1762

1762 (MDCCLXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1762nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 762nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 62nd year of the 18th century, and the 3rd year of the 1760s decade. As of the start of 1762, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1762 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1762
MDCCLXII
Ab urbe condita2515
Armenian calendar1211
ԹՎ ՌՄԺԱ
Assyrian calendar6512
Balinese saka calendar1683–1684
Bengali calendar1169
Berber calendar2712
British Regnal yearGeo. 3 – 3 Geo. 3
Buddhist calendar2306
Burmese calendar1124
Byzantine calendar7270–7271
Chinese calendar辛巳(Metal Snake)
4458 or 4398
    — to —
壬午年 (Water Horse)
4459 or 4399
Coptic calendar1478–1479
Discordian calendar2928
Ethiopian calendar1754–1755
Hebrew calendar5522–5523
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1818–1819
 - Shaka Samvat1683–1684
 - Kali Yuga4862–4863
Holocene calendar11762
Igbo calendar762–763
Iranian calendar1140–1141
Islamic calendar1175–1176
Japanese calendarHōreki 12
(宝暦12年)
Javanese calendar1687–1688
Julian calendarGregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar4095
Minguo calendar150 before ROC
民前150年
Nanakshahi calendar294
Thai solar calendar2304–2305
Tibetan calendar阴金蛇年
(female Iron-Snake)
1888 or 1507 or 735
    — to —
阳水马年
(male Water-Horse)
1889 or 1508 or 736

Events

January–March

April–June

  • April 2 – A powerful earthquake along the border between modern-day Bangladesh and Myanmar causes a tsunami in the Bay of Bengal that kills at least 200 people. [6]
  • April 5 – France issues a new ordinance requiring all black and mixed-race Frenchmen to register their identity information with the offices of the Admiralty Court, upon the advice of Guillaume Poncet de la Grave, adviser to King Louis XV. The new rule, which requires both free and enslaved blacks and mulattoes to list data including their age, surname, purpose for which they are residing in France, whether they have been baptized as Christians, where they emigrated from in Africa and the name of the ship upon which they arrived. Previously, the Declaration of 1738 required slave-owners to register their slaves, but placed no requirement on free people. [7]
  • May 5 – (April 24 O.S.) The Treaty of Saint Petersburg ends the war between Russia and Prussia, and returns all of Russia's territorial conquests to the Germans. [8]
  • May 22 – The Treaty of Hamburg takes Sweden out of the war against Prussia. [8]
  • May 26 – Dissatisfied with the progress of the French and Indian War, King George III dismisses his Prime Minister, the Duke of Newcastle, and replaces him with his son's tutor, Tory politician John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute. The Bute ministry lasts less than a year before Stuart's dismissal in 1763.
  • May 31Marco Foscarini becomes the new Doge of the Republic of Venice after the death of Francesco Loredan, who had administered the Republic for 10 years.
  • June 8 – Cherokee Indian war chief Ostenaco and his two aides, Standing Turkey (Cunneshote) and Pouting Pigeon, are received by King George III. They had arrived three days earlier at Plymouth on the British frigate Epreuvre as guests of the Timberlake Expedition of Henry Timberlake, to discuss terms of peace with the British government. [9]
  • June 24Battle of Wilhelmsthal: The Anglo-Hanoverian army of Ferdinand of Brunswick defeats the French forces in Westphalia. The British commander Lord Granby distinguishes himself.

