1794

1794 (MDCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1794th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 794th year of the 2nd millennium, the 94th year of the 18th century, and the 5th year of the 1790s decade. As of the start of 1794, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1794 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1794
MDCCXCIV
French Republican calendar2–3
Ab urbe condita2547
Armenian calendar1243
ԹՎ ՌՄԽԳ
Assyrian calendar6544
Balinese saka calendar1715–1716
Bengali calendar1201
Berber calendar2744
British Regnal year34 Geo. 3 – 35 Geo. 3
Buddhist calendar2338
Burmese calendar1156
Byzantine calendar7302–7303
Chinese calendar癸丑(Water Ox)
4490 or 4430
    — to —
甲寅年 (Wood Tiger)
4491 or 4431
Coptic calendar1510–1511
Discordian calendar2960
Ethiopian calendar1786–1787
Hebrew calendar5554–5555
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1850–1851
 - Shaka Samvat1715–1716
 - Kali Yuga4894–4895
Holocene calendar11794
Igbo calendar794–795
Iranian calendar1172–1173
Islamic calendar1208–1209
Japanese calendarKansei 6
(寛政6年)
Javanese calendar1720–1721
Julian calendarGregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar4127
Minguo calendar118 before ROC
民前118年
Nanakshahi calendar326
Thai solar calendar2336–2337
Tibetan calendar阴水牛年
(female Water-Ox)
1920 or 1539 or 767
    — to —
阳木虎年
(male Wood-Tiger)
1921 or 1540 or 768

Events

January–March

April–June

July–September

Shot
July 27: Robespierre and Saint-Just are arrested

October–December

Date unknown

Births

Date unknown

Deaths

File:George Grenville (1712–1770) by William Hoare (1707-1792).jpg|thumb|110px|right|George Grenville

In fiction

In the graphic adventure game Day of the Tentacle, the character Hoagie is sent "200 years in the past" from 1994. He arrives in Revolutionary America during the writing of the Constitution of the United States.

References

  1. ^ "Flag of the United States", in The Port Folio (July, 1818) p18
  2. ^ a b c d e f Harper's Encyclopaedia of United States History from 458 A. D. to 1909, ed. by Benson John Lossing and, Woodrow Wilson (Harper & Brothers, 1910) p170
  3. ^ Coleman, Helen Turnbull Waite (1956). Banners in the Wilderness: The Early Years of Washington and Jefferson College. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 204. OCLC 2191890.
  4. ^ William Hogeland, The Whiskey Rebellion: George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and the Frontier Rebels Who Challenged America's Newfound Sovereignty" (Simon and Schuster, 2015) p213
  5. ^ McClelland, W. C. (1903). "A History of Literary Societies at Washington & Jefferson College". The Centennial Celebration of the Chartering of Jefferson College in 1802. Philadelphia: George H. Buchanan and Company. pp. 111–132.
  6. ^ Weinberg, Bennett Alan; Bealer, Bonnie K. (2001). The world of caffeine: the science and culture of the world's most popular drug. Psychology Press. pp. 92–3. ISBN 978-0-415-92722-2. Retrieved 2015-05-12.
1794 United States elections

The 1794 United States elections occurred in the middle of President George Washington's second term. Members of the 4th United States Congress were chosen in this election. Tennessee was admitted as a state during the 4th Congress. The election took place at the beginning of the First Party System, with the Democratic-Republican Party and Federalist Party emerging as political parties, succeeding the anti-administration faction and the pro-administration faction.In the House, the Democratic-Republicans picked up a small number of seats, increasing their majority. However, Federalist Jonathan Dayton was elected Speaker of the House, defeating Frederick Muhlenberg, who had a less clear partisan affiliation.In the Senate, the Federalists picked up a moderate number of seats, increasing their majority.Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his presidency.

1794 and 1795 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 4th Congress were held on various dates in each state between August 25, 1794 (New Hampshire), and September 5, 1795 (Kentucky). The election was held during President George Washington's second term. The voters of Tennessee elected their first congressional representative (Andrew Jackson) on October 7, 1796.

