Group had crossed the Rhine against heavy German opposition and secured several crossings on the eastern bank of the river.[43] In the first few hours of 24 March, the transport aircraft carrying the two airborne divisions that formed Operation Varsity took off from airbases in England and France and rendezvoused over Brussels, before turning north-east for the Rhine dropping zones. The airlift consisted of 541 transport aircraft containing airborne troops, and a further 1,050 troop-carriers towing 1,350 gliders.[43] The 17th Airborne Division consisted of 9,387 personnel, who were transported in 836 C-47 Dakota transports, 72 C-46 Commando transports, and more than 900 Waco CG-4A gliders.[44] At 10:00 on the morning of the 24th, the first Allied airborne units began to land on German soil on the eastern bank of the Rhine, some thirteen hours after the Allied assault had begun.[43]

The 507th Parachute Infantry Regiment, under the command of Colonel Edson Raff, was the lead assault formation for the 17th Airborne Division, and was consequently the first U.S. airborne unit to land as part of Operation Varsity. The entire regiment was meant to be dropped in drop zone W, a clearing two miles north of Wesel; however, excessive ground haze confused the pilots of the transport aircraft carrying the 507th, and as such when the regiment dropped it split into two halves.[45] Colonel Raff and approximately 690 of his paratroopers landed north-west of the drop zone near the town of Diersfordt, with the rest of the regiment successfully landing in drop zone W.[45] The colonel rallied his separated paratroopers and led them to the drop zone, engaging a battery of German artillery en route, killing or capturing the artillery crews before reuniting with the rest of the regiment.[45] By 14:00 the 507th PIR had secured all of its objectives and cleared the area around Diersfordt, having engaged numerous German troops and destroying a German tank.[46] The actions of the regiment during the initial landing also gained the division its second Medal of Honor, when Private George J. Peters posthumously received the award after charging a German machine gun nest and eliminating it with rifle fire and grenades, allowing his fellow paratroopers to gather their equipment and capture the regiments first objective.[47]

C-47 transport planes release hundreds of paratroops
C-47 transport aircraft drop hundreds of paratroopers as part of Operation Varsity.

The 513th Parachute Infantry Regiment was the second divisional unit to land, and was under the command of Colonel James W. Coutts.[46] En route to the drop zone, the transport aircraft containing the regiment had the misfortune to pass through a belt of German anti-aircraft weapons, losing twenty-two of the C-46 transport aircraft and damaging a further thirty-eight.[48] Just as the 507th had, the 513th also suffered from pilot error due to the ground haze, and as such the regiment actually missed their designated drop zone, and were dropped on one of the landing zones designated for the British 6th Airlanding Brigade.[49] However, despite this inaccuracy the paratroopers swiftly rallied and aided the British glider-borne troops who were landing simultaneously, eliminating several German artillery batteries which were covering the area.[49] Once the German troops in the area had been eliminated, a combined force of American and British airborne troops stormed Hamminkeln and secured that town.[50] By 14:00, Colonel Coutts reported to the Divisional Headquarters that the 513th had secured all of its objectives, having knocked out two tanks and destroyed two complete regiments of artillery during its assault.[50] During its attempts to secure its objectives, the regiment also gained a third Medal of Honor for the division when Private First Class Stuart S. Stryker posthumously received the award after leading a charge against a German machine gun nest, creating a distraction to allow the rest of his platoon to capture the fortified position the machine gun was situated in.[47]

The third component of the 17th Airborne Division to take part in the operation was the 194th Glider Infantry Regiment, under the command of Colonel James Pierce.[51] The regiment landed accurately in landing zone S, but their gliders and the aircraft that towed them took heavy casualties; twelve C-47 transports were lost due to anti-aircraft fire, and a further one hundred and forty were damaged by the same fire.[51] The regiment landed in the midst of a number of German artillery batteries that were engaging Allied ground forces crossing the Rhine, and as such many of the gliders were engaged by German artillery pieces which had their barrels lowered for direct-fire.[51] However, these artillery batteries and their crews were defeated by the glider-borne troops, and the regiment was soon able to report that its objectives had been secured, having destroyed forty-two artillery pieces, ten tanks, two mobile-flak wagons and five self-propelled guns.[51]

Aftermath

Churchill tanks of 6th Guards Tank Brigade carrying paratroopers of the 17th US Airborne Division, Germany, 29 March 1945. BU2737
Churchill tanks of the 6th Guards Tank Brigade carrying American paratroopers of the 17th Airborne Division, Germany, 29 March 1945.

Operation Varsity was a successful large-scale airborne operation. All of the objectives that the airborne troops of the 17th had been tasked with had been captured and held, usually within only a few hours of the operation's beginning. The bridges over the Issel had been successfully captured, although one later had to be destroyed to prevent its capture by counter-attacking German forces. The Diersfordter Forest had been cleared of enemy troops, and the roads along which the Germans might have moved reinforcements against the advance had been cut by airborne troops.[52] By nightfall of the 24th, the British 15th Infantry Division had joined up with elements of the British 6th Airborne Division, and by midnight the first light bridge was across the Rhine. By the 27th, twelve bridges suitable for heavy armour had been installed over the Rhine and the Allies had fourteen divisions on the east bank of the river which had penetrated up to ten miles.[53] The division also gained its fourth Medal of Honor in the days following Operation Varsity, when Technical Sergeant Clinton Hedrick of the 194th Glider Infantry Regiment received the award posthumously after aiding in the capture of Lembeck Castle, which had been turned into a fortified position by the Germans.[54] In terms of casualties, the 17th Airborne Division suffered a total of 1,346 casualties in the space of five days, between 24 and 29 March, when Operation Plunder came to an end.[55] After it had participated in Operation Varsity, the 17th Airborne Division continued to advance through Germany as a part of XVIII Airborne Corps, engaging German forces around Wesel, Essen and Münster. When Germany unconditionally surrendered on 7 May 1945, the division was conducting occupation duties in northern Germany.