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

Births

Date unknown

Deaths

References

  1. ^ "Historical Events for Year 1762 | OnThisDay.com". Historyorb.com. Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  2. ^ Christopher Hull, British Diplomacy and US Hegemony in Cuba, 1898-1964 (Springer, 2013)
  3. ^ Ronald Schechter, A Genealogy of Terror in Eighteenth-Century France (University of Chicago Press, 2018) p64
  4. ^ Alison Fortier, A History Lover's Guide to New York City (Arcadia Publishing, 2016) p135
  5. ^ James Melvin Lee, History of American Journalism (Houghton Mifflin, 1917) p66
  6. ^ Anjan Kundu, Tsunami and Nonlinear Waves (Springer, 2007) p299
  7. ^ Sue Peabody, "There are No Slaves in France": The Political Culture of Race and Slavery in the Ancien Régime (Oxford University Press, 1996) pp73-75
  8. ^ a b A. W. Ward, et al., eds., The Cambridge Modern History, Volume 6: The Eighteenth Century (The Macmillan Company, 1909) p298
  9. ^ William R. Reynolds, Jr., The Cherokee Struggle to Maintain Identity in the 17th and 18th Centuries (McFarland, 2015) p108
  10. ^ S. M. Dubnow and I. Friedlander, History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, from the Earliest Times Until the Present Day (Jewish Publication Society of America, 1916) p260
  11. ^ Bruce F. Pauley, Pioneering History on Two Continents: An Autobiography (Potomac Books, 2014) p2
1762 English cricket season

The 1762 English cricket season was the 19th season following the earliest known codification of the Laws of Cricket. Details have survived of eight eleven-a-side matches between significant teams.

1762 in Canada

Events from the year 1762 in Canada.

1762 in Denmark

Events from the year 1762 in Denmark.

1762 in France

Events from the year 1762 in France

1762 in India

Events in the year 1762 in India.

1762 in Ireland

Events from the year 1762 in Ireland.

1762 in Russia

Events from the year 1762 in Russia

1762 in Scotland

Events from the year 1762 in Scotland.

1762 in Sweden

Events from the year 1762 in Sweden

Anglo-Spanish War (1762–63)

The Anglo–Spanish War (Spanish: Guerra Anglo-Española) was a military conflict fought between Britain and Spain as part of the Seven Years' War. It lasted from January 1762 until February 1763 when the Treaty of Paris brought it to an end.

For most of the Seven Years' War Spain remained neutral, turning down both the French and British, but during the war's latter stages, the Spanish became alarmed at the threat posed by the British to their colonies as French losses mounted. In anticipation of the Spanish entering the war on the French side, the British attacked Spanish colonies. In August 1762 a British expedition against Cuba took Havana and western Cuba, then a month later the British seized Manila. The loss of both the capitals of the Spanish West Indies and the Spanish East Indies represented a blow to Spanish prestige. Between May and November three major Franco-Spanish invasions of Portugal were defeated and they were forced to withdraw with heavy losses inflicted by the Portuguese with British assistance. In South America the Spanish succeeded in taking a strategically important port town but otherwise the skirmishes with the Portuguese there changed little.

By the Treaty of Paris (1763) Spain handed over Florida and Menorca to Britain and returned territories in Portugal and Brazil to Portugal in exchange for British withdrawal from Cuba. As compensation for their ally's losses, the French ceded Louisiana to Spain by the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762).

British occupation of Manila

The British occupation of Manila was an episode in Philippine colonial history when the British Empire occupied the Spanish colonial capital of Manila and the nearby principal port of Cavite for twenty months between 1762 and 1764.

The British wanted to use Manila as an entrepôt for trade in the region, particularly with China. In addition, a ransom for the city was delivered to the British on the basis that the city would not continue to be sacked or burnt. The resistance from the provisional Spanish colonial government established by members of the Royal Audience of Manila led by Lieutenant Governor Simón de Anda y Salazar and their Filipino allies prevented British forces from taking control of territory beyond the neighbouring towns of Manila and Cavite. The British occupation ended as part of the peace settlement of the Seven Years' War.

Catherine the Great

Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729 – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader. She came to power following a coup d'état which she organized—resulting in her husband, Peter III, being overthrown. Under her reign, Russia was revitalized; it grew larger and stronger and was recognized as one of the great powers of Europe. That said, however, she was a usurper of the Russian throne because her son, Paul I, should have naturally been the Tsar following Peter III’s death.

In her accession to power and her rule of the empire, Catherine often relied on her noble favourites, most notably Grigory Orlov and Grigory Potemkin. Assisted by highly successful generals such as Alexander Suvorov and Pyotr Rumyantsev, and admirals such as Fyodor Ushakov, she governed at a time when the Russian Empire was expanding rapidly by conquest and diplomacy. In the south, the Crimean Khanate was crushed following victories over the Ottoman Empire in the Russo–Turkish wars, and Russia colonised the territories of Novorossiya along the coasts of the Black and Azov Seas. In the west, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, ruled by Catherine's former lover, king Stanisław August Poniatowski, was eventually partitioned, with the Russian Empire gaining the largest share. In the east, Russia started to colonise Alaska, establishing Russian America.

