1754

1754 (MDCCLIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1754th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 754th year of the 2nd millennium, the 54th year of the 18th century, and the 5th year of the 1750s decade. As of the start of 1754, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1754 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1754
MDCCLIV
Ab urbe condita2507
Armenian calendar1203
ԹՎ ՌՄԳ
Assyrian calendar6504
Balinese saka calendar1675–1676
Bengali calendar1161
Berber calendar2704
British Regnal year27 Geo. 2 – 28 Geo. 2
Buddhist calendar2298
Burmese calendar1116
Byzantine calendar7262–7263
Chinese calendar癸酉(Water Rooster)
4450 or 4390
    — to —
甲戌年 (Wood Dog)
4451 or 4391
Coptic calendar1470–1471
Discordian calendar2920
Ethiopian calendar1746–1747
Hebrew calendar5514–5515
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1810–1811
 - Shaka Samvat1675–1676
 - Kali Yuga4854–4855
Holocene calendar11754
Igbo calendar754–755
Iranian calendar1132–1133
Islamic calendar1167–1168
Japanese calendarHōreki 4
(宝暦4年)
Javanese calendar1679–1680
Julian calendarGregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar4087
Minguo calendar158 before ROC
民前158年
Nanakshahi calendar286
Thai solar calendar2296–2297
Tibetan calendar阴水鸡年
(female Water-Rooster)
1880 or 1499 or 727
    — to —
阳木狗年
(male Wood-Dog)
1881 or 1500 or 728

Events

January–March

April–June

July–September

  • July 3French and Indian WarBattle of Fort Necessity: George Washington surrenders Fort Necessity to French Capt. Louis Coulon de Villiers.
  • July 10 – The Albany Plan of Union is given official approval by the delegates from New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Rhode Island, New Hampshire and Massachusetts, with Connecticut opposing. The plan approved at the meeting in Albany, New York is based on Benjamin Franklin's suggestions of "a general union of the British colonies on the continent" for a common defense policy. As amended at the assembly, the proposed union calls for the British Parliament to approve the arrangement, which would encompass all of the British North American colonies except for Georgia and Nova Scotia. The plan, to be considered by the individual colonies for ratification, provides for an inter-colonial legislature (the Grand Council) composed of between two and seven representatives for each colony, depending on population. It also provides for a "President General" who can veto Grand Council legislation, a common defense budget with colonies contributing proportionately to their representation, and an inter-colonial army whose officers would be selected by the Grand Council. [4]
  • July 17 – Classes begin at Columbia University, founded on October 31 as King's College by royal charter of King George II of Great Britain. [5] The college is originally located in Lower Manhattan in the Province of New York. Instruction is suspended in 1776, and the school reopens in 1784 as Columbia College. With the college's growth in the 19th Century, it is renamed Columbia University in 1896.
  • August 6 – The British North American Province of Georgia is created. Originally established in 1732 as a place for impoverished English citizens and debt prison parolees to make a new life, is given its first royal government. Administered for 22 years by the Board of Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America, chaired by philanthropist James Oglethorpe, the colony is transferred by the Trustees to the British crown's Board of Trade and Plantations. King George II, for whom the colony was named, follows the Board's recommendation by proclaiming Georgia a royal province, and appointing Royal Navy Captain John Reynolds as the first Royal Governor.[6] Reynolds arrives in Savannah on October 29 to take office. [7]
  • August 17 – Pennsylvania becomes the first of the British colonies to address Benjamin Franklin's Albany Plan for an inter-colonial union. With Franklin absent from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania's House of Representatives votes against to not consider the Plan at all, and to not refer it to the next legislative session for debate. [4]
  • August 19 – Lieutenant Colonel George Washington is forced to confront his first mutiny as 25 members of his Virginia militia refuse to obey orders from their officers. Washington, who is attending church services at the time, quickly suppresses the rebellion and the mutineers are imprisoned before more join. [8]
  • August 30New Hampshire settlers Susannah Willard Johnson and her family are taken hostage by the Abenaki Indians during an attack near Charlestown. Nine months pregnant at the time of their capture, Johnson gives birth two days later to a child, whom she names Elizabeth Captive Johnson. For the next two years, the family is held for ransom in Canada before she is released. In 1796, she will recount the story in a popular memoir, A Narrative of the Captivity of Mrs. Johnson.[9]
  • September 2 – A powerful earthquake strikes Constantinople shortly after 9 o'clock in the evening. A Scottish physician, Dr. Mordach Mackenzie, reports in a letter that the tremor damaged or destroyed numerous buildings and comments, "Some say there were 2000 people destroyed by this calamity, in the town and suburbs; some 900; and others reduce them to 60, who, by what I have seen, are nearer the truth." [10]
  • September 11Anthony Henday, an English explorer, becomes the first white man to reach the Canadian Rockies, after climbing a ridge above the Red Deer River near what is now Innisfail, Alberta. [11]

