1766

1766 (MDCCLXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1766th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 766th year of the 2nd millennium, the 66th year of the 18th century, and the 7th year of the 1760s decade. As of the start of 1766, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1766 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1766
MDCCLXVI
Ab urbe condita2519
Armenian calendar1215
ԹՎ ՌՄԺԵ
Assyrian calendar6516
Balinese saka calendar1687–1688
Bengali calendar1173
Berber calendar2716
British Regnal yearGeo. 3 – 7 Geo. 3
Buddhist calendar2310
Burmese calendar1128
Byzantine calendar7274–7275
Chinese calendar乙酉(Wood Rooster)
4462 or 4402
    — to —
丙戌年 (Fire Dog)
4463 or 4403
Coptic calendar1482–1483
Discordian calendar2932
Ethiopian calendar1758–1759
Hebrew calendar5526–5527
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1822–1823
 - Shaka Samvat1687–1688
 - Kali Yuga4866–4867
Holocene calendar11766
Igbo calendar766–767
Iranian calendar1144–1145
Islamic calendar1179–1180
Japanese calendarMeiwa 3
(明和3年)
Javanese calendar1691–1692
Julian calendarGregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar4099
Minguo calendar146 before ROC
民前146年
Nanakshahi calendar298
Thai solar calendar2308–2309
Tibetan calendar阴木鸡年
(female Wood-Rooster)
1892 or 1511 or 739
    — to —
阳火狗年
(male Fire-Dog)
1893 or 1512 or 740

Events

January–March

April–June

  • April 3 – Seventeen days after the Stamp Act's repeal in London, news reaches America of the decision.[5]
  • April 9
    • African slaves are imported directly into the American colony of Georgia for the first time, as the sloop Mary Brow arrives in Savannah with 78 captives imported from Saint-Louis, Senegal.[6]
    • American botanist John Bartram completes his first exploration and cataloging of North American plants after more than nine months.[7]
  • April 17King Carlos III of Spain issues a royal cédula from Aranjuez to round up all ethnic Chinese in the Philippines and to move them to ghettoes in various provinces.[8]
  • May 29 – In a paper read to the Royal Society, British theoretical chemist Henry Cavendish first describes his process of producing what he refers to as "inflammable air" by dissolving base metals such as iron, zinc and tin in a flask of sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid, drawing the conclusion that the vapor that was released is different from air. Seven years later, French chemist Antoine Lavoisier bestows the name "hydrogen" on the gas.[9]
  • May 30 – The Theatre Royal, Bristol, opens in England. Also this year in England, the surviving Georgian Theatre (Stockton-on-Tees) opens as a playhouse.
  • June 4 – On the occasion of the 28th birthday of King George III, members of the Sons of Liberty in Manhattan erect a liberty pole as a protest for the first time. The historic symbol, a tall "wooden pole with a Phrygian cap" is placed "on the Fields somewhere between Broadway and Park Row".[10] British soldiers cut down the pole in August.

July–September

  • July 1François-Jean de la Barre, a young French nobleman, is tortured and beheaded, before his body is burnt on a pyre, along with a copy of Voltaire's Dictionnaire philosophique nailed to his torso, for the crime of not saluting a Roman Catholic religious procession in Abbeville, and for other sacrileges, including desecrating a crucifix.
  • August 10 – During the occupation of New York, members of the 28th Foot Regiment of the British Army chop down the liberty pole that was erected by the Sons of Liberty on June 4. The Sons of Liberty put up a second pole the next day, and that pole is cut down on August 22.[11]
  • August 13 – A hurricane sweeps across the French island colony of Martinique, killing more than 400 people and destroying the plantation owned by Joseph-Gaspard de La Pagerie, the father of the future French Empress Joséphine.[12]
  • September 1 – The revolt in Quito (at this time part of Spain's Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada; the modern-day capital of Ecuador) is ended peacefully as royal forces enter the city under the command of Guayaquil Governor Pedro Zelaya. Rather than seeking retribution from the Quito citizens over their insurrection that has broken the monopoly over the sale of the liquor aguardiente, Zeleaya oversees a program of reconciliation.[13]
  • September 13 – The position of Patriarch of the Serbs, established on April 9, 1346 as the authority over the Serbian Orthodox Church, is abolished by order of Sultan Mustafa III of the Ottoman Empire; the patriarchate is not re-established until 1920 following the creation of Yugoslavia at the end of World War One.[14]
  • September 23John Penn, the Colonial Governor of Pennsylvania and one of the four Penn family owners of the Pennsylvania land grant, issues a proclamation forbidding British American colonist residents from building settlements on lands in the west "not yet purchased of the Nations" of the Iroquois Indians.[15]