In the second election for the House of Representatives with organized political parties, the Democratic-Republican Party, led by Thomas Jefferson, once again defeated the Federalist Party, led by Alexander Hamilton, and slightly increased their majority. These new wins by the Democratic-Republicans can mostly be attributed to the popularity of Jeffersonian ideas of agrarian democracy in the Western territories of the United States.

1794 and 1795 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1794 and 1795 were elections that had the formation of organized political parties in the United States, with the Federalist Party emerging from the Pro Administration coalition, and the Democratic-Republican Party emerging from the Anti-Administration coalition.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

1794 in Denmark

Events from the year 1794 in Denmark.

1794 in France

The following lists events that happened during 1794 in the French Republic.

1794 in Ireland

Events from the year 1794 in Ireland.

1794 in Sweden

Events from the year 1794 in Sweden

Battle of Fleurus (1794)

The Battle of Fleurus, on 26 June 1794, was an engagement between the army of the First French Republic, under General Jean-Baptiste Jourdan and the Coalition Army (Britain, Hanover, Dutch Republic, and Habsburg Monarchy), commanded by Prince Josias of Coburg, in the most significant battle of the Flanders Campaign in the Low Countries during the French Revolutionary Wars. Both sides had forces in the area of around 80,000 men but the French were able to concentrate their troops and defeat the First Coalition. The Allied defeat led to the permanent loss of the Austrian Netherlands and to the destruction of the Dutch Republic. The battle marked a turning point for the French army, which remained ascendant for the rest of the War of the First Coalition. The French use of the reconnaissance balloon l'Entreprenant was the first military use of an aircraft that influenced the result of a battle.

Battle of Tournay (1794)

The Battle of Tournay (1794) or Tournai was fought on 22 May 1794 as part of the Flanders Campaign in the Belgian province of Hainaut on the Schelde River (about 80 km southwest of Brussels) between French forces under General Pichegru and Coalition forces (Austrian, British, and Hanoverian troops) under Prince Josias of Coburg, in which the Coalition forces were victorious.

In the course of the battle, the enemy forces changed possession of the village Pont-à-Chin four times, until finally the French had to retreat.

Committee of Public Safety

The Committee of Public Safety (French: Comité de salut public), created in April 1793 by the National Convention and then restructured in July 1793, formed the de facto executive government in France during the Reign of Terror (1793–1794), a stage of the French Revolution. The Committee of Public Safety succeeded the previous Committee of General Defence (established in January 1793) and assumed its role of protecting the newly established republic against foreign attacks and internal rebellion. As a wartime measure, the Committee—composed at first of nine and later of twelve members—was given broad supervisory powers over military, judicial and legislative efforts. It was formed as an administrative body to supervise and expedite the work of the executive bodies of the Convention and of the government ministers appointed by the Convention. As the Committee tried to meet the dangers of a coalition of European nations and counter-revolutionary forces within the country, it became more and more powerful.

Following the defeat at the Convention of the Girondins in June 1793, a prominent Jacobin identified as a radical, Maximilien Robespierre, was added to the Committee. The power of the Committee peaked between August 1793 and July 1794. In December 1793, the Convention formally conferred executive power upon the Committee.

The execution of Robespierre in July 1794 represented a reactionary period against the Committee of Public Safety. This became known as the Thermidorian Reaction, as Robespierre's fall from power occurred during the month of Thermidor in the French Republican calendar. The Committee's influence diminished and it was abolished in 1795.

Cult of the Supreme Being

The Cult of the Supreme Being (French: Culte de l'Être suprême) was a form of deism established in France by Maximilien Robespierre during the French Revolution. It was intended to become the state religion of the new French Republic and a replacement for Roman Catholicism and its rival, the Cult of Reason.

It went unsupported after the fall of Robespierre and was officially proscribed when Napoleon restored Catholicism in France.