Casualties

  • Total battle casualties: 6,745[56]
  • Killed in action: 1,191[56]
  • Wounded in action: 4,904[56]
  • Missing in action: 224[56]
  • Prisoner of war: 426[56]

Postwar and inactivation

The 17th Airborne Division was relieved of occupation duty on 14 June by British troops, and the division was split up and its component units attached to other airborne divisions, either to the 82nd Airborne Division in Berlin or to the 13th Airborne Division which was preparing to participate in the invasion of Japan.[57] When Japan surrendered, all of the division's units returned to their parent formation and the division moved to Camp Myles Standish in Taunton, Massachusetts, being officially inactivated on 16 September 1945. The formation was reactivated at Camp Pickett, VA, on 6 July 1948 as a training division, but on 19 June 1949 it was permanently inactivated.[57]

Order of battle

Units of the 17th Airborne Division during World War II included:

  • Division Headquarters
  • 193rd Glider Infantry Regiment (disbanded 1 March 1945)
  • 194th Glider Infantry Regiment
  • 507th Parachute Infantry Regiment (attached 27 August 1944 to 1 March 1945, thereafter assigned)
  • 513th Parachute Infantry Regiment (replaced 517th Parachute Infantry Regiment on 10 March 1944)
  • 517th Parachute Infantry Regiment (relieved 10 March 1944, replaced by the 513th Parachute Infantry Regiment)
  • Division Artillery
    • 464th Parachute Field Artillery Battalion (75mm) (assigned 4 June 1945)
    • 466th Parachute Field Artillery Battalion (75mm)
    • 680th Glider Field Artillery Battalion (75mm)
    • 681st Glider Field Artillery Battalion (75mm)
  • 139th Airborne Engineer Battalion
  • 155th Airborne Antiaircraft Battalion
  • 224th Airborne Medical Company
  • 17th Parachute Maintenance Company
  • Headquarters Special Troops
    • Headquarters Company, 17th Airborne Division
    • Military Police Platoon
    • 717th Airborne Ordnance Maintenance Company
    • 517th Airborne Signal Company
    • 411th Airborne Quartermaster Company
    • 17th Counter Intelligence Corps Detachment
    • Band (assigned 1 March 1945)
    • Reconnaissance Platoon (assigned 1 March 1945)
  • 550th Airborne Infantry Battalion (not assigned; under division operational control during the Ardennes Offensive)
  • 761st Tank Battalion (attached 15–27 January 1945)
  • 811th Tank Destroyer Battalion (attached 17–27 January 1945)[58]

Notes

  1. ^ Flanagan, p. 6.
  2. ^ Harclerode, p. 197.
  3. ^ Harclerode, p. 107.
  4. ^ Flanagan, p. 31.
  5. ^ Devlin, p. 200
  6. ^ Devlin, p. 201
  7. ^ a b Flanagan, p. 15.
  8. ^ Devlin, p. 204.
  9. ^ a b c Devlin, p. 246.
  10. ^ Flanagan, p. 98.
  11. ^ Flanagan, p. 99.
  12. ^ Devlin, pp 212, 246.
  13. ^ Flanagan, p. 100
  14. ^ Huston, p. 98.
  15. ^ "Moore County Airport History". Moore County Airport. 13 June 2006. Retrieved 27 July 2008.
  16. ^ Flanagan, p. 100.
  17. ^ Devlin, p. 247.
  18. ^ a b c Huston, p. 136.
  19. ^ a b Huston, p. 137.
  20. ^ a b Stanton, p. 96
  21. ^ Hagerman, p. 15
  22. ^ Hagerman, p. 29
  23. ^ Flanagan, p. 204
  24. ^ Flanagan, p. 245
  25. ^ Flanagan, p. 265
  26. ^ a b Flanagan, p. 268
  27. ^ Flanagan, p. 281
  28. ^ a b Devlin, p. 546
  29. ^ Flanagan, p. 282
  30. ^ a b Flanagan, p. 283
  31. ^ Hagerman, p. 28
  32. ^ a b Flanagan, p. 285
  33. ^ Devlin, p. 255
  34. ^ Matthew J. Seelinger (2007). "Operation Varsity: The Last Airborne Deployment of World War II". Army Historical Research. Archived from the original on 4 December 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
  35. ^ Saunders, Tim, p. 41
  36. ^ Devlin, p. 258-259
  37. ^ Devlin, p. 259
  38. ^ a b Clay, p. 440
  39. ^ Jewell, p27
  40. ^ Harclerode, p. 551
  41. ^ Jewell, p. 28
  42. ^ O'Neill, p. 299
  43. ^ a b c Tugwell, p. 273
  44. ^ Hagerman, Bart (12 June 2006). "Operation Varsity: Allied Airborne Assault Over The Rhine". World War II Magazine. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
  45. ^ a b c Devlin, p. 617
  46. ^ a b Devlin, p. 619
  47. ^ a b United States Army, Center of Military History (16 July 2007). "Medal of Honor Recipients World War II (M-S)". United States Army. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
  48. ^ Devlin, p. 620
  49. ^ a b Tugwell, p. 274
  50. ^ a b Devlin, p. 621
  51. ^ a b c d Devlin, p. 624
  52. ^ Otway, p. 564
  53. ^ Fraser, p. 392
  54. ^ United States Army, Center of Military History (16 July 2007). "Medal of Honor Recipients World War II (G-L)". United States Army. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
  55. ^ Ellis, p. 294
  56. ^ a b c d e Army Battle Casualties and Nonbattle Deaths, Final Report (Statistics and Accounting Branch, Office of the Adjutant General, 1 June 1953)
  57. ^ a b Flanagan, p. 344
  58. ^ US Army Center of Military History (2008). "17th Airborne Division". US Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 14 May 2008.