October–December

Date unknown

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ "Historical Events for Year 1766 | OnThisDay.com". Historyorb.com. Retrieved 2016-07-08.
  2. ^ Clodfelter, Micheal (2017). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015. McFarland. p. 116.
  3. ^ Myoe, Maung Aung (2015). "Legacy or Overhang: Historical Memory in Myanmar–Thai Relations". Bilateral Legacies in East and Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 113.
  4. ^ Snodgrass, Mary Ellen (2015). "Sons of Liberty". Civil Disobedience: An Encyclopedic History of Dissidence in the United States: An Encyclopedic History of Dissidence in the United States. Routledge. p. 289.
  5. ^ Steffen, Charles G. (1984). The Mechanics of Baltimore: Workers and Politics in the Age of Revolution, 1763-1812. University of Illinois Press. p. 57.
  6. ^ McMillin, James A. (2014). "The Transatlantic Slave Trade Comes to Georgia". Slavery and Freedom in Savannah. University of Georgia Press. p. 15.
  7. ^ Wonning, Paul R. (2018). A Year of Colonial American History: 366 Days of United States Colonial History. Mossy Feet Books. p. 133.
  8. ^ Tiongson, Nicanor G. (2004). The Women of Malolos. Ateneo University Press. p. 18.
  9. ^ Almqvist, Ebbe (2003). History of Industrial Gases. Springer. p. 21.
  10. ^ Webster, Sally (2017). The Nation's First Monument and the Origins of the American Memorial Tradition: Liberty Enshrined. Routledge. p. 59.
  11. ^ Rapport, Mike (2017). The Unruly City: Paris, London and New York in the Age of Revolution. Basic Books.
  12. ^ Hibbert, Christopher (2003). Napoleon's Women. W. W. Norton. p. 2.
  13. ^ Rodriguez O., Jaime E. (2018). Political Culture in Spanish America, 1500–1830. University of Nebraska Press. p. 62.
  14. ^ "Yugoslavia". The Statesman's Year-Book: Statistical and Historical Annual of the States of the World for the Year 1936. Macmillan and Co. 1936. p. 1388.
  15. ^ Kenny, Kevin (2011). Peaceable Kingdom Lost: The Paxton Boys and the Destruction of William Penn's Holy Experiment. Oxford University Press. p. 210.
  16. ^ Snodgrass, Mary Ellen (2015). World Clothing and Fashion: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Social Influence. London: Routledge. p. 633.
  17. ^ Laver, Roberto C. (2001). The Falklands/Malvinas Case: Breaking the Deadlock in the Anglo-Argentine Sovereignty Dispute. Martinus Nijhoff.
  18. ^ Gullick, J. M. (2004). A History of Selangor. Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. ISBN 9679948102.
  19. ^ Schiavone, Michael J. (2009). Dictionary of Maltese Biographies Vol. II G-Z. Pietà: Pubblikazzjonijiet Indipendenza. p. 1711. ISBN 9789993291329.

Further reading

1766 English cricket season

The 1766 English cricket season was the 23rd season following the earliest known codification of the Laws of Cricket. Details have survived of three eleven-a-side matches between significant teams.

1766 in Canada

Events from the year 1766 in Canada.

1766 in Denmark

Events from the year 1766 in Denmark.

