1769 (MDCCLXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1769th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 769th year of the 2nd millennium, the 69th year of the 18th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1760s decade. As of the start of 1769, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1769 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1769
Ab urbe condita2522
Armenian calendar1218
Assyrian calendar6519
Balinese saka calendar1690–1691
Bengali calendar1176
Berber calendar2719
British Regnal yearGeo. 3 – 10 Geo. 3
Buddhist calendar2313
Burmese calendar1131
Byzantine calendar7277–7278
Chinese calendar戊子(Earth Rat)
4465 or 4405
    — to —
己丑年 (Earth Ox)
4466 or 4406
Coptic calendar1485–1486
Discordian calendar2935
Ethiopian calendar1761–1762
Hebrew calendar5529–5530
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1825–1826
 - Shaka Samvat1690–1691
 - Kali Yuga4869–4870
Holocene calendar11769
Igbo calendar769–770
Iranian calendar1147–1148
Islamic calendar1182–1183
Japanese calendarMeiwa 6
Javanese calendar1694–1695
Julian calendarGregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar4102
Minguo calendar143 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar301
Thai solar calendar2311–2312
Tibetan calendar阳土鼠年
(male Earth-Rat)
1895 or 1514 or 742
    — to —
(female Earth-Ox)
1896 or 1515 or 743
Endeavour replica in Cooktown harbour
April 13: James Cook arrives in Tahiti on the Endeavour.






October 23: Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot demonstrates his steam-wagon.

Date unknown




  1. ^ Sir Eric Roll, An Early Experiment in Industrial Organization: History of the Firm of Boulton and Watt 1775-1805 (Frank Cass and Company, 1930) p13
  2. ^ a b c Denis De Lucca, Jesuits and Fortifications: The Contribution of the Jesuits to Military Architecture in the Baroque Age (BRILL, 2012) pp315-316
  3. ^ "The Ethics and Philosophy of By-Elections", by J.G. Swift MacNeill, in The Fortnightly Review (April 1, 1920) p557
  4. ^ Patent 913; specification accepted January 5.
  5. ^ Palmer, Alan; Palmer, Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 224–225. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
  6. ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 325. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  7. ^ Joan Garvey and Mary Lou Widmer, Beautiful Crescent: A History of New Orleans (Pelican Publishing, 2012) pp62-63
  8. ^ Martin Terry and Susan Hall, Cook's Endeavour Journal: The Inside Story (National Library Australia, 2008) p90
  9. ^ "Spanish Penetrations to the North of New Spain", by Oakah L. Jones, Jr., in North American Exploration, Volume 2: A Continent Defined, ed. by John Logan Allen ((University of Nebraska Press, 1997) p62
  10. ^ John Barrow, Some Account of the Public Life, and a Selection from the Unpublished Writings of the Earl of Macartney (Volume II, Cadell and Davies, 1807) p151

Further reading

1769 English cricket season

The 1769 English cricket season was the 26th season following the earliest known codification of the Laws of Cricket. Details have survived of 11 eleven-a-side matches between significant teams. It was the last season in which the original London Cricket Club and the Artillery Ground featured prominently.

1769 in Canada

Events from the year 1769 in Canada.

1769 in Denmark

Events from the year 1769 in Denmark.

1769 in France

Events from the year 1769 in France.

1769 in India

Events in the year 1769 in India.

1769 in Ireland

Events from the year 1769 in Ireland.

1769 in Norway

Events in the year 1769 in Norway.

1769 in Scotland

Events from the year 1769 in Scotland.

1769 in Sweden

Events from the year 1769 in Sweden

C/1769 P1

C/1769 P1 (Messier) is a long-period comet that was visible to the naked eye at its last apparition in 1769. Because of its outstanding brightness it is called a great comet.


Debrett's () is a professional coaching company, publisher and authority on etiquette and behaviour, founded in 1769 with the publication of the first edition of The New Peerage. The title is named after John Debrett.

French East India Company

The French East India Company (French: Compagnie française pour le commerce des Indes orientales) was a commercial Imperial enterprise, founded in 1664 to compete with the English (later British) and Dutch East India companies in the East Indies.

Planned by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, it was chartered by King Louis XIV for the purpose of trading in the Eastern Hemisphere. It resulted from the fusion of three earlier companies, the 1660 Compagnie de Chine, the Compagnie d'Orient and Compagnie de Madagascar. The first Director General for the Company was François de la Faye, who was adjoined by two Directors belonging to the two most successful trading organizations at that time: François Caron, who had spent 30 years working for the Dutch East India Company, including more than 20 years in Japan, and Marcara Avanchintz, an Armenian trader from Isfahan, Persia.