References

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  • Devlin, Gerard M. (1979). Paratrooper – The Saga Of Parachute And Glider Combat Troops During World War II. Robson Books. ISBN 0-312-59652-9.
  • Major Ellis, L.S. (2004) [1968]. Victory in the West: The Defeat of Germany, Official Campaign History Volume II. History of the Second World War: United Kingdom Military. Naval & Military Press Ltd. ISBN 1-84574-059-9.
  • Fraser, David (1999). And We Shall Shock Them: The British Army in the Second World War. Phoenix. ISBN 0-304-35233-0.
  • Flanagan, E.M. Jr (2002). Airborne – A Combat History Of American Airborne Forces. The Random House Publishing Group. ISBN 0-89141-688-9.
  • Hagerman, Bart (1999). 17th Airborne Division. Turner Publishing Company. ISBN 1-56311-436-4.
  • Harclerode, Peter (2005). Wings Of War – Airborne Warfare 1918–1945. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-304-36730-3.
  • Huston, James A. (1998). Out Of The Blue – U.S Army Airborne Operations In World War II. Purdue University Press. ISBN 1-55753-148-X.
  • Jewell, Brian (1985). "Over The Rhine" – The Last Days Of War In Europe. Spellmount Ltd. ISBN 0-87052-128-4.
  • O'Neill, N.C. (eds.) (1951). Odhams History of the Second World War: Volume II. Odhams Press Limited.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Otway, Lieutenant-Colonel T.B.H (1990). The Second World War 1939–1945 Army – Airborne Forces. Imperial War Museum. ISBN 0-901627-57-7.
  • Rawson, Andrew (2006). Rhine Crossing: Operation VARSITY – 30th and 79th US Divisions and 17th US Airborne Division. Pen & Sword Military. ISBN 1-84415-232-4.
  • Saunders, Hilary St. George (1972). The Red Beret – The Story Of The Parachute Regiment 1940–1945. White Lion Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-85617-823-3.
  • Saunders, Tim (2006). Operation Plunder: The British & Canadian Rhine Crossing. Leo Cooper Ltd. ISBN 1-84415-221-9.
  • Stanton, Shelby (2006). World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939-1946 (Revised Edition). Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-0157-3.
  • Tugwell, Maurice (1971). Airborne To Battle – A History Of Airborne Warfare 1918–1971. William Kimber & Co Ltd. ISBN 0-7183-0262-1.

External links

17th Airborne Division Artillery

The 17th Airborne Division Artillery is an inactive field artillery unit of the United States Army, active from 1942–1946 and from 1948–1949. The unit served with the 17th Airborne Division in World War II, and saw action in Belgium and Germany, including participating in Operation Varsity. The unit was reactivated again from 1948–1949, but was not deployed.

17th Division

17th Division may refer to:

Infantry divisions

17th Division (German Empire)

17th Infantry Division (Bangladesh)

17th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

17th Infantry Division (Greece)

17th Indian Division – British Indian Army during World War I

17th Infantry Division (India)

17th Infantry Division Pavia (Kingdom of Italy)

17th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

17th Infantry Division (Poland)

17th Division (Syria)

17th (Northern) Division (United Kingdom)

17th Division - A National Guard division established in early 1917 consisting of Indiana and Kentucky; later 38th Infantry Division (United States)

17th Infantry Division (United States) - Phantom Division created for Operation FortitudeAirborne divisions

17th Airborne Division (United States)Armoured/cavalry divisions

17th Panzer Division (Germany)

17th SS Panzergrenadier Division Götz von Berlichingen

17th Division (Iraq)

17th Tank Division (Soviet Union)

17th Guards Tank Division (Soviet Union)

17th Mountain Cavalry Division (Soviet Union)

761st Tank Battalion (United States)

The 761st Tank Battalion was an independent tank battalion of the United States Army during World War II. The 761st was made up primarily of African-American soldiers, who by federal law were not permitted to serve alongside white troops; the military did not officially desegregate until after World War II. They were known as the Black Panthers after their unit's distinctive insignia; their motto was "Come out fighting". The battalion received a Presidential Unit Citation for its actions. In addition, a large number of individual members also received medals, including one Medal of Honor, 11 Silver Stars and about 300 Purple Hearts. They have been called "one of the most effective tank battalions in World War II".

Index of World War II articles (0–9)

1 Alpine Division Taurinense

1st Alpini Regiment

1 Cent WWII (Dutch coin)

1st Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

1 vs 40 (Zipang manga)

1. Jagd-Division

1.1"/75 caliber gun

10 cm K 17

10.5 cm FlaK 38

10.5 cm leFH 16

10.5 cm leFH 18/40

10.5 cm leFH 18

10.5 cm leFH 18M

10.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 40

10.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 42

10.5 cm schwere Kanone 18

100 mm field gun M1944 (BS-3)

100th Division (United States)

100th Guards Rifle Division

100th Light Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

101st Airborne Division (United States)

101st Infantry Division (France)

101st Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

101st SS Heavy Panzer Detachment

102nd Fortress Division (France)

102nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

102nd Infantry Division (United States)

103rd Infantry Division (United States)

104th Division (United States)

105 mm Howitzer M3

106th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

106th Infantry Division (United States)

107 mm divisional gun M1940 (M-60)

107 mm gun M1910/30

1077th Anti-Aircraft Regiment (Soviet Union)

10H64

10th Armored Division (United States)

10th Armoured Cavalry Brigade (Poland)

