1745 in Scotland

Events from the year 1745 in Scotland.

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1745
in
Scotland

Centuries:
  • 16th
  • 17th
  • 18th
  • 19th
  • 20th
Decades:
  • 1720s
  • 1730s
  • 1740s
  • 1750s
  • 1760s
See also:List of years in Scotland
Timeline of Scottish history
1745 in: Great BritainWalesIrelandElsewhere

Incumbents

Law officers

Judiciary

Events

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ "Black Watch Origins". Regiments of Scotland. Retrieved 2016-03-10.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 310–311. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  3. ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  4. ^ Unless the Battle of Graveney Marsh (1940) is counted.
1804 in the United States

Events from the year 1804 in the United States.

Battle of Dornoch

The Battle of Dornoch took place on 20 March 1746 and was part of the Jacobite rising of 1745 in Scotland. However, although recorded in history as a "battle" there was no actual fighting between the two sides. Instead a large rebel Jacobite force advanced on a position held by a force loyal to the British-Hanoverian Government who were taken by surprise and forced into a retreat. The Jacobite advance was coordinated by James Drummond, 3rd Duke of Perth at Dornoch, Sutherland.

Battle of Inverurie (1745)

The second Battle of Inverurie took place on 23 December 1745 and was part of the Jacobite rising of 1745 in Scotland.

Battle of Prestonpans

The Battle of Prestonpans, also known as the Battle of Gladsmuir, was fought on 21 September 1745, near the town of Prestonpans, in East Lothian; it was the first significant engagement of the Jacobite rising of 1745, which is generally viewed as a subsidiary conflict of the War of the Austrian Succession.

Jacobite forces led by the Stuart exile Charles Edward Stuart defeated a government army under Sir John Cope, whose inexperienced troops broke in the face of a highland charge. The battle lasted less than thirty minutes and was a huge boost to Jacobite morale, while a heavily mythologised version of the story entered art and legend.

Court of Session (Scotland) Act 1745

The 19 Geo 2 c 7, sometimes referred to as the Court of Session (Scotland) Act 1745, was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain passed in 1745 and expressly repealed in 1867. It adjourned the Scottish Court of Session, which was unable to sit whilst Edinburgh was occupied by Jacobite forces.

The Act adjourned the court from 1 November 1745 to 1 June 1746. It further provided that the time period between 16 September 1745 (when Edinburgh was occupied) to 1 June 1746 was to be ignored for legal reckoning, and that any court proceedings active were to be continued in the same state on 1 June 1746 as they had been on 1 November 1745.

The Act was expressly repealed as expired by the Statute Law Revision Act 1867.

Flight of the Wild Geese

The Flight of the Wild Geese was the departure of an Irish Jacobite army under the command of Patrick Sarsfield from Ireland to France, as agreed in the Treaty of Limerick on 3 October 1691, following the end of the Williamite War in Ireland. More broadly, the term Wild Geese is used in Irish history to refer to Irish soldiers who left to serve in continental European armies in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.An earlier exodus in 1690, during the same war, had formed the French Irish Brigade, who are sometimes misdescribed as Wild Geese.

Highbridge Skirmish

The Highbridge Skirmish was the first engagement of the Jacobite Rising of 1745 between British Government troops and Jacobites loyal to Prince Charles Edward Stuart. It took place at Highbridge, Lochaber, on the River Spean on 16 August 1745, and marked the commencement of hostilities between the two sides.

Militia Act 1745

The Militia Act 1745 (19 Geo. II, c.2) was an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of Great Britain passed in 1745 and formally repealed in 1867. It made provision for calling out the militia in England during the Second Jacobite Rising.

The Act provided that at any time up to the 30 November 1746, the militia could be embodied for active service, with each soldier to be provided with a month's pay, advanced locally and repaid within six months. Any regiment of militia would be liable to serve throughout the country.

The Act was formally repealed as expired by the Statute Law Revision Act 1867.

