1759 (MDCCLIX) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1759th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 759th year of the 2nd millennium, the 59th year of the 18th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1750s decade. As of the start of 1759, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In Great Britain, this year was known as the Annus Mirabilis, because of British victories in the Seven Years' War.
in 1761 by Dr. Richard Lambert in the paper "A new technique of treating an aneurysm", published in the journal Medical Observations and Inquiries.  The new procedure of reconstructing a damaged artery replaces the practice of ligation that had risked the amputation of a limb or to organ failure. 
- June 26 – After the fleet finishes navigation of the St. Lawrence and arriving Île d'Orléans, British troops go ashore at France's North American territory and begin the siege of Quebec City 
- July 19 – The Great Stockholm Fire 1759 breaks out at Södermalm in Stockholm, Sweden.
- July 25 – Seven Years' War (French and Indian War): In Canada, British forces capture Fort Niagara from the French, who subsequently abandon Fort Rouillé.
- July 26–27 – Seven Years' War (French and Indian War) – Battle of Ticonderoga: At the southern end of Lake Champlain, French forces withdraw from Fort Carillon, which is taken by the British under General Amherst, and renamed Fort Ticonderoga.
- August 1 – Battle of Minden: Anglo–Hanoverian forces under Ferdinand of Brunswick defeat the French army of the Duc de Broglie, but due to the disobedience of the English cavalry commander Lord George Sackville, the French are able to withdraw unmolested.
- August 10 – Ferdinand VI of Spain dies, and is succeeded by his half–brother Charles III. Charles resigns the thrones of Naples and Sicily to his third son, Ferdinand IV.
- November 21 – Battle of Maxen: The Austrian army of Marshal von Daun cuts off and forces the surrender of a Prussian force, under Friedrich von Finck.
- November 25 – Near East earthquakes of 1759: The second and stronger event in an earthquake doublet occurs to the east of Beirut, with a surface wave magnitude of 7.4 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent), destroying all the villages in the Beqaa Valley.
- November 29 – Alamgir II, the Mughal Emperor of India, is assassinated in a conspiracy orchestrated by his Prime Minister, Imad-ul-Mulk. The Shah Alam II, a grandson of the 17th century Emperor Aurangzeb, is made the new Mughal Emperor. 
- December 6 – The Germantown Union School (now called Germantown Academy), America's oldest nonsectarian day school, is founded.
- December 31 – The Guinness Brewery is leased by Arthur Guinness in St. James's Gate, Dublin, Ireland, for the brewing of Guinness.
- April 14 – George Frideric Handel, German composer (b. 1685)
- May 12 – Lambert-Sigisbert Adam, French sculptor (b. 1700)
- June 3 – Didier Diderot, French craftsman (b. 1685)
- June 20 – Margareta Capsia, Finnish artist (b. 1682)
- July 6 – William Pepperrell, English colonial soldier (b. 1696)
- July 27 – Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, French mathematician (b. 1698)
- August 6 – Eugene Aram, English philologist (b. 1704)
- August 8 – Carl Heinrich Graun, German composer (b. 1704)
- August 10 – King Ferdinand VI of Spain (b. 1713)
- August 24 – Ewald Christian von Kleist, German poet (b. 1715)
- September 10 – Ferdinand Konščak, Croatian explorer (b. 1703)
- September 13 – James Wolfe, British general (b. 1727)
- September 14 – Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, French general (b. 1712)
- November 14 – Grégoire Orlyk, Ukrainian-born French Lieutenant General (b. 1702)
- November 29 – Nicolaus I Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (b. 1687)
- October 27 – Konstancja Czartoryska, Polish noblewoman politician (b. 1700)
- date unknown
- ^ Newman, Frank G. (January 1965). "The Acquisition of a Life Insurance Company". The Business Lawyer. American Bar Association. 20 (2): 411–416. Retrieved 2016-04-04.
The first life insurance company in America was organized in 1759 under the corporate title 'The Corporation for Relief of Poor and Distressed Presbyterian Ministers, and of the Poor and Distressed Widows and Children of Presbyterian Ministers'.
- ^ a b S. B. Bhattacherje, Encyclopaedia of Indian Events & Dates (Sterling Publishers, 2009) p94
- ^ George M. Wrong, The Conquest of New France: A Chronicle of the Colonial Wars (Yale University Press, 1921) p214
- ^ a b c "Quebec, Capture of", in Encyclopedia of Naval History, ed. by Anthony Bruce and William Cogar (Routledge, 2014) p297
- ^ Richard Middleton and Anne Lombard, Colonial America: A History to 1763 (John Wiley & Sons, 2011)
- ^ "History of Microsurery", by Yoshikazu Ikuta, in Telemicrosurgery: Robot Assisted Microsurgery (Springer, 2012) p5
- ^ Steven G. Friedman, MD, A History of Vascular Surgery (John Wiley & Sons, 2008) p ix
- ^ "Eddystone Lighthouse". Trinity House. Archived from the original on September 9, 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-06.
- ^ Royal Observatory Greenwich souvenir guide. 2012. pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-1-906367-51-0.
the first precision watch and considered by many today as the most important timekeeper ever.
- ^ "Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew". World Heritage. UNESCO. Archived from the original on August 17, 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
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