10th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

10th Army (Soviet Union)

10th Canadian Infantry Brigade

10th Division (Australia)

10th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

10th Indian Infantry Division

10th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

10th Infantry Division (Poland)

10th Marine Regiment (United States)

10th Motorized Cavalry Brigade (Poland)

10th Mountain Division (United States)

10th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

10th Reconnaissance Group (United States)

10th SS Panzer Division Frundsberg

10TP

110th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

110th Rifle Division

112 Gripes about the French

114th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

116th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

118th General Hospital US Army

11th (East Africa) Division

11th Airborne Division (United States)

11th Armored Division (United States)

11th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

11th Army (Soviet Union)

11th Army Group

11th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

11th Guards Army

11th Indian Infantry Division

11th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

11th SS Panzer Army

11th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Division Nordland

11th/28th Battalion, Royal Western Australia Regiment

12th Alpini Regiment

12.8 cm FlaK 40

12.8 cm PaK 44

120 mm M1 gun

121st Engineer Battalion (United States)

122 mm gun M1931/37 (A-19)

122 mm howitzer M1909/37

122 mm howitzer M1910/30

122 mm howitzer M1938 (M-30)

12th (Eastern) Division

12th Armored Division (United States)

12th Army (Soviet Union)

12th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

12th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

12th Infantry Regiment (United States)

12th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend

13 JG 52

13 Rue Madeleine

13. Unterseebootsflottille

13.2 mm Hotchkiss machine gun

138mm/40 Modèle 1927 gun

13th Airborne Division (United States)

13th Armored Division (United States)

13th Army (Soviet Union)

13th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

13th Foreign Legion Demi-Brigade

13th Guards Rifle Division

13th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Handschar (1st Croatian)

140th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

141st Reserve Division (Germany)

142nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

143rd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

148th Reserve Division (Germany)

14th Armored Division (United States)

14th Army (Soviet Union)

14th Army involvement in Transnistria

14th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

14th Indian Infantry Division

14th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

14th Infantry Division (Poland)

14th Mixed Brigade (Imperial Japanese Army)

14th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Galicia (1st Ukrainian)

15 cm Kanone 18

15 cm sFH 13

15 cm sFH 18

15 cm sIG 33

150th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

150th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

151st Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

152 mm gun M1910/30

152 mm gun M1910/34

152 mm gun M1935 (Br-2)

152 mm howitzer-gun M1937 (ML-20)

152 mm howitzer M1909/30

152 mm howitzer M1910/37

152 mm howitzer M1938 (M-10)

152 mm howitzer M1943 (D-1)

152 mm mortar M1931 (NM)

152nd Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

153rd Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

153rd Rifle Division

154th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

155 mm Long Tom

15th (Scottish) Division

15th Airborne Corps

15th Army Group

15th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

15th Infantry Division (Poland)

15th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Latvian)

16 inch Coast Gun M1919

16"/50 caliber Mark 7 gun

161st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

163rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

164th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

164th Infantry Regiment (United States)

169th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

16th Armored Division (United States)

16th Battalion, Royal Western Australia Regiment

16th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

16th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

16th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

16th SS Panzergrenadier Division Reichsführer-SS

17 cm Kanone 18

176th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

17th Airborne Division (United States)

17th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

17th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

17th Infantry Division (India)

17th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

17th SS Panzergrenadier Division Götz von Berlichingen

183rd Volksgrenadier Division (Germany)

184th Rifle Division

18th Army (Soviet Union)

18th Army Group

18th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

18th Infantry Division (France)

18th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

18th Infantry Division (Poland)

18th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

1938 Changsha Fire

1939-40 Winter Offensive

1939 Tarnow rail station bomb attack

193rd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

1940-1944 insurgency in Chechnya

1941 (film)

1941 Iraqi coup d'état

1941 Odessa massacre

1942 (video game)

1942 Luxembourgian general strike

1942: Joint Strike

1942: The Pacific Air War

1943 Naples post office bombing

1943 steel cent

1943: The Battle of Midway

1944-1945 killings in Bačka

1944 in France

1944: The Loop Master

1945 (Conroy novel)

1945 (Gingrich and Forstchen novel)

1945 Prime Minister's Resignation Honours

19th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

19th Infantry Division (India)

19th Infantry Division Gavninana

19th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

19th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (2nd Latvian)

1st (African) Division

1st Air Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy

1st Armored Division (France)

1st Armored Division (United States)

1st Armoured Brigade (Poland)

1st Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)

1st Armoured Division (Australia)

1st Armoured Division (Poland)

1st Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

1st Armoured Reconnaissance Brigade (United Kingdom)

1st Baltic Front

1st Belgrade Special Combat detachment

1st Belorussian Front

1st Canadian Armoured Brigade

1st Canadian Infantry Division

1st Canadian Tank Brigade

1st Cavalry Army (Soviet Union)

1st Cavalry Division (United States)

1st Colonial Infantry Division (France)

1st Cossack Division

1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade

1st Division (Australia)

1st Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

1st Far East Front

1st Free French Division

1st Grenadiers Division (Poland)

1st Guards Army (Soviet Union)

1st Guards Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

1st Guards Special Rifle Corps

1st Guards Tank Army (Soviet Union)

1st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

1st Infantry Division (Slovak Republic)

1st Infantry Division (South Africa)

1st Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

1st Infantry Division (United States)

1st Legions Infantry Division (Poland)

1st Light Cavalry Division (France)

1st Light Division (Germany)

1st Light Mechanized Division (France)

1st Marine Division (United States)

1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment

1st Moroccan Infantry Division

1st Motor Machine Gun Brigade

1st Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

1st Naval Infantry Division (Germany)

1st Operations Group

1st Panzer Army

1st Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

1st Parachute Army (Germany)