Edward Gibbon

Edward Gibbon FRS (; 8 May 1737 – 16 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament. His most important work, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, was published in six volumes between 1776 and 1788 and is known for the quality and irony of its prose, its use of primary sources, and its polemical criticism of organised religion.

Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Eleventh Amendment (Amendment XI) to the United States Constitution was passed by Congress on March 4, 1794, and ratified by the states on February 7, 1795. The Eleventh Amendment restricts the ability of individuals to bring suit against states in federal court.

The Eleventh Amendment was adopted to overrule the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Chisholm v. Georgia (1793). In that case, the Supreme Court had held that states did not enjoy sovereign immunity from suits made by citizens of other states in federal court. Thus, the Eleventh Amendment established that federal courts do not have the authority to hear cases brought by private citizens against states. Nonetheless, the Supreme Court has held that Congress can abrogate state sovereign immunity when using its authority under the Bankruptcy Clause or Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Supreme Court has also held that federal courts can enjoin state officials from violating federal law.

Jay Treaty

The Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation, Between His Britannic Majesty and the United States of America, commonly known as the Jay Treaty, and also as Jay's Treaty, was a 1795 treaty between the United States and Great Britain that averted war, resolved issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris of 1783 (which ended the American Revolutionary War), and facilitated ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars, which began in 1792. The Treaty was designed by Alexander Hamilton and supported by President George Washington. It angered France and bitterly divided Americans. It inflamed the new growth of two opposing parties in every state, the pro-Treaty Federalists and the anti-Treaty Democratic Republicans.

The Treaty was negotiated by John Jay and gained many of the primary American goals. This included the withdrawal of British Army units from forts in the Northwest Territory that it had refused to relinquish under the Paris Peace Treaty. The British were retaliating for the United States reneging on Articles 4 and 6 of the 1783 treaty; American state courts impeded the collection of debts owed British creditors and upheld the continued confiscation of Loyalist estates in spite of an explicit understanding that the prosecutions would be immediately discontinued. The parties agreed that disputes over wartime debts and the American–Canadian boundary were to be sent to arbitration—one of the first major uses of arbitration in modern diplomatic history. This set a precedent used by other nations. The Americans were granted limited rights to trade with British colonies in the Caribbean in exchange for some limits on the American export of cotton.

The Jay treaty was signed on November 19, 1794, and submitted to the United States Senate for its advice and consent the following June. It was ratified by the Senate on June 24, 1795, by a two-thirds majority vote of 20–10 (the exact number necessary for concurrence). It was also ratified by the British government, and took effect February 29, 1796, the day when ratifications were officially exchanged.

The treaty was hotly contested by Jeffersonians in each state. An effort was made to block it in the House, which ultimately failed. The Jeffersonians feared that closer economic or political ties with Great Britain would strengthen Hamilton's Federalist Party, promote aristocracy, and undercut republicanism. This debate crystallized the emerging partisan divisions and shaped the new "First Party System", with the Federalists favoring the British and the Jeffersonian republicans favoring France. The treaty was for ten years' duration. Efforts failed to agree on a replacement treaty in 1806 when Jefferson rejected the Monroe–Pinkney Treaty, as tensions escalated toward the War of 1812.

Kościuszko Uprising

The Kościuszko Uprising was an uprising against the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia led by Tadeusz Kościuszko in the Commonwealth of Poland and the Prussian partition in 1794. It was a failed attempt to liberate the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from Russian influence after the Second Partition of Poland (1793) and the creation of the Targowica Confederation.

List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain, 1780–1800

This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain for the years 1780–1800. For Acts passed up until 1707 see List of Acts of the Parliament of England and List of Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland to 1700 and the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland, 1701–1800.

For Acts passed from 1801 onwards see List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. For Acts of the devolved parliaments and assemblies in the United Kingdom, see the List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament from 1999, the List of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the List of Acts and Measures of the National Assembly for Wales; see also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.