List of windmills in Kent

A list of all windmills and windmill sites which lie in the current Ceremonial county of Kent.

Littleton, New Hampshire

Littleton is a town in Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 5,928 at the 2010 census. Situated at the northern edge of the White Mountains, Littleton is bounded on the northwest by the Connecticut River.

The primary settlement in town, where 4,412 people resided at the 2010 census, is defined as the Littleton census-designated place (CDP), and is centered on the intersection of U.S. Route 302 with New Hampshire Route 116, along the Ammonoosuc River.

Mission San Diego de Alcalá

Mission Basilica San Diego de Alcalá was the first Franciscan mission in The Californias, a province of New Spain. Located in present-day San Diego, California, it was founded on July 16, 1769, by Spanish friar Junípero Serra in an area long inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The mission and the surrounding area were named for the Catholic Didacus of Alcalá, a Spaniard more commonly known as San Diego. The mission was the site of the first Christian burial in Alta California. San Diego is also generally regarded as the site of the region's first public execution, in 1778. Father Luis Jayme, California's first Christian martyr, lies entombed beneath the chancel floor. The current church, built in the early 19th century, is the fifth to stand on this location. The mission site is a National Historic Landmark.

Rockingham County, New Hampshire

Rockingham County is a county in the U.S. state of New Hampshire. As of the 2010 census, the population was 295,223, making it the second-most populous county in New Hampshire. The county seat is Brentwood. Rockingham County constitutes a portion of the Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as of the greater Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT Combined Statistical Area.

Sino-Burmese War (1765–69)

The Sino-Burmese War (Chinese: 清緬戰爭; Burmese: တရုတ်-မြန်မာ စစ် (၁၇၆၅–၆၉)), also known as the Qing invasions of Burma or the Myanmar campaign of the Qing dynasty, was a war fought between the Qing dynasty of China and the Konbaung dynasty of Burma (Myanmar). China under the Qianlong Emperor launched four invasions of Burma between 1765 and 1769, which were considered as one of his Ten Great Campaigns. Nonetheless, the war, which claimed the lives of over 70,000 Chinese soldiers and four commanders, is sometimes described as "the most disastrous frontier war that the Qing dynasty had ever waged", and one that "assured Burmese independence". Burma's successful defense laid the foundation for the present-day boundary between the two countries.At first, the Emperor envisaged an easy war, and sent in only the Green Standard troops stationed in Yunnan. The Qing invasion came as the majority of Burmese forces were deployed in their latest invasion of Siam. Nonetheless, battle-hardened Burmese troops defeated the first two invasions of 1765–1766 and 1766–1767 at the border. The regional conflict now escalated to a major war that involved military maneuvers nationwide in both countries. The third invasion (1767–1768) led by the elite Manchu Bannermen nearly succeeded, penetrating deep into central Burma within a few days' march from the capital, Ava (Inwa). But the bannermen of northern China could not cope with unfamiliar tropical terrains and lethal endemic diseases, and were driven back with heavy losses. After the close-call, King Hsinbyushin redeployed his armies from Siam to the Chinese front. The fourth and largest invasion got bogged down at the frontier. With the Qing forces completely encircled, a truce was reached between the field commanders of the two sides in December 1769.The Qing kept a heavy military lineup in the border areas of Yunnan for about one decade in an attempt to wage another war while imposing a ban on inter-border trade for two decades. The Burmese, too, were preoccupied with the Chinese threat, and kept a series of garrisons along the border. Twenty years later, when Burma and China resumed a diplomatic relationship in 1790, the Qing unilaterally viewed the act as Burmese submission, and claimed victory. Ultimately the main beneficiaries of this war were the Siamese, who reclaimed most of their territories in the next three years after having lost their capital Ayutthaya to the Burmese in 1767.

The Morning Chronicle

The Morning Chronicle was a newspaper founded in 1769 in London, England, and published under various owners until 1862, when its publication was suspended, with two subsequent attempts at continued publication. From 28 June 1769 to March 1789 it was published under the name The Morning Chronicle, and London Advertiser. From 1789 to its final publication in 1865, it was published under the name The Morning Chronicle. It was notable for having been the first steady employer of essayist William Hazlitt as a political reporter, and the first steady employer of Charles Dickens as a journalist; for publishing the articles by Henry Mayhew that were collected and published in book format in 1851 as London Labour and the London Poor; and for publishing other major writers, such as John Stuart Mill.

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