1768

1768 (MDCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1768th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 768th year of the 2nd millennium, the 68th year of the 18th century, and the 9th year of the 1760s decade. As of the start of 1768, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1768 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1768
MDCCLXVIII
Ab urbe condita2521
Armenian calendar1217
ԹՎ ՌՄԺԷ
Assyrian calendar6518
Balinese saka calendar1689–1690
Bengali calendar1175
Berber calendar2718
British Regnal yearGeo. 3 – 9 Geo. 3
Buddhist calendar2312
Burmese calendar1130
Byzantine calendar7276–7277
Chinese calendar丁亥(Fire Pig)
4464 or 4404
    — to —
戊子年 (Earth Rat)
4465 or 4405
Coptic calendar1484–1485
Discordian calendar2934
Ethiopian calendar1760–1761
Hebrew calendar5528–5529
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1824–1825
 - Shaka Samvat1689–1690
 - Kali Yuga4868–4869
Holocene calendar11768
Igbo calendar768–769
Iranian calendar1146–1147
Islamic calendar1181–1182
Japanese calendarMeiwa 5
(明和5年)
Javanese calendar1693–1694
Julian calendarGregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar4101
Minguo calendar144 before ROC
民前144年
Nanakshahi calendar300
Thai solar calendar2310–2311
Tibetan calendar阴火猪年
(female Fire-Pig)
1894 or 1513 or 741
    — to —
阳土鼠年
(male Earth-Rat)
1895 or 1514 or 742
Houghton 57-1633 - Astley's Amphitheatre, 1808 - cropped
January 9: Philip Astley circus starts.

Events

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ Norwood Young, The Life of Frederick the Great (Henry Holt and Co., 1919) p386
  2. ^ a b Brian Davies, Empire and Military Revolution in Eastern Europe: Russia's Turkish Wars in the Eighteenth Century (A&C Black, 2011)
  3. ^ "Indexing the Great Ledger of the Community: Urban House Numbering, City Directories, and the Production of Spatial Legibility", by Reuben S. Rose-Redwood, in Critical Toponymies: The Contested Politics of Place Naming, ed. by Lawrence D. Berg and Jani Vuolteenaho (Ashgate Publishing, 2009) p199
  4. ^ Jace Weaver, The Red Atlantic: American Indigenes and the Making of the Modern World, 1000-1927 (University of North Carolina Press Books, 2014) p164
  5. ^ Sailendra Nath Sen, Anglo-Maratha Relations, 1785-96 (Popular Prakashan, 1995) p126
  6. ^ Alexander von Humboldt, Pictureque Atlas of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of the New Continet reprinted by Cambridge University Press, 1814, reprinted 2011) p119
  7. ^ a b Gordon Carruth, ed., The Encyclopedia of American Facts and Dates, 3rd Edition (Thomas Y. Crowell, 1962) pp76-79
  8. ^ "St. George's Field Riot". Spartacus. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-03.
  9. ^ Walter K. Kelly, The History of Russia: From the Earliest Period to the Present Time (H. G. Bohn, 1855) p47
  10. ^ Philip A. Kuhn, Soulstealers: The Chinese Sorcery Scare of 1768 (Harvard University Press, 2009) p78
  11. ^ a b "Fires, Great", in The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p56
  12. ^ "Cook's Journal: Daily Entries, 7 August 1768". Archived from the original on September 23, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-10.
  13. ^ Jerrilyn Greene Marston, King and Congress: The Transfer of Political Legitimacy, 1774-1776 (Princeton University Press, 2014) p106
  14. ^ John K. Alexander, Samuel Adams: America's Revolutionary Politician (Rowman & Littlefield, 2004) p65
  15. ^ Gordon S. Wood, The American Revolution: A History (Random House, 2002)
  16. ^ Virginia H. Aksan, An Ottoman Statesman in War and Peace: Ahmed Resmi Efendi, 1700-1783 (E.J. Brill, 1995) p100
  17. ^ "Pitt, William", by G.F. Russell Barker, in Dictionary of National Biography, Volume 45 (Smith, Elder, & Company, 1896) p232
  18. ^ Sherry Johnson, Climate and Catastrophe in Cuba and the Atlantic World in the Age of Revolution (University of North Carolina Press, 2011) p83
  19. ^ Charles Royce, The Cherokee Nation (Routledge, 2017)
  20. ^ Charles E. Gayarré, History of Louisiana: The French Domination (F. F. Hansell, 1903, reprinted by Pelican Publishing, 1972) p308
  21. ^ "Fort Stanwix, Treaty at", in Harper's Popular Cyclopedia of United States History, ed. by Benson J. Lossing (Harper & Brothers, 1893) p519
  22. ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.