1766 in France

Events from the year 1766 in France

1766 in Ireland

The year 1766 in Ireland is characterised by certain events, arts and literature occurrences, births and deaths.

1766 in Norway

Events in the year 1766 in Norway.

1766 in Scotland

Events from the year 1766 in Scotland.

1766 in Sweden

Events from the year 1766 in Sweden

Baron Annaly

Baron Annaly is a title that has been created three times, twice in the Peerage of Ireland and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The third creation is currently extant.

Christie's

Christie's is a British auction house. It was founded in 1766 by James Christie. Its main premises are on King Street, St James's, in London and in the Rockefeller Center in New York City. The company is owned by Groupe Artémis, the holding company of François-Henri Pinault. Sales in 2015 totalled £4.8 billion (US$7.4 billion). In 2017 the Salvator Mundi was sold for $450.3 million at Christie's, and which at that time was the highest price ever paid for a single painting at an auction.

Declaratory Act

The American Colonies Act 1766 (6 Geo 3 c 12), commonly known as the Declaratory Act, was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain, which accompanied the repeal of the Stamp Act 1765 and the changing and lessening of the Sugar Act. Parliament repealed the Stamp Act because boycotts were hurting British trade and used the declaration to justify the repeal and save face. The declaration stated that the Parliament's authority was the same in America as in Britain and asserted Parliament's authority to pass laws that were binding on the American colonies.

Duchy of Lorraine

The Duchy of Lorraine (French: Lorraine [lɔʁɛn]; German: Lothringen), originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France. Its capital was Nancy.

It was founded in 959 following the division of Lotharingia into two separate duchies: Upper and Lower Lorraine, the westernmost parts of the Holy Roman Empire. The Lower duchy was quickly dismantled, while Upper Lorraine came to be known as simply the Duchy of Lorraine. The Duchy of Lorraine was coveted and briefly occupied by the Dukes of Burgundy and the Kings of France.

In 1737, the Duchy was given to Stanisław Leszczyński, the former king of Poland, who had lost his throne as a result of the War of the Polish Succession, with the understanding that it would fall to the French crown on his death. When Stanisław died on 23 February 1766, Lorraine was annexed by France and reorganized as a province.

First Anglo-Mysore War

The First Anglo–Mysore War (1766–1769) was a conflict in India between the Sultanate of Mysore and the East India Company. The war was instigated in part by the machinations of Asaf Jah II, the Nizam of Hyderabad, who sought to divert the company's resources from attempts to gain control of the Northern Circars.

James Francis Edward Stuart

James Francis Edward Stuart (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766), nicknamed The Old Pretender, was the son of King James II and VII of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his second wife, Mary of Modena. He was Prince of Wales from July 1688, until just months after his birth, his Catholic father was deposed and exiled in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. James II's Protestant elder daughter, Mary II, and her husband, William III, became co-monarchs and the Bill of Rights 1689 and Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Catholics from the British throne.

James Francis Edward was raised in Continental Europe, and, after his father's death in 1701, he claimed the English, Scottish and Irish crown as James III of England and Ireland and James VIII of Scotland, with the support of his Jacobite followers and his cousin Louis XIV of France. Fourteen years later, he unsuccessfully attempted to gain the throne in Britain during the Jacobite rising of 1715.

Following his death in 1766, his elder son, Charles Edward Stuart, continued to claim the British crown as part of the Jacobite Succession.

List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain, 1760–1779

This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain for the years 1760–1779. For Acts passed up until 1707 see List of Acts of the Parliament of England and List of Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland to 1700 and the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland, 1701–1800.

For Acts passed from 1801 onwards see List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. For Acts of the devolved parliaments and assemblies in the United Kingdom, see the List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament from 1999, the List of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the List of Acts and Measures of the National Assembly for Wales; see also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.

The number shown after each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Union with Ireland Act 1800 is cited as "39 & 40 Geo. 3 c. 67", meaning the 67th Act passed during the session that started in the 39th year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 40th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "41 Geo. 3" rather than "41 Geo. III"). Note also that Acts of the last session of the Parliament of Great Britain and the first session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are both cited as "41 Geo. 3".

Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain did not have a short title; however, some of these Acts have subsequently been given a short title by Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (such as the Short Titles Act 1896).

Before the Acts of Parliament (Commencement) Act 1793 came into force on 8 April 1793, Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain were deemed to have come into effect on the first day of the session in which they were passed. Because of this, the years given in the list below may in fact be the year before a particular Act was passed.

List of windmills in Hertfordshire

A list of all windmills and windmill sites which lie in the current Ceremonial county of Hertfordshire.

Province of Quebec (1763–1791)

The Province of Quebec was a colony in North America created by Great Britain after the Seven Years' War. During the war, Great Britain's forces conquered French Canada. As part of terms of the Treaty of Paris peace settlement, France gave up its claim to Canada and negotiated to keep the small but rich sugar island of Guadeloupe instead. By Britain's Royal Proclamation of 1763, Canada (part of New France) was renamed the Province of Quebec. The new British province extended from the coast of Labrador on the Atlantic Ocean, southwest through the Saint Lawrence River Valley to the Great Lakes and beyond to the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Portions of its southwest (below the Great Lakes) were later ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Paris (1783) at the conclusion of the American Revolution although the British maintained a military presence there until 1796. In 1791, the territory north of the Great Lakes was divided into Lower Canada and Upper Canada.

Solar eclipse of February 9, 1766

A total solar eclipse occurred on February 9, 1766. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is larger than the Sun's, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across Earth's surface, with the partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometres wide.

Townshend Acts

The Townshend Acts were a series of British Acts of Parliament passed during 1767 and 1768 and relating to the British in North America. The acts are named after Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who proposed the program. Historians vary slightly as to which acts they include under the heading "Townshend Acts", but five acts are often mentioned:

The New York Restraining Act 1767 (passed on June 5, 1767)

The Revenue Act 1767 (passed on June 26, 1767)

The Indemnity Act 1767 (passed on June 29, 1767)

The Commissioners of Customs Act 1767 (passed on June 29, 1767)

The Vice Admiralty Court Act 1768 (passed on July 6, 1768)The purposes of the Townshend Acts were

To raise revenue in the colonies to pay the salaries of governors and judges so that they would remain loyal to Great Britain

To create more effective means of enforcing compliance with trade regulations

To punish the Province of New York for failing to comply with the 1765 Quartering Act

To establish the precedent that the British Parliament had the right to tax the coloniesThe Townshend Acts were met with resistance in the colonies, which eventually resulted in the Boston Massacre of 1770.

The Townshend Acts placed an indirect tax on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea. These goods were not produced within the colonies and had to be imported from Britain. This form of revenue generation was Townshend's response to the failure of the Stamp Act of 1765, which had provided the first form of direct taxation placed upon the colonies. However, the import duties proved to be similarly controversial. Colonial indignation over the Townshend Acts was predominantly driven by John Dickinson's anonymous publication of Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, as well as the Massachusetts Circular Letter. As a result of widespread protest and non-importation of British goods in colonial ports, Parliament began to partially repeal the Townshend duties. In March 1770, most of the indirect taxes from the Townshend Acts were repealed by Parliament under Frederick, Lord North. However, the import duty on tea was retained in order to demonstrate to the colonists that Parliament held the sovereign authority to tax its colonies, in accordance with the Declaratory Act of 1766. The British government continued to try to tax the colonists without providing representation in Parliament. Resentment and corrupt and abusive enforcement spurred colonial attacks on British ships, including the burning of the Gaspee in 1772. Retaining the Townshend Acts' taxation on imported tea, enforced once again by the Tea Act of 1773, subsequently led to the Boston Tea Party in 1773, in which Bostonians destroyed a shipment of taxed tea. Parliament responded with severe punishments in the Intolerable Acts in 1774. The Thirteen Colonies drilled their militia units, and tensions escalated into violence in April 1775, launching the American Revolution.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.