1st Parachute Battalion (Australia)

1st Parachute Division (Germany)

1st Photo Squadron (Detachment C)

1st Red Banner Army

1st Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

1st Shock Army

1st Ski Division (Germany)

1st Special Service Brigade (United kingdom)

1st SS Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler

1st Tank Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

1st Ukrainian Front

2-inch mortar

2 Alpine Division Tridentina

2nd Engineer Regiment (Italy)

2 cm FlaK 30

2 cm KwK 30

2nd Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

2 or 3 Things I Know About Him

2. Jagd-Division

2.8 cm sPzB 41

2/11th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/12th Field Ambulance (Australia)

2/18th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/1st Australian Infantry Battalion

2/25th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/2nd Australian Infantry Battalion

2/3rd Australian Infantry Battalion

2/4th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/5th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/6th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/6th Cavalry Commando Regiment (Australia)

2/7th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/8th Australian Infantry Battalion

20 mm AA Machine Cannon Carrier Truck

20 mm Anti-Aircraft Tank "Ta-Se"

200th Division (National Revolutionary Army)

201st Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

202nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

203 mm howitzer M1931 (B-4)

203mm/50 Modèle 1924 gun

203mm/55 Modèle 1931 gun

205th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

206th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

207th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

208th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

208th Rifle Division

20th Armored Division (United States)

20th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

20th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

20th Infantry Division (India)

20th Infantry Division (Poland)

20th Mountain Army (Wehrmacht)

20th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

20th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Estonian)

21 cm Mörser 18

210 mm gun M1939 (Br-17)

210th Coastal Defense Division (Germany)

210th Independent Infantry Brigade (Home)

212th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

214th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

216th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

218th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

21st Army (Wehrmacht)

21st Army Group

21st Infantry Division (France)

21st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

21st Mountain Infantry Division (Poland)

21st Norwegian Army (Germany)

21st Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Skanderbeg (1st Albanian)

223rd Independent Infantry Brigade (Home)

22nd Air Landing Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

22nd Army (Soviet Union)

22nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

22nd Infantry Division (France)

22nd Mountain Infantry Division (Poland)

22nd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

22nd SS Volunteer Cavalry Division Maria Theresia

230th Coastal Defense Division (Germany)

23rd (Northumbrian) Division

23rd Army (Soviet Union)

23rd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

23rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

23rd Infantry Division (India)

23rd Infantry Division (Poland)

23rd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

23rd Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Kama

240 mm howitzer M1

240mm/50 Modèle 1902 gun

243rd Static Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

246th Volksgrenadier Division (Wehrmacht)

24th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

24th Infantry Division (United States)

24th Mixed Brigade (Imperial Japanese Army)

24th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

24th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

25 Cent WWII (Dutch coin)

25 mm automatic air defense gun M1940 (72-K)

25 mm Hotchkiss anti-aircraft gun

25 mm Hotchkiss anti-tank gun

25. Unterseebootsflottille

25th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

25th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

25th Infantry Division (India)

25th Infantry Division (United States)

25th Motorized Division (France)

25th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

25th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

25th SS Grenadier Division Hunyadi (1st Hungarian)

25th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Hunyadi (1st Hungarian)

25th/49th Battalion, Royal Queensland Regiment

26th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)

26th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

26th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

26th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

26th Infantry Division (United States)

26th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (2nd Hungarian)

270th Rifle Division

273rd Reserve Panzer Division

275th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

277th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

27th Armoured Brigade

27th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

27th Guards Rifle Division

27th Home Army Infantry Division (Poland)

27th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

27th Infantry Division (Poland)

27th Infantry Division (Sila)

27th Infantry Division (United States)

27th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

27th Truck-Moveable Division (Brescia)

281st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

286th Security Division (Germany)

289th Military Police Company

28th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)

28th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

28th Infantry Division (Poland)

28th Infantry Division (United States)

28th Jäger Division (Wehrmacht)

292nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

299th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

29th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)

29th Army (Soviet Union)

29th Flight Training Wing

29th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

29th Infantry Division (United States)

29th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Italian)

2nd (African) Division

2nd Armored Division (France)

2nd Armored Division (United States)

2nd Armoured Division (Australia)

2nd Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

2nd Armoured Regiment (Poland)

2nd Belorussian Front

2nd Canadian Armoured Brigade

2nd Canadian Infantry Division

2nd Cavalry Division (United States)

2nd Division (Australia)

2nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

2nd Division (Norway)

2nd Far Eastern Front

2nd Guards Army (Soviet Union)

2nd Guards Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

2nd Guards Mixed Brigade (Japan)

2nd Guards Tank Army (Soviet Union)

2nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

2nd Infantry Division (India)

2nd Infantry Division (South Africa)

2nd Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

2nd Infantry Division (United States)

2nd Infantry Regiment (United States)

2nd Light Cavalry Division (France)

2nd Light Division (Germany)

2nd Light Mechanized Division (France)

2nd London Infantry Division

2nd Marine Division (United States)

2nd Marine Regiment (United States)

2nd Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

2nd Naval Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

2nd North African Infantry Division

2nd Panzer Army

2nd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

2nd Panzer Group

2nd Parachute Division (Germany)

2nd Red Banner Army

2nd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

2nd Shock Army

2nd SS Division Das Reich

2nd Tank Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

3 Alpine Division Julia

3rd Alpini Regiment

3 inch Gun M5

3rd Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

3"/50 caliber gun

3.7 cm FlaK 43

3.7 cm KwK 36

3.7 cm PaK 36

3.7 inch Mountain Howitzer

301 Military Hospital

301st Air Refueling Wing

302nd Static Infantry Division (Germany)

305 mm howitzer M1939 (Br-18)

