1745

1745 (MDCCXLV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1745th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 745th year of the 2nd millennium, the 45th year of the 18th century, and the 6th year of the 1740s decade. As of the start of 1745, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1745 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1745
MDCCXLV
Ab urbe condita2498
Armenian calendar1194
ԹՎ ՌՃՂԴ
Assyrian calendar6495
Balinese saka calendar1666–1667
Bengali calendar1152
Berber calendar2695
British Regnal year18 Geo. 2 – 19 Geo. 2
Buddhist calendar2289
Burmese calendar1107
Byzantine calendar7253–7254
Chinese calendar甲子(Wood Rat)
4441 or 4381
    — to —
乙丑年 (Wood Ox)
4442 or 4382
Coptic calendar1461–1462
Discordian calendar2911
Ethiopian calendar1737–1738
Hebrew calendar5505–5506
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1801–1802
 - Shaka Samvat1666–1667
 - Kali Yuga4845–4846
Holocene calendar11745
Igbo calendar745–746
Iranian calendar1123–1124
Islamic calendar1157–1158
Japanese calendarEnkyō 2
(延享2年)
Javanese calendar1669–1670
Julian calendarGregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar4078
Minguo calendar167 before ROC
民前167年
Nanakshahi calendar277
Thai solar calendar2287–2288
Tibetan calendar阳木鼠年
(male Wood-Rat)
1871 or 1490 or 718
    — to —
阴木牛年
(female Wood-Ox)
1872 or 1491 or 719

Events

January–June

July–December

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 310–311. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  2. ^ Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 217–218. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
  3. ^ Unless the Battle of Graveney Marsh (1940) is counted.
1745 English cricket season

The 1745 English cricket season was the second season following the earliest known codification of the Laws of Cricket.

1745 in Canada

Events from the year 1745 in Canada.

1745 in Denmark

Events from the year 1745 in Denmark.

1745 in France

Events from the year 1745 in France.

1745 in Ireland

Events from the year 1745 in Ireland.

1745 in Norway

Events in the year 1745 in Norway.

1745 in Russia

Events from the year 1745 in Russia

1745 in Scotland

Events from the year 1745 in Scotland.

1745 in Sweden

Events from the year 1745 in Sweden

Battle of Culloden

The Battle of Culloden (; Scottish Gaelic: Blàr Chùil Lodair) was the final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of 1745. On 16 April 1746, the Jacobite forces of Charles Edward Stuart were decisively defeated by Hanoverian forces commanded by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, near Inverness in the Scottish Highlands.

Queen Anne, the last monarch of the House of Stuart, died in 1714, with no living children. Under the terms of the Act of Settlement 1701, she was succeeded by her second cousin George I of the House of Hanover, who was a descendant of the Stuarts through his maternal grandmother, Elizabeth, a daughter of James VI and I.

Raising an army consisting mostly of Scottish clansmen along with smaller units of Irish and Englishmen from the Manchester Regiment, Charles' efforts initially met with success and at one point began to threaten London. However, a series of events forced the army's return to Scotland, where they were soon pursued by an army raised by the Duke of Cumberland. The two forces eventually met at Culloden, on terrain that made the highland charge difficult and gave the larger and well-armed British forces the advantage. The battle lasted only an hour, with the Jacobites suffering a bloody defeat. Between 1,500 and 2,000 Jacobites were killed or wounded in the brief battle. In contrast, only about 300 government soldiers were killed or wounded.The Hanoverian victory at Culloden halted the Jacobite intent to overthrow the House of Hanover and restore the House of Stuart to the British throne; Charles Stuart never again tried to challenge Hanoverian power in Great Britain. The conflict was the last pitched battle fought on British soil.The battle and its aftermath continue to arouse strong feelings: the University of Glasgow awarded the Duke of Cumberland an honorary doctorate, but many modern commentators allege that the aftermath of the battle and subsequent crackdown on Jacobitism were brutal, and earned Cumberland the sobriquet "Butcher". Efforts were subsequently made to further integrate the comparatively wild Scottish Highlands into the Kingdom of Great Britain; civil penalties were introduced to weaken Gaelic culture and undermine the Scottish clan system.

Battle of Prestonpans

The Battle of Prestonpans, also known as the Battle of Gladsmuir, was fought on 21 September 1745, near the town of Prestonpans, in East Lothian; it was the first significant engagement of the Jacobite rising of 1745, which is generally viewed as a subsidiary conflict of the War of the Austrian Succession.