October–December

  • October 24China's Emperor Qianlong reverses a longstanding policy that barred Chinese subjects from ever returning to China if they remained out of the country for more than three years. [12]
  • October 31 – What will become Columbia University is chartered as "a College in the Province of New York... in the City of New York in America... named King's College", with the charter submitted by New York's colonial governor, James De Lancey.[5]
  • November 28 – Denmark establishes the Renteskirverkontor, an office within the Chamber of Finance, to oversee the colonial affairs of the Danish West Indies (Dansk Vestindien).[13] Peder Mariager, who had been a minor official of the Danish West Indies Company, becomes the first administrator. The colony, consisting of the islands of Saint Thomas, Saint John and Saint Croix later is purchased by the United States from Denmark and is now the U.S. Virgin Islands .
  • November 29Karim Khan Zand, the King of Persia (now Iran) recaptures the city of Shiraz from Afghan warlord Azad Khan Afghan, who had taken control of much of central Iran since 1749. [14]
  • December 13Osman III succeeds his brother Mahmud I as Ottoman Emperor; he will rule until his death in 1757.
  • December 26 – Massachusetts becomes the third colony (after Pennsylvania and Connecticut) to reject the Albany Plan for an inter-colonial union, voting 48 to 31 to postpone consideration of the union question indefinitely. [4]

Date unknown

Births

Deaths

January–June

July–December

References

  1. ^ Barbara Anne Ganson, The Guarani Under Spanish Rule in the Rio de la Plata (Stanford University Press, 2005) p104
  2. ^ "Aspectos Históricos del Municipio". Petén: Melchor de Mencos. 2008-05-09. Archived from the original on 2008-05-10. Retrieved 2018-05-28.
  3. ^ Roldán Martínez, Ingrid (2004). "De bosques y otros nombres". Revista D. PrensaLibre. Retrieved 2018-05-28.
  4. ^ a b c Alan Rogers, Empire and Liberty: American Resistance to British Authority, 1755-1763 (University of California Press, 1974) pp13-19
  5. ^ a b Robert McCaughey, Stand, Columbia: A History of Columbia University (Columbia University Press, 2003) p21
  6. ^ Farris W. Cadle, Georgia Land Surveying History and Law (University of Georgia Press, 1991) p29
  7. ^ Edward J. Cashin, Governor Henry Ellis and the Transformation of British North America (University of Georgia Press, 2007) p61
  8. ^ John A. Nagy, George Washington's Secret Spy War: The Making of America's First Spymaster (St. Martin's Press, 2016) p37
  9. ^ "Johnson, Susannah", by Marcia Schmidt Blaine, in An Encyclopedia of American Women at War: From the Home Front to the Battlefields, ed. by Lisa Tendrich Frank (ABC-CLIO, 2013) pp332-333
  10. ^ Charles Hutton, et al., The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, from Their Commencement, in 1665, to the Year 1800, Volume X: From 1750 to 1755 (C. and R. Baldwin, 1809) p549
  11. ^ Andrew Hempstead, Canadian Rockies: Including Banff & Jasper National Parks, Moon Handbooks (Avalon Publishing, 2016)
  12. ^ Philip A. Kuhn, Chinese Among Others: Emigration in Modern Times (Rowman & Littlefield, 2009) p94
  13. ^ Isaac Dookhan, A History of the Virgin Islands of the United States (Caribbean Universities Press, 1974, reprinted by Canoe Press, 1994) p200
  14. ^ Kaveh Farrokh, Iran at War: 1500-1988 (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2011)