305mm/45 Modèle 1906 gun

305th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

308th Armament Systems Wing

30th Armoured Brigade

30th Infantry Division (United States)

30th Mechanized Brigade (Ukraine)

30th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Belarussian)

30th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (2nd Russian)

318th Fighter Group

31st Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

31st Guards Rifle Division

31st Infantry Division (United States)

322nd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

323d Flying Training Wing

324th Fighter Group

324th Rifle Division

326th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

32nd Infantry Division (France)

32nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

32nd Infantry Division (United States)

32nd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

33/5

330mm/50 Modèle 1931 gun

331st Bombardment Group

332d Fighter Group

332nd Static Infantry Division (Germany)

333d Bombardment Group

334th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

336th Training Group

33rd Army (Soviet Union)

33rd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

33rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

33rd Infantry Division (United States)

33rd Mixed Brigade (Imperial Japanese Army)

33rd Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Charlemagne (1st French)

340mm/45 Modèle 1912 gun

340th Bombardment Group

345th Bomb Group

346th Bombardment Group

349th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

349th Squadron (Belgium)

34th Brigade (Australia)

34th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

34th Infantry Division (United States)

350th Squadron (Belgium)

351st Bomb Group

352d Fighter Group

352nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

357th Fighter Group

359th Fighter Group

35th Army (Soviet Union)

35th Infantry Division (United States)

35th SS and Police Grenadier Division

36 Hours (1965 film)

361st Fighter Group

365th Fighter Group

369th (Croatian) Reinforced Infantry Regiment

369th (Croatian) Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

36th Battalion (Australia)

36th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

36th Infantry Division (United States)

36th Infantry Regiment (Poland)

37 mm anti-tank gun M1930 (1-K)

37 mm automatic air defense gun M1939 (61-K)

37 mm Gun M3

37mm Gun M1

37th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

37th Infantry Division (United States)

37th SS Volunteer Cavalry Division Lützow

373rd (Croatian) Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

38 cm SKC 34 naval gun

380mm/45 Modèle 1935 gun

380th Bomb Group

381st Training Group

382d Bombardment Group

383d Bombardment Group

383rd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

385th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

38th (Irish) Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

38th (Welsh) Division

38th Infantry Division (United States)

391st Bombardment Group

392nd (Croatian) Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

392nd Strategic Missile Wing

393d Bombardment Group

394th Bombardment Group

396th Bombardment Group

397th Bombardment Wing

399th Bombardment Group

39M Csaba

39th Battalion (Australia)

39th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

39th Infantry Division (India)

39th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

3d Armored Cavalry Regiment (United States)

3d Combat Cargo Group

3d United States Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard)

3M-54 Klub

3rd Algerian Infantry Division

3rd Armored Division (France)

3rd Armored Division (United States)

3rd Armoured Division (Australia)

3rd Army (Soviet Union)

3rd Battalion 3rd Marines

3rd Belorussian Front

3rd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division (United States)

3rd Canadian Infantry Division

3rd Division (Australia)

3rd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

3rd Division (New Zealand)

3rd Guards Army (Soviet Union)

3rd Guards Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

3rd Guards Tank Army (Soviet Union)

3rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

3rd Infantry Division (South Africa)

3rd Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

3rd Infantry Division (United States)

3rd Light Division (Germany)

3rd Light Mechanized Division (France)

3rd Marine Division (United States)

3rd Motor Rifle Division

3rd Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

3rd North African Infantry Division

3rd Panzer Army

3rd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

3rd Panzer Group

3rd Polish Infantry Brigade

3rd Shock Army (Soviet Union)

3rd SS Division Totenkopf

3rd Tank Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

3rd/4th County of London Yeomanry (Sharpshooters)

4 Alpine Division Cuneense

4th Alpini Regiment

4th Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

4"/50 caliber gun

4.2 cm PaK 41

4.5 inch Gun M1

40 cm/45 Type 94

40 M Turan I

400th Bombardment Group

405th Fighter Group

409th Bombardment Group

40th Air Expeditionary Wing

40th Army (Soviet Union)

40th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

40th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

40th Infantry Division (United States)

413th Fighter Group

414th Fighter Group

41st Infantry Division (France)

41st Infantry Division (United States)

42nd (East Lancashire) Division

42nd Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

42nd Infantry Division (United States)

43rd (Wessex) Infantry Division

43rd Infantry Division (United States)

441st Troop Carrier Group

443d Troop Carrier Group

444th Bombardment Group

449th Bombardment Wing

44th (Home Counties) Infantry Division

44th Airborne Division (India)

44th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

44th Infantry Division (United States)

45 mm anti-tank gun M1937 (53-K)

45 mm anti-tank gun M1942 (M-42)

453rd Bombardment Group

454th Bombardment Wing

456th Bomb Group

458th Bombardment Group

45th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

45th Infantry Division (United States)

45th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

460th Parachute Field Artillery Battalion (United States)

461st Bombardment Wing

462d Bombardment Group

463d Airlift Group

464th Tactical Airlift Wing

465th Bombardment Wing

466th Bombardment Group

467th Bombardment Group

468th Bombardment Group

46th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

46th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

47 mm APX anti-tank gun

470th Bombardment Group

477th Fighter Group

483d Composite Wing

489th Bombardment Group

48th (South Midland) Division

48th Armored Medical Battalion

490th Bombardment Group

491st Bombardment Group

493d Bombardment Group

494th Bombardment Group

49th (West Riding) Infantry Division

49th Hutsul Rifle Regiment

49th Parallel

4th Armored Division (United States)

4th Army (Soviet Union)

4th Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division (United States)

4th Canadian (Armoured) Division

4th Canadian Armoured Brigade

4th Canadian Infantry Brigade

4th Cavalry Regiment (United States)

4th Combat Cargo Group

4th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

4th Fighter Group

4th Guards Army (Soviet Union)

