1782 in India

Events in the year 1782 in India.

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1782
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See also:List of years in India
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Events

References

  1. ^ Everyman's Dictionary of Dates; 6th ed. J. M. Dent, 1971; p. 261
First Anglo-Maratha War

The First Anglo-Maratha War (1775–1782) was the first of three Anglo-Maratha wars fought between the British East India Company and Maratha Empire in India. The war began with the Treaty of Surat and ended with the Treaty of Salbai.

France in the American Revolutionary War

French involvement in the American Revolutionary War began in 1775, when France, a rival of the British Empire, secretly shipped supplies to the Continental Army. A Treaty of Alliance in 1778 soon followed, which led to shipments of money and matériel to the United States. Subsequently, the Spanish Empire and the Dutch Republic also began to send assistance, leaving the British Empire with no allies(excluding the Hessian Soldiers). Spain openly declared war but the Dutch did not.

France's help is considered a major, vital, and decisive contribution to the United States' victory against the British. As a cost of participation in the war, France accumulated over 1 billion livres in debt.

Second Anglo-Mysore War

The Second Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company from 1780 to 1784. At the time, Mysore was a key French ally in India, and the conflict between Britain against the French and Dutch in the American Revolutionary War sparked Anglo–Mysorean hostilities in India. The great majority of soldiers on the company side were raised, trained, paid and commanded by the company, not the British government. However, the company's operations were bolstered by Crown troops sent from Britain, and by troops sent from Hanover, which was also ruled by Britain's King George III.

Following the British seizure of the French port of Mahé in 1779, Mysorean ruler Hyder Ali opened hostilities against the British in 1780, with significant success in early campaigns. As the war progressed, the British recovered some territorial losses. Both France and Britain sent troops and naval squadrons from Europe to assist in the war effort, which widened later in 1780 when Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic. In 1783 news of a preliminary peace between France and Britain reached India, resulting in the withdrawal of French support from the Mysorean war effort. The British consequently also sought to end the conflict with Mysore, and the British government ordered the Company to secure peace with Mysore. This resulted in the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore, restoring the status quo ante bellum under terms company officials such as Warren Hastings found extremely unfavourable.

Siege of Tellicherry

The Siege of Tellicherry was a military embargo that happened in Thalassery (North Malabar). The Commander in Chief of the Mysore Calicut Province, Sirdar Ali, took siege of the British Military Barrack of Thalassery for 18 months. They British and the local administrators were blockaded within Thalassery by land as well as by sea. It was during the Second Anglo-Mysore War.

The siege continued until reinforcements from Bombay under the command of Major Abington attacked the Mysore army and defeated them. Major Abington then moved south, capturing Calicut. The Siege of Tellicherry led to the fall of strongholds of the First Mysore conquest, led by Hyder Ali. Even though laterTipu Sultan came from Mysore to reinstate the conquered area to previous status.Tellicherry (Thalassery) rose to become a fortified coastal harbor and major town under English East India Company control. The British got this site in 1705 from Kolathiri Raja of Northern Malabar.

Hyder Ali, ruler of Mysore had no love lost for British and had already fought a war with British. His objective during second war was to oust British from South India and conquer whole of South India.

Malabar was under continuous occupation of Hyder's troops since 1774 and whole country of Malabar was in a state of constant rebellion. The British supplied arms and ammunition to rebels and this displeased Hyder.Also Tellicherry was a major naval base of the British in south west coast of India. Hyder's conquest of Tellicherry will be a big blow to British naval position in waters of Peninsular India.

So in order to block flow of guns and ammunition to rebellious Rajahs and chiefs of Malabar as well as to cripple British naval power, Hyder Ali decided to conquer Tellicherry as part of his larger plan to oust British from South India.So Hyder ordered his vassal Rama Varma, Rajah of Chirakkal to besiege Tellicherry in 1778. Rajah did so with a large army but Hyder's opponent, Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja, acting Rajah of Kottayam (Thalassery) and an ally of British then, took to field and surrounded the besiegers of Tellicherry and cut off all their supplies and communications and forced them to retreat.

But in 1779, Chirakkal army of 4,000 supported by a Mysore contingent of 2,500 men defeated Kottayam army and then invaded the neighboring pro-British kingdom of Kadathanad and installed a puppet Rajah on throne who put that part of Kadathanad army (2,000 men) which supported him at Hyder's disposal.

This large host once more besieged Tellicherry in 1779 and as British garrison was perilously short on men and food, Pazhassi Rajah sent 1000 men and his entire surplus harvest to Tellicherry fort. This bought time for the beleaguered garrison. Soon siege progressed and British bought reinforcements and artillery. At the beginning, British had only two battalions in Tellicherry. But 1000 men of Pazhassi Rajah was soon supplemented by another four battalions and a good train of artillery.British and their ally Kottayam contingent fought a desperate defense for months - each assault of the Mysore army was repelled and the siege went on till 1782.

Then British command pondered over the plan suggested by Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja. British garrison must launch a sortie to break the besieger army into two and link up with another of his army who will strike enemy in rear. Soon they decided to adopt this plan.

As British and Kottayam troops launched a furious assault on besiegers in 1782 - as planned sudden appearance of another 1000 men of Kottayam Rajah in rear proved fatal to Mysore army and their allies who were split into two halves. Enemy retreated in confusion and panic and a considerable number was taken prisoner.

Sirdar Khan seriously wounded and sick fell prisoner and breathed his last in captivity. This disaster for Mysore army roused rebels all over Malabar into a massive rebellion and decimated all the Mysore regiments of occupation and recovered their freedom for a short period.

Siege of Vellore

The Siege of Vellore was an intermittent series of sieges and blockades conducted during the Second Anglo-Mysore War by forces of the Kingdom of Mysore against a British East India Company garrison holding the fortress at Vellore, located in the present-day Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

First besieged in 1780, Mysore's ruler Hyder Ali eventually reduced the siege to a blockade due the need for troops elsewhere. The blockade was ineffectively maintained until 1782 before being abandoned. The British successfully resupplied the garrison of Colonel Ross Lang four times.

Treaty of Salbai

The Treaty of Salbai was signed on 17 May 1782, by representatives of the Maratha Empire and the British East India Company after long negotiations to settle the outcome of the First Anglo-Maratha War. Under its terms, the Company retained control of Salsette and Broach and acquired guarantees that the Marathas would defeat Hyder Ali of Mysore and retake territories in the Carnatic. The Marathas also guaranteed that the French would be prohibited from establishing settlements on their territories. In return, the British agreed to pension off their protégé, Raghunath Rao, and acknowledge Madhavrao II as peshwa of the Maratha Empire. The British also recognised the territorial claims of the Mahadji Shinde west of the Jumna River and all the territories occupied by the British after the Treaty of Purandar were given back to the Marathas.

The Treaty of Salbai resulted in a period of relative peace between the Maratha Empire and the British East India Company until outbreak of the Second Anglo-Maratha War in 1802. David Anderson concluded the Treaty of Salbai on behalf of the East

India Company.

Years in India (1500–present)
1782 in Asia
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