Further reading

1768 British general election

The 1768 British general election returned members to serve in the House of Commons of the 13th Parliament of Great Britain to be held, after the merger of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland in 1707.

The election saw the emergence of a new political leadership in parliament, with the dominant figures of the previous parliament; the Earl of Bute, the Earl of Chatham, and the Duke of Newcastle all retiring from political life for various reasons. The new administration centered on the First Lord of the Treasury; the Duke of Grafton, and his leader in the commons; Lord North.The election also took place during a lull in political conflict, with there being a lack of any real political debate over policy or principle between the main parties. The two opposition parties; the Rockingham Whigs and the Grenvillites, owed their origins to the time when their respective leaders had been in office.Potentially the most important part of the election was the election of the radical John Wilkes for Middlesex. Wilkes election triggered a major political crisis, and marked the beginning of political radicalism in Britain.

1768 English cricket season

The 1768 English cricket season was the 25th season following the earliest known codification of the Laws of Cricket. Details have survived of nine eleven-a-side matches between significant teams.

1768 in Canada

Events from the year 1768 in Canada.

1768 in Denmark

Events from the year 1768 in Denmark.

1768 in France

Events from the year 1768 in France

1768 in Ireland

Events from the year 1768 in Ireland.

1768 in Russia

Events from the year 1768 in Russia

1768 in Scotland

Events from the year 1768 in Scotland.

1768 in Sweden

Events from the year 1768 in Sweden

Colonial Office

The Colonial Office was a government department of the Kingdom of Great Britain and later of the United Kingdom, first created to deal with the colonial affairs of British North America but needed also to oversee the increasing number of colonies of the British Empire.

It was headed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, known as the Colonial Secretary.

Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia. It was written by about 100 full-time editors and more than 4,000 contributors. The 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition.

The Britannica is the English-language encyclopaedia/encyclopedia that was in print for the longest time: it lasted 244 years. It was first published between 1768 and 1771 in the Scottish capital of Edinburgh, as three volumes. (This first edition is available in facsimile.) The encyclopaedia grew in size: the second edition was 10 volumes, and by its fourth edition (1801–1810) it had expanded to 20 volumes. Its rising stature as a scholarly work helped recruit eminent contributors, and the 9th (1875–1889) and 11th editions (1911) are landmark encyclopaedias for scholarship and literary style. Beginning with the 11th edition and following its acquisition by an American firm, the Britannica shortened and simplified articles to broaden its appeal to the North American market. In 1933, the Britannica became the first encyclopaedia to adopt "continuous revision", in which the encyclopaedia is continually reprinted, with every article updated on a schedule. In March 2012, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. announced it would no longer publish printed editions, and would focus instead on Encyclopædia Britannica Online.

The 15th edition had a three-part structure: a 12-volume Micropædia of short articles (generally fewer than 750 words), a 17-volume Macropædia of long articles (two to 310 pages), and a single Propædia volume to give a hierarchical outline of knowledge. The Micropædia was meant for quick fact-checking and as a guide to the Macropædia; readers are advised to study the Propædia outline to understand a subject's context and to find more detailed articles. Over 70 years, the size of the Britannica has remained steady, with about 40 million words on half a million topics. Though published in the United States since 1901, the Britannica has for the most part maintained British English spelling.

First voyage of James Cook

The first voyage of James Cook was a combined Royal Navy and Royal Society expedition to the south Pacific Ocean aboard HMS Endeavour, from 1768 to 1771. It was the first of three Pacific voyages of which Cook was the commander. The aims of this first expedition were to observe the 1769 transit of Venus across the Sun (3–4 June of that year), and to seek evidence of the postulated Terra Australis Incognita or "unknown southern land".