Further reading

1754 British general election

The 1754 British general election returned members to serve in the House of Commons of the 11th Parliament of Great Britain to be summoned, after the merger of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland in 1707.

Owing to the extensive use of corruption and the Duke of Newcastle's personal influence in the pocket boroughs, the government was returned to office with a working majority.

The old parties had disappeared almost completely by this stage; anyone with reasonable hopes of achieving office called himself a 'Whig', although the term had lost most of its original meaning. While 'Tory' and 'Whig' were still used to refer to particular political leanings and tendencies, parties in the old sense were no longer relevant except in a small minority of constituencies, such as Oxfordshire, with most elections being fought on local issues and the holders of political power being determined by the shifting allegiance of factions and aristocratic families rather than the strength or popularity of any organised parties. A small group of members of parliament still considered themselves Tories, but they were almost totally irrelevant to practical politics and entirely excluded from holding public office.

The resulting eleventh Parliament of Great Britain was convened on 31 May 1754 and sat through eight sessions until its dissolution on 20 April 1761.

1754 English cricket season

The 1754 English cricket season was the 11th season following the earliest known codification of the Laws of Cricket. Details have survived of four eleven-a-side matches between significant teams.

1754 in Canada

Events from the year 1754 in Canada.

1754 in Denmark

Events from the year 1754 in Denmark.

1754 in France

Events from the year 1754 in France.

1754 in Ireland

Events from the year 1754 in Ireland.

1754 in Norway

Events in the year 1754 in Norway.

1754 in Russia

Events from the year 1754 in Russia

1754 in Scotland

Events from the year 1754 in Scotland.

1754 in Sweden

Events from the year 1754 in Sweden

Albany Plan

The Albany Plan of Union was a plan to create a unified government for the Thirteen Colonies, suggested by Benjamin Franklin, then a senior leader (age 48) and a delegate from Pennsylvania, at the Albany Congress on July 10, 1754 in Albany, New York. More than twenty representatives of several Northern Atlantic colonies had gathered to plan their defense related to the French and Indian War, the front in North America of the Seven Years' War between Great Britain and France, spurred on by George Washington's recent defeat in the Ohio valley. The Plan represented one of multiple early attempts to form a union of the colonies "under one government as far as might be necessary for defense and other general important purposes."

Carnatic Wars

The Carnatic Wars (also spelled Karnatic Wars) were a series of military conflicts in the middle of the 18th century in India. The conflicts involved numerous nominally independent rulers and their vassals, struggles for succession and territory, and included a diplomatic and military struggle between the French East India Company and the British East India Company. They were mainly fought on the territories in India which were dominated by the Nizam of Hyderabad up to the Godavari delta. As a result of these military contests, the British East India Company established its dominance among the European trading companies within India. The French company was pushed to a corner and was confined primarily to Pondichéry. The East India Company's dominance eventually led to control by the British Company over most of India and eventually to the establishment of the British Raj.

In the 18th century, the coastal Carnatic region was a dependency of Hyderabad. Three Carnatic Wars were fought between 1746 and 1763.