4th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

4th Infantry Division (India)

4th Infantry Division (Poland)

4th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

4th Infantry Division (United States)

4th Infantry Regiment (United States)

4th Light Cavalry Division (France)

4th Luftwaffe Field Division (Germany)

4th Marine Division (United States)

4th Mixed Brigade (Imperial Japanese Army)

4th Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

4th North African Infantry Division

4th Panzer Army

4th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

4th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

4th SS Polizei Division

4th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Brigade Netherlands

4th Tank Army (Soviet Union)

4th Tank Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

4th Territorial Army Corps (Romania)

4th Ukrainian Front

5 Alpine Division Pusteria

5th Alpini Regiment

5 cm KwK 38

5 cm KwK 39

5 cm PaK 38

5th Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

5"/25 caliber gun

5"/38 caliber gun

5"/51 caliber gun

500th SS Parachute Battalion

501st Parachute Infantry Regiment (United States)

502d Bombardment Group

502nd Heavy Tank Battalion (Germany)

503rd heavy tank battalion (Germany)

504th Bombardment Group

509th heavy tank battalion (Germany)

509th Operations Group

50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division

51st (Highland) Infantry Division (World War II)

51st Army (Soviet Union)

52nd (Lowland) Division

53rd (Welsh) Division

53rd Infantry Division (France)

5535 Annefrank

55th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

55th Infantry Division (France)

55th Infantry Division (Poland)

55th Operations Group

562nd Grenadier Division (Germany)

56th (London) Division

56th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

56th Field Artillery Command

56th Fighter Group

56th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

57 mm anti-tank gun M1943 (ZiS-2)

57th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

58th Army (Soviet Union)

58th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

596th Parachute Combat Engineer Company (United States)

59th Guards Rifle Division

5th Armored Division (France)

5th Armored Division (United States)

5th Army (Wehrmacht)

5th Army (Soviet Union)

5th Canadian (Armoured) Division

5th Canadian Division

5th Canadian Infantry Brigade

5th Cavalry Brigade (United Kingdom)

5th Division (Australia)

5th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

5th Guards Tank Army (Soviet Union)

5th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

5th Infantry Division (India)

5th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

5th Infantry Division (United States)

5th Light Cavalry Division (France)

5th Marine Division (United States)

5th Motorized Division (France)

5th Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

5th North African Infantry Division

5th Panzer Army

5th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

5th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

5th SS Panzergrenadier Division Wiking

5th SS Volunteer Sturmbrigade Wallonien

6 Alpine Division Alpi Graie

6th Alpini Regiment

6 inch 26 cwt howitzer

6th Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

60 pounder

60th Infantry Division (France)

60th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

61st Infantry Division (France)

61st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

61st Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

62nd Army (Soviet Union)

62nd Battalion (Australia)

633 Squadron

63rd Army (Soviet Union)

63rd Infantry Division (United States)

64 Baker Street

65th Infantry Division (United States)

66th (East Lancashire) Infantry Division

66th Infantry Division (United States)

68th Infantry Division (France)

68th Observation Group

69th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

69th Infantry Division (United States)

6th Airlanding Brigade (United Kingdom)

6th Armored Division (United States)

6th Armoured Division (South Africa)

6th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

6th Army (Soviet Union)

6th Canadian Infantry Brigade

6th Canadian Infantry Division

6th Cavalry Regiment (United States)

6th Division (Australia)

6th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

6th Guards Tank Army

6th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

6th Infantry Division (Poland)

6th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

6th Infantry Division (United States)

6th Infantry Regiment (United States)

6th Luftwaffe Field Division (Germany)

6th Marine Division (United States)

6th Marine Division on Okinawa

6th Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

6th Panzer Army

6th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

6th Parachute Division (Germany)

6th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

6th SS Mountain Division Nord

6th SS Volunteer Sturmbrigade Langemarck

7th Alpini Regiment

7 cm Mountain Gun

7.5 cm FK 16 nA

7.5 cm FK 18

7.5 cm FK 38

7.5 cm FK 7M85

7.5 cm Infanteriegeschütz 37

7.5 cm Infanteriegeschütz 42

7.5 cm KwK 37

7.5 cm KwK 40

7.5 cm KwK 42

7.5 cm L/45 M/16 anti aircraft gun

7.5 cm L/45 M/32 anti aircraft gun

7.5 cm leichtes Infanteriegeschütz 18

7.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 40

7.5 cm PaK 39

7.5 cm PaK 40

7.5 cm PaK 41

7.5 cm PaK 97/38

7.62 cm PaK 36(r)

7.92 mm DS

700 Naval Air Squadron

709th Static Infantry Division (Germany)

70th Armor Regiment (United States)

70th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

70th Infantry Division (United States)

715th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

716th Static Infantry Division (Germany)

719th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

71st Infantry Division (France)

71st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

71st Infantry Division (United States)

71st Infantry Regiment (New York)

72nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

72nd Mechanized Brigade (Ukraine)

73rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

74th Infantry Regiment (Poland)

75 mm gun (US)

75 mm Schneider-Danglis 06/09

758th Tank Battalion (United States)

75th Guards Rifle Division

75th Infantry Division (United States)

76 mm air defense gun M1938

76 mm divisional gun M1902/30

76 mm divisional gun M1936 (F-22)

76 mm divisional gun M1939 (USV)

76 mm divisional gun M1942 (ZiS-3)

76 mm gun M1

76 mm mountain gun M1938

76 mm regimental gun M1927

76 mm regimental gun M1943

761st Tank Battalion (United States)

76th Division (United States)

76th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

76th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

76th Reconnaissance Group

76th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

77th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

77th Infantry Division (United States)

78th Division (United States)