The voyage was commissioned by King George III and commanded by Lieutenant James Cook, a junior naval officer with good skills in cartography and mathematics. Departing from Plymouth Dockyard in August 1768, the expedition crossed the Atlantic, rounded Cape Horn and reached Tahiti in time to observe the transit of Venus. Cook then set sail into the largely uncharted ocean to the south, stopping at the Pacific islands of Huahine, Borabora and Raiatea to claim them for Great Britain, and unsuccessfully attempting to land at Rurutu. In September 1769 the expedition reached New Zealand, being the second Europeans to visit there, following the first European discovery by Abel Tasman 127 years earlier. Cook and his crew spent the following six months charting the New Zealand coast, before resuming their voyage westward across open sea. In April 1770 they became the first Europeans to reach the east coast of Australia, making landfall at Point Hicks, and then proceeding to Botany Bay.

The expedition continued northward along the Australian coastline, narrowly avoiding shipwreck on the Great Barrier Reef. In October 1770 the badly damaged Endeavour came into the port of Batavia in the Dutch East Indies, her crew sworn to secrecy about the lands they had discovered. They resumed their journey on 26 December, rounded the Cape of Good Hope on 13 March 1771, and reached the English port of Deal on 12 July. The voyage lasted almost three years.

The year following his return Cook set out on a second voyage of the Pacific, which lasted from 1772 to 1775. His third and final voyage lasted from 1776 to 1779.

List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain, 1760–1779

This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain for the years 1760–1779. For Acts passed up until 1707 see List of Acts of the Parliament of England and List of Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland to 1700 and the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland, 1701–1800.

For Acts passed from 1801 onwards see List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. For Acts of the devolved parliaments and assemblies in the United Kingdom, see the List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament from 1999, the List of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the List of Acts and Measures of the National Assembly for Wales; see also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.

The number shown after each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Union with Ireland Act 1800 is cited as "39 & 40 Geo. 3 c. 67", meaning the 67th Act passed during the session that started in the 39th year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 40th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "41 Geo. 3" rather than "41 Geo. III"). Note also that Acts of the last session of the Parliament of Great Britain and the first session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are both cited as "41 Geo. 3".

Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain did not have a short title; however, some of these Acts have subsequently been given a short title by Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (such as the Short Titles Act 1896).

Before the Acts of Parliament (Commencement) Act 1793 came into force on 8 April 1793, Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain were deemed to have come into effect on the first day of the session in which they were passed. Because of this, the years given in the list below may in fact be the year before a particular Act was passed.

Royal Academy of Arts

The Royal Academy of Arts (RA) is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly in London. It has a unique position as an independent, privately funded institution led by eminent artists and architects. Its purpose is to promote the creation, enjoyment and appreciation of the visual arts through exhibitions, education and debate.

Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774)

The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 was an armed conflict that brought Kabardia, the part of the Yedisan between the rivers Bug and Dnieper, and Crimea into the Russian sphere of influence. Though the victories accrued by the Russian Empire were substantial, they gained far less territory than otherwise would be expected. The reason for this was the complex struggle within the European diplomatic system for a balance of power that was acceptable to other European leading states, rather than Russian hegemony. Russia was able to take advantage of the weakened Ottoman Empire, the end of the Seven Years' War, and the withdrawal of France as the continent's primary military power (due to financial burden and isolationism). This left the Russian Empire in a strengthened position to expand its territory but also lose temporary hegemony over the decentralized Poland. The greater Turkish losses were diplomatic in nature seeing its full decline as a threat to Christian Europe, and the beginning of the Eastern Question that would plague the continent until the end of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century.

On 25 September 1768 the Ottoman Empire declared war onto the Russian Empire following the recent treaty between Ottomans and members of Bar Confederation. On 31 October 1768 the President of the Collegium of Little Russia (Malorossia) Pyotr Rumyantsev ordered the Kosh Otaman of Zaporizhian Host Petro Kalnyshevsky "все войско свое устроить… в военный порядок тот час, чтобы готовы вы были к внезапному ополчению" (all troops of yours prepare... in battle order at the same time that you will be ready to sudden mobilization).