The number shown after each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Union with Ireland Act 1800 is cited as "39 & 40 Geo. 3 c. 67", meaning the 67th Act passed during the session that started in the 39th year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 40th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "41 Geo. 3" rather than "41 Geo. III"). Note also that Acts of the last session of the Parliament of Great Britain and the first session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are both cited as "41 Geo. 3".

Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain did not have a short title; however, some of these Acts have subsequently been given a short title by Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (such as the Short Titles Act 1896).

Before the Acts of Parliament (Commencement) Act 1793 came into force on 8 April 1793, Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain were deemed to have come into effect on the first day of the session in which they were passed. Because of this, the years given in the list below may in fact be the year before a particular Act was passed.

From the session 38 Geo. 3 onwards, "Public Acts" were separated into "Public General Acts" and "Public Local and Personal Acts".

Reign of Terror

The Reign of Terror, or The Terror (French: la Terreur), is the label given by most historians to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.

Several historians consider the "reign of terror" to have begun in 1793, placing the starting date at either 5 September, June or March (birth of the Revolutionary Tribunal), while some consider it to have begun in September 1792 (September Massacres), or even July 1789 (when the first lynchings took place), but there is a consensus that it ended with the fall of Maximilien Robespierre in July 1794.Between June 1793 and the end of July 1794, there were 16,594 official death sentences in France, of which 2,639 were in Paris.

Thermidorian Reaction

The Thermidorian Reaction was a counter revolution which took place in France on 9 Thermidor of the Year II (27 July 1794). On this day, the French politician Maximilien Robespierre was denounced by members of the National Convention as "a tyrant", leading to Robespierre and twenty-one associates including Louis Antoine de Saint-Just being arrested that night and beheaded on the following day.

Whiskey Rebellion

The Whiskey Rebellion (also known as the Whiskey Insurrection) was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791 and ending in 1794 during the presidency of George Washington, ultimately under the command of American Revolutionary war veteran Major James McFarlane. The so-called "whiskey tax" was the first tax imposed on a domestic product by the newly formed federal government. It became law in 1791, and was intended to generate revenue for the war debt incurred during the Revolutionary War. The tax applied to all distilled spirits, but American whiskey was by far the country's most popular distilled beverage in the 18th century, so the excise became widely known as a "whiskey tax". Farmers of the western frontier were accustomed to distilling their surplus rye, barley, wheat, corn, or fermented grain mixtures into whiskey. These farmers resisted the tax. In these regions, whiskey often served as a medium of exchange. Many of the resisters were war veterans who believed that they were fighting for the principles of the American Revolution, in particular against taxation without local representation, while the federal government maintained that the taxes were the legal expression of Congressional taxation powers.

Throughout Western Pennsylvania counties, protesters used violence and intimidation to prevent federal officials from collecting the tax. Resistance came to a climax in July 1794, when a U.S. marshal arrived in western Pennsylvania to serve writs to distillers who had not paid the excise. The alarm was raised, and more than 500 armed men attacked the fortified home of tax inspector General John Neville. Washington responded by sending peace commissioners to western Pennsylvania to negotiate with the rebels, while at the same time calling on governors to send a militia force to enforce the tax. Washington himself rode at the head of an army to suppress the insurgency, with 13,000 militiamen provided by the governors of Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. The rebels all went home before the arrival of the army, and there was no confrontation. About 20 men were arrested, but all were later acquitted or pardoned. Most distillers in nearby Kentucky were found to be all but impossible to tax—in the next six years, over 175 distillers from Kentucky were convicted of violating the tax law. Numerous examples of resistance are recorded in court documents and newspaper accounts.The Whiskey Rebellion demonstrated that the new national government had the will and ability to suppress violent resistance to its laws, though the whiskey excise remained difficult to collect. The events contributed to the formation of political parties in the United States, a process already underway. The whiskey tax was repealed in the early 1800s during the Jefferson administration.

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