78th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

78th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

78th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

79th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

79th Fighter Group

79th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

79th Infantry Division (United States)

79th Light Anti-Aircraft Battery

7th Armored Division (United States)

7th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

7th Army (Wehrmacht)

7th Army (Soviet Union)

7th Canadian Infantry Brigade

7th Canadian Infantry Division

7th Cavalry Regiment (United States)

7th Division (Australia)

7th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

7th Field Artillery Regiment (United States)

7th Guards Army

7th Indian Infantry Division

7th Infantry Division (United States)

7th Marine Regiment (United States)

7th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

7th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugen

7TP

8th Alpini Regiment

8 cm FK M. 17

8 cm PAW 600

8 cm sGrW 34

8 inch Gun M1

8.8 cm KwK 36

8.8 cm KwK 43

8.8 cm PaK 43

805th Engineer Aviation Battalion (United States)

80th Division (United States)

80th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

80th Rifle Division

81st (West Africa) Division

81st Infantry Division (United States)

82-PM-37

82nd (West Africa) Division

82nd Airborne Division (United States)

83rd Infantry Division (Germany)

83rd Infantry Division (United States)

84 Avenue Foch

84th Division (United States)

85 mm air defense gun M1939 (52-K)

85th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

86th Infantry Division (United States)

87th Division (United States)

87th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

88 mm gun

88th Division (National Revolutionary Army)

88th Infantry Division (United States)

89th "Tamanyan" Rifle Division

89th Division (United States)

8th Armored Division (United States)

8th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

8th Army (Soviet Union)

8th Division (Australia)

8th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

8th Guards Army (Soviet Union)

8th Infantry Division (France)

8th Infantry Division (India)

8th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

8th Infantry Division (United States)

8th Marine Regiment (United States)

8th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer

9th Alpini Regiment

9 Parachute Squadron RE

90 mm gun

904 Expeditionary Air Wing (United Kingdom)

90th Infantry Division (United States)

90th Light Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

914th Grenadier Regiment

916th Grenadier Regiment (Germany)

91st Bomb Group

91st Division (United States)

91st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

92nd Infantry Division (United States)

93rd Infantry Division (United States)

94th Infantry Division (United States)

95th Bomb Group

95th Infantry Division (United States)

96th Infantry Division (United States)

97th Infantry Division (United States)

97th Mechanized Brigade (Ukraine)

98th Division (United States)

98th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

999th Light Afrika Division (Germany)

99th Infantry Division (United States)

99th Light Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

99th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

9th (Highland) Infantry Division

9th Armored Division (United States)

9th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

9th Army (Soviet Union)

9th Division (Australia)

9th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

9th Infantry Division (India)

9th Infantry Division (Poland) (interwar)

9th Infantry Division (Soviet Union)

9th Infantry Division (United States)

9th Luftwaffe Field Division (Germany)

9th Motorized Division (France)

9th Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

9th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

9th Parachute Division (Germany)

9th SS Panzer Division Hohenstaufen

John H. Featherston

Captain John "Jack" H. Featherston was born to Colonel John H. and Margaret Featherston on May 27th, 1922. Featherston was an "army brat," following his family to various army posts in the United States. Although he went to Hawaii and the Philippine Islands, Fort Monroe, Virginia was home for Featherston and his three younger brothers. Featherston graduated from high school and went to the U.S. Army West Point Prep School at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii. During his time at the prep school, he competed for a Presidential Appointment to West Point and applied to the United States Naval Academy. When Featherston returned to Chicago he heard news that he received an appointment to go to either academy. He decided to go to West Point to follow a military career.

One of his roommates spoke fondly of him, “ Jack came to West Point with the firm resolve to become a good soldier. Super spoonoid, conscientious in duty, he pursued with characteristic determination his chosen work. Weekends, when other men were out dragging, Jack could be found at home studying Napoleon or Clausewitz.” With war upon the United States, Featherston and his classmates graduated in January 1943 instead of June.

Following West Point Featherston returned home for a brief period to spend time with his family before going to the Field Artillery School in Oklahoma. This peeked his interested in airborne troops and pushed him to go to the Field Artillery Glider Battalion in North Carolina. Here he was assigned to the 17th Airborne Division.The 17th airborne was activated on April 15, 1943, lead by General William M Miley. On December 24th, 1944 the division entered combat to combat von Runstedt’s counter-offensive. The Germans were pushed back and then the division made landing near Wesel, Germany, where Capt. Featherston was ultimately killed. Capt Featherston was regarded as a gentleman and a “splendid soldier” by his comrades. After his Battalion had landed, they went to clear out remaining snipers in the enemy strong point. He was shot in the left side of his chest and died almost instantaneously. Capt Featherston was killed by a 12-year-old German sniper during Operation Varsity. After the 17th Division landed near Wesel, Germany, Capt Featherston led a patrol of men. They went to check out some nearby houses where they heard shots being fired. It was here that Capt Featherston was shot in the chest by the boy and died.

John was recommended for a Silver Star Award due to his valorous action in service for the battalion.

In a letter to his mother Col., Oswald wrote: "His unfortunate death grieves me deeply, not only because of his outstanding professional ability, but because I consider myself among those privileged to be his friends. You have the deepest sympathy of all of the officers and men of this unit in your bereavement. John was an outstanding officer and set the highest standards for both officers and men to emulate. Personally I rated him Superior, and feel that I shall never be able to replace him entirely. He was held in high regard by all of the members of this command and possessed a host of friends. He was a splendid soldier and a true gentleman"

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List of military divisions by number

This is a list of military divisions of all nationalities organised by number. Divisions may be infantry, airborne, cavalry, mechanized, armoured or aviation.

See also: List of military divisions by name

17th Airborne Division (1943–45)
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