Secretary of State for the Colonies

The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet minister in charge of managing the United Kingdom's various colonial dependencies.

Thomas Rice (1768)

Thomas Rice (March 30, 1768 – August 25, 1854) was a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts.

Thomas Rice was born 30 March 1768 in Pownalborough, Massachusetts, (now Wiscasset, Maine), to Thomas Rice and Rebecca (Kingsbury) Rice. He graduated from Harvard University in 1791. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in Suffolk County, Massachusetts, in 1794 and commenced practice in Winslow, Maine, the following year. Thomas Rice married Sarah Swan on 22 October 1796. He was appointed in 1807 by the supreme judicial court of Maine one of the examiners of counselors and attorneys for Kennebec County. He served as member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1814.

Rice was elected as a Federalist to the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Congresses (March 4, 1815 – March 3, 1819). He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1818 to the Sixteenth Congress. He resumed the practice of law. After Sarah Swan Rice died 26 September 1840, Rice remarried to Susanna Greene, daughter of Col R. H. Greene, on 16 February 1841 at Winslow, Maine. To this marriage, he had a son, Thomas III, who was born in 1843. He died in Winslow, Maine, on 25 August 1854. He was interred at Pine Grove Cemetery, Waterville, Maine.

Thomas Rice was a direct descendant of Edmund Rice an early immigrant to Massachusetts Bay Colony as follows:

Thomas Rice, son ofThomas Rice (27 Nov 1734 - 21 Apr 1812), son of

Noah Rice (1705 - Feb 1759), son ofThomas Rice (30 Jun 1654 - 1747), son of

Thomas Rice (26 Jan 1625 - 16 Nov 1681), son ofEdmund Rice (1594 - 3 May 1663)

Townshend Acts

The Townshend Acts were a series of British Acts of Parliament passed during 1767 and 1768 and relating to the British in North America. The acts are named after Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who proposed the program. Historians vary slightly as to which acts they include under the heading "Townshend Acts", but five acts are often mentioned:

The New York Restraining Act 1767 (passed on June 5, 1767)

The Revenue Act 1767 (passed on June 26, 1767)

The Indemnity Act 1767 (passed on June 29, 1767)

The Commissioners of Customs Act 1767 (passed on June 29, 1767)

The Vice Admiralty Court Act 1768 (passed on July 6, 1768)The purposes of the Townshend Acts were

To raise revenue in the colonies to pay the salaries of governors and judges so that they would remain loyal to Great Britain

To create more effective means of enforcing compliance with trade regulations

To punish the Province of New York for failing to comply with the 1765 Quartering Act

To establish the precedent that the British Parliament had the right to tax the colonies The Townshend Acts were met with resistance in the colonies, which eventually resulted in the Boston Massacre of 1770.

The Townshend Acts placed an indirect tax on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea. These goods were not produced within the colonies and had to be imported from Britain. This form of revenue generation was Townshend's response to the failure of the Stamp Act of 1765, which had provided the first form of direct taxation placed upon the colonies. However, the import duties proved to be similarly controversial. Colonial indignation over the Townshend Acts was predominantly driven by John Dickinson's anonymous publication of Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, as well as the Massachusetts Circular Letter. As a result of widespread protest and non-importation of British goods in colonial ports, Parliament began to partially repeal the Townshend duties. In March 1770, most of the indirect taxes from the Townshend Acts were repealed by Parliament under Frederick, Lord North. However, the import duty on tea was retained in order to demonstrate to the colonists that Parliament held the sovereign authority to tax its colonies, in accordance with the Declaratory Act of 1766. The British government continued to try to tax the colonists without providing representation in Parliament. Resentment and corrupt and abusive enforcement spurred colonial attacks on British ships, including the burning of the Gaspee in 1772. Retaining the Townshend Acts' taxation on imported tea, enforced once again by the Tea Act of 1773, subsequently led to the Boston Tea Party in 1773, in which Bostonians destroyed a shipment of taxed tea. Parliament responded with severe punishments in the Intolerable Acts in 1774. The Thirteen Colonies drilled their militia units, and tensions escalated into violence in April 1775, launching the American Revolution.

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