Catherine reformed the administration of Russian guberniyas, and many new cities and towns were founded on her orders. An admirer of Peter the Great, Catherine continued to modernise Russia along Western European lines. However, military conscription and the economy continued to depend on serfdom, and the increasing demands of the state and private landowners led to increased levels of reliance on serfs. This was one of the chief reasons behind several rebellions, including the large-scale Pugachev's Rebellion of cossacks and peasants.

Catherine decided to have herself inoculated against smallpox by a Scottish doctor, Thomas Dimsdale. While this was considered a controversial method at the time, she succeeded. Her son Pavel was later inoculated as well. Catherine then sought to have inoculations throughout her empire stating: "My objective was, through my example, to save from death the multitude of my subjects who, not knowing the value of this technique, and frightened of it, were left in danger." By 1800, approximately 2 million inoculations were administered in the Russian Empire.

The period of Catherine the Great's rule, the Catherinian Era, is considered the Golden Age of Russia. The Manifesto on Freedom of the Nobility, issued during the short reign of Peter III and confirmed by Catherine, freed Russian nobles from compulsory military or state service. Construction of many mansions of the nobility, in the classical style endorsed by the Empress, changed the face of the country. She enthusiastically supported the ideals of the Enlightenment and is often regarded as an enlightened despot. As a patron of the arts she presided over the age of the Russian Enlightenment, a period when the Smolny Institute for Noble Maidens, the first state-financed higher education institution for women in Europe, was established.

George IV of the United Kingdom

George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later. From 1811 until his accession, he served as Prince Regent during his father's final mental illness.

George IV led an extravagant lifestyle that contributed to the fashions of the Regency era. He was a patron of new forms of leisure, style and taste. He commissioned John Nash to build the Royal Pavilion in Brighton and remodel Buckingham Palace, and Sir Jeffry Wyattville to rebuild Windsor Castle.

His charm and culture earned him the title "the first gentleman of England", but his dissolute way of life and poor relationships with his parents and his wife, Caroline of Brunswick, earned him the contempt of the people and dimmed the prestige of the monarchy. He forbade Caroline to attend his coronation and asked the government to introduce the unpopular Pains and Penalties Bill in a desperate, unsuccessful attempt to divorce her.

For most of George's regency and reign, Lord Liverpool controlled the government as Prime Minister. George's ministers found his behaviour selfish, unreliable and irresponsible. At all times he was much under the influence of favourites. Taxpayers were angry at his wasteful spending during the Napoleonic Wars. He did not provide national leadership in time of crisis, nor act as a role model for his people. Liverpool's government presided over Britain's ultimate victory, negotiated the peace settlement, and attempted to deal with the social and economic malaise that followed. After Liverpool's retirement, George was forced to accept Catholic emancipation despite opposing it. His only legitimate child, Princess Charlotte, died before him in 1817 and so he was succeeded by his younger brother, William.

Gävleborg County

Gävleborg County (Swedish: Gävleborgs län) is a county or län on the Baltic Sea coast of Sweden. It borders to the counties of Uppsala, Västmanland, Dalarna, Jämtland and Västernorrland. The capital is Gävle.

History of the Philippines (1521–1898)

The history of the Philippines from 1521 to 1898, also known as the Spanish colonial period, was a period during which Spain controlled the Philippine islands as the Captaincy General of the Philippines, initially under New Spain until Mexican independence in 1821, which gave Madrid direct control over the area. It was also known as Spanish East Indies to the colonialists. It started with the arrival in 1521 of European explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailing for Spain, which heralded the period when the Philippines was a colony of the Spanish Empire, and ended with the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution in 1898, which marked the beginning of the American colonial era of Philippine history.