Ferdinand Karl, Archduke of Austria-Este

Archduke Ferdinand Karl of Austria-Este (Ferdinand Karl Anton Joseph Johann Stanislaus; 1 June 1754 – 24 December 1806) was a son of Holy Roman Emperor Franz I and Maria Theresa of Austria. He was the founder of the House of Austria-Este and Governor of the Duchy of Milan between 1765 and 1796. He was also designated as the heir to the Duchy of Modena and Reggio, but he never reigned, owing to the Napoleonic Wars.

Fort Duquesne

Fort Duquesne (, French: [dyken]; originally called Fort Du Quesne) was a fort established by the French in 1754, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers. It was later taken over by the English, and later Americans, and developed as Pittsburgh in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania.

Fort Duquesne was destroyed by the French, prior to English conquest during the Seven Years' War, known as the French and Indian War on the North American front. The latter replaced it, building Fort Pitt in 1758. The site of both forts is now occupied by Point State Park, where the outlines of the two forts have been laid in brick.

Hampshire County, West Virginia

Hampshire County is a county in the U.S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,964. Its county seat is Romney, West Virginia's oldest town (1762). The county was created by the Virginia General Assembly in 1754, from parts of Frederick and Augusta Counties (Virginia) and is the state's oldest county. The county lies in both West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle and Potomac Highlands regions.

Hampshire County is part of the Winchester, VA-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Join, or Die

JOIN, or DIE. is a political cartoon attributed to Benjamin Franklin. The original publication by the Gazette on May 9, 1754, is the earliest known pictorial representation of colonial union produced by a British colonist in America. It is a woodcut showing a snake cut into eighths, with each segment labeled with the initials of one of the American colonies or regions. New England was represented as one segment, rather than the four colonies it was at that time. Delaware was not listed separately as it was part of Pennsylvania. Georgia, however, was omitted completely. Thus, it has eight segments of a snake rather than the traditional 13 colonies. The two northernmost British American colonies at the time, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, were not represented, nor were any British Caribbean possessions. The cartoon appeared along with Franklin's editorial about the "disunited state" of the colonies, and helped make his point about the importance of colonial unity. It became a symbol of colonial freedom during the American Revolutionary War.

Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts

The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts (Danish: Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi) has provided education in the arts for more than 250 years, playing its part in the development of the art of Denmark.

Seven Years' War

The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain (including the Kingdom of Prussia, the Kingdom of Portugal, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and other small German states) on one side and the Kingdom of France (including the Austrian-led Holy Roman Empire), the Russian Empire (until 1762), the Kingdom of Spain, and the Swedish Empire on the other. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the increasingly fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal. The war's extent has led some historians to describe it as "World War Zero", similar in scale to other world wars.Although Anglo-French skirmishes over their American colonies had begun with what became the French and Indian War in 1754, the large-scale conflict that drew in most of the European powers was centered on Austria's desire to recover Silesia from the Prussians. Seeing the opportunity to curtail Britain's and Prussia's ever-growing might, France and Austria put aside their ancient rivalry to form a grand coalition of their own, bringing most of the other European powers to their side. Faced with this sudden turn of events, Britain aligned itself with Prussia, in a series of political manoeuvres known as the Diplomatic Revolution. However, French efforts ended in failure when the Anglo-Prussian coalition prevailed, and Britain's rise as among the world's predominant powers destroyed France's supremacy in Europe, thus altering the European balance of power.

The Yorkshire Post

The Yorkshire Post is a daily broadsheet newspaper, published in Leeds in northern England. It covers the whole of Yorkshire as well as parts of north Derbyshire and Lincolnshire but goes beyond just local news and its masthead carries the slogan "Yorkshire's National Newspaper". Alongside The Scotsman it is one of the flagship titles owned by Johnston Press. Founded in 1754, it is one of the oldest newspapers in the country.

Its focus on international and national news gives it a wider focus than that usually associated with a provincial newspaper; editions are available throughout the United Kingdom. It has satellite offices in Harrogate, Hull, Scarborough, Sheffield and York, as well as correspondents in Westminster and the City of London. The current editor is James Mitchinson.

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