Jacobite forces led by the Stuart exile Charles Edward Stuart defeated a government army under Sir John Cope, whose inexperienced troops broke in the face of a highland charge. The battle lasted less than thirty minutes and was a huge boost to Jacobite morale, while a heavily mythologised version of the story entered art and legend.

Charles Edward Stuart

Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart (31 December 1720 – 31 January 1788) was the elder son of James Francis Edward Stuart, grandson of James II and VII and after 1766 the Stuart claimant to the throne of Great Britain. During his lifetime, he was also known as "The Young Pretender" or "The Young Chevalier" and in popular memory as "Bonnie Prince Charlie". He is best remembered for his role in the 1745 rising; his defeat at Culloden in April 1746 effectively ended the Stuart cause, and subsequent attempts (such as a planned French invasion in 1759) failed to materialise. His escape from Scotland after the uprising led him to be portrayed as a romantic figure of heroic failure in later representations.

Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles VII (7 April 1697 – 20 January 1745) was the Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from 24 January 1742 until his death in 1745. A member of the House of Wittelsbach, Charles was the first person not born of the House of Habsburg to become emperor in three centuries, though he was connected to that house both by blood and by marriage.

ISO 1745

ISO 1745:1975 Information processing – Basic mode control procedures for data communication systems is an early ISO standard defining a Telex-oriented communications protocol that used the non-printable ASCII transmission control characters SOH (Start of Heading), STX (Start of Text), ETX (End of Text), EOT (End of Transmission), ENQ (Enquiry), ACK (Acknowledge), DLE (Data Link Escape), NAK (Negative Acknowledge), SYN (Synchronous Idle), and ETB (End of Transmission Block).

It also defines a serial data format, consisting of a start bit, 7 bit ASCII (least significant bit first), a parity bit (even for asynchronous networks, odd for synchronous networks), and a stop bit.

The text of ISO 1745:1975 is not currently freely available, but the corresponding ECMA version is. The protocol it defines seems to now be little used.

Jacobite rising of 1745

The Jacobite rising of 1745, also known as the Forty-five Rebellion or simply the '45 (Scottish Gaelic: Bliadhna Theàrlaich [ˈpliən̪ˠə ˈhjaːrˠl̪ˠɪç], "The Year of Charles"), was an attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for his father, James Francis Edward Stuart. It took place during the War of the Austrian Succession, when the bulk of the British Army was fighting in mainland Europe, and proved to be the last in a series of revolts that began in 1689, with major outbreaks in 1708, 1715 and 1719.

Charles launched the rebellion on 19 August 1745 at Glenfinnan in the Scottish Highlands, capturing Edinburgh and winning the Battle of Prestonpans in September. At a council in October, the Scots agreed to invade England after Charles assured them of substantial support from English Jacobites and a simultaneous French landing in Southern England. On that basis, the Jacobite army entered England in early November, reaching Derby on 4 December, where they decided to turn back.

Similar discussions had taken place at Carlisle, Preston and Manchester and many felt they had gone too far already. The invasion route had been selected to cross areas considered strongly Jacobite but the promised English support failed to materialise; they were now outnumbered and in danger of having their retreat cut off. The decision was supported by the vast majority but caused an irretrievable split between Charles and his Scots supporters. Despite victory at Falkirk Muir in January 1746, the Battle of Culloden in April ended the Rebellion and significant backing for the Stuart cause. Charles escaped to France, but was unable to win support for another attempt, and died in Rome in 1788.

Jacobite risings

The Jacobite risings, also known as the Jacobite rebellions or the War of the British Succession, were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in Great Britain and Ireland occurring between 1688 and 1746. The uprisings had the aim of returning James II of England and VII of Scotland, the last Catholic British monarch, and later his descendants of the House of Stuart, to the throne of Great Britain after they had been deposed by Parliament during the Glorious Revolution. The series of conflicts takes its name Jacobitism, from Jacobus, the Latin form of James.

Jacobite rising may refer to any of the following:

Jacobite rising of 1689

Williamite War in Ireland, James's attempts to regain the throne in Ireland

Jacobite assassination plot 1696

Planned French invasion of Britain (1708), included Jacobite support.

Jacobite rising of 1715

Jacobite rising of 1719

Planned French invasion of Britain (1744), included Jacobite support.

Jacobite rising of 1745

Planned French invasion of Britain (1759), included Jacobite support.

Johan Christian Fabricius

Johan Christian Fabricius (7 January 1745 – 3 March 1808) was a Danish zoologist, specialising in "Insecta", which at that time included all arthropods: insects, arachnids, crustaceans and others. He was a student of Carl Linnaeus, and is considered one of the