Kingdom of Kartli

The Kingdom of Kartli (Georgian: ქართლის სამეფო) was a late medieval/early modern monarchy in eastern Georgia, centered at the province of Kartli, with its capital at Tbilisi. It emerged in the process of a tripartite division of the Kingdom of Georgia in 1478 and existed, with several brief intermissions, until 1762 when Karti and the neighboring Georgian kingdom of Kakheti were merged through a dynastic succession under the Kakhetian branch of the Bagrationi dynasty. Through much of this period of time the kingdom was a vassal of the successive dynasties of Iran, but enjoyed intermittent periods of greater independence, especially after 1747.

Peter III of Russia

Peter III (21 February [O.S. 10 February] 1728 – 17 July [O.S. 6 July] 1762) (Russian: Пётр III Фëдорович, Pyotr III Fyodorovich) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. He was born in Kiel as Karl Peter Ulrich von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, the only child of Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (the son of Hedvig Sophia of Sweden, sister of Charles XII), and Anna Petrovna (the elder surviving daughter of Peter the Great). The German Peter could hardly speak Russian and pursued a strongly pro-Prussian policy, which made him an unpopular leader. He was deposed and possibly assassinated as a result of a conspiracy led by his German wife, Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, who succeeded him to the throne as Catherine II; however, another theory suggests, his death could also have been the result of a drunken brawl with his bodyguard, whilst he was being held captive after Catherine's coup.Peter was progressive. During his short reign, he proclaimed religious freedom (a very progressive move for the time), encouraged education, sought to modernize the Russian army, abolished the secret police which had been infamous for its extreme violence, and made it illegal for landowners killing their serfs without going to court; however, nearly all of his reforms were reverted by Catherine.The constroversy of whether Peter was a great tsar who was overthrown by the military and aristocrats to keep their control over the monarchy or was an idiotic weak tyrant is under much debate. What is certain though, is that his ambitious wife, Catherine the Great, overshadowed and tarnished his reign.

Shyama Shastri

Shyama Shastri (IAST: Śyāma Śāstri; 26 April 1762–1827) or Syama Sastri was a musician and composer of Carnatic music. He was the oldest among the Trinity of Carnatic music, Tyagaraja and Muthuswami Dikshitar being the other two.

Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762)

The Treaty of Fontainebleau was a secret agreement of 1762 in which France ceded Louisiana to Spain. The treaty followed the last battle in the French and Indian War in North America, the Battle of Signal Hill in September 1762, which confirmed British control of Canada. In Europe, the associated Seven Years' War continued to rage. Having lost Canada, King Louis XV of France proposed to King Charles III of Spain that France should give Spain "the country known as Louisiana, as well as New Orleans and the island in which the city is situated." Charles accepted on November 13, 1762.

This agreement covered all of Louisiana: the entire valley of the Mississippi River, from the Appalachians to the Rockies. The Treaty of Fontainebleau was kept secret even during the French negotiation and signing of the Treaty of Paris, which ended the war with Britain.

The Treaty of Paris, made between France and Great Britain following the Seven Years' War, divided Louisiana at the Mississippi. The eastern half was ceded to Britain, and the western half and New Orleans were nominally retained by France. Spain did not contest Britain's control of eastern Louisiana, as it already knew that it would rule in western Louisiana. Also, under the Treaty of Paris, Spain had ceded Florida to Britain for which western Louisiana was its compensation.

The Treaty of Paris provided a period of 18 months in which French colonists who did not want to live under British rule could freely emigrate to other French colonies. Many of the emigrants moved to Louisiana, where they discovered later that France had ceded Louisiana to Spain.

The cession to Spain was finally revealed in 1764. In a letter dated April 21, 1764, Louis informed the governor, Jean-Jacques Blaise d'Abbadie, of the transition:

Hoping, moreover, that His Catholic Majesty will be pleased to give his subjects of Louisiana the marks of protection and good will which only the misfortunes of war have prevented from being more effectual.The colonists in western Louisiana did not accept the transition and expelled the first Spanish governor in the Rebellion of 1768. Alejandro O'Reilly, an Irish émigré, suppressed the rebellion and formally raised the Spanish flag in 1769.

The acquisition of Louisiana consolidated the Spanish Empire in North America. When Great Britain returned Florida to Spain in 1783, after the American Revolutionary War, Spanish territory completely encircled the Gulf of Mexico and stretched from Florida west to the Pacific Ocean, and north to Canada west of the Mississippi River.

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