Prince's Cairn

The Prince's Cairn marks the traditional spot from where Prince Charles Edward Stuart embarked for France from Scotland on 20 September 1746 following the failure of the Jacobite rising of 1745. The cairn is located on the shores of Loch nan Uamh in Lochaber. It was erected in 1956 by the 1745 Association, a historical society dedicated to the study, recording and preservation of the memories of the Jacobite period.

Although the cairn commemorates the final departure of the Prince before his exile to France, Loch nan Uamh is also where the Young Pretender first stepped ashore on mainland Great Britain on 25 July 1745 and from where – in April 1746 – he escaped to the Hebrides after the defeat of his forces at the Battle of Culloden.

Proscription

Proscription (Latin: proscriptio) is, in current usage, a "decree of condemnation to death or banishment" (Oxford English Dictionary) and can be used in a political context to refer to state-approved murder or banishment. The term originated in Ancient Rome, where it included public identification and official condemnation of declared enemies of the state. It has been used broadly since to describe similar governmental and political actions, with varying degrees of nuance, including the en masse suppression of ideologies and elimination of political rivals or personal enemies. In addition to its recurrences during the various phases of the Roman Republic, it has become a standard term to label:

The suppression of Royalists after Oliver Cromwell's decisive defeat of Charles II at the Battle of Worcester in 1651 (see image)

The curbing of Western religion in early 18th-century China

The banning of Highland dress following the Jacobite rising of 1745 in Scotland

Atrocities that occurred during the Reign of Terror (1793-1794) phase of the French Revolution

The mass deportations of British and French workers from Russia in mid-19th century, with the onset of the Crimean War

In the 20th century, such things as the efforts of the Labour Party in the United Kingdom to prevent "Communist entryism" through blacklisting propagandizing persons and organisations

The broad prohibitions of Jewish cultural institutions and activities in the Soviet Union after the birth of the state of Israel in 1948 and the onset of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War

Siege of Culloden House (1745)

The Siege of Culloden House took place on the night of 15/16 October 1745 and was part of the Jacobite rising of 1745. 200 men of the Jacobite Clan Fraser of Lovat attempted to capture Duncan Forbes, Lord Culloden who was the Lord President of the Court of Session, the most senior legal officer in Scotland.

Siege of Fort Augustus (December 1745)

The first siege of Fort Augustus took place in December 1745 and was part of the Jacobite rising of 1745. A force of 600 men from the recently formed Independent Highland Companies, formed to support the British-Hanoverian Government liberated the fort from the Clan Fraser after a small skirmish.

Siege of Ruthven Barracks (1745)

The Siege of Ruthven Barracks by Jacobite rebels of a small group of government soldiers took place in August 1745 and was part of the Jacobite rising of 1745.

War of the Austrian Succession

The War of the Austrian Succession (German: Österreichischer Erbfolgekrieg, 1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the issue of Archduchess Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy. The war included peripheral events such as King George's War in British America, the War of Jenkins' Ear (which formally began on 23 October 1739), the First Carnatic War in India, the Jacobite rising of 1745 in Scotland, and the First and Second Silesian Wars.

The cause of the war was Maria Theresa's alleged ineligibility to succeed to her father Charles VI's various crowns, because Salic law precluded royal inheritance by a woman. This was to be the key justification for France and Prussia, joined by Bavaria, to challenge Habsburg power. Maria Theresa was supported by Britain, the Dutch Republic, Sardinia and Saxony.

Spain, which had been at war with Britain over colonies and trade since 1739, entered the war on the Continent to re-establish its influence in northern Italy, further reversing Austrian dominance over the Italian peninsula that had been achieved at Spain's expense as a consequence of Spain's war of succession earlier in the 18th century.

The war ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, by which Maria Theresa was confirmed as Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary, but Prussia retained control of Silesia. The peace was soon to be shattered, however, when Austria's desire to recapture Silesia intertwined with the political upheaval in Europe, culminating in the Seven Years' War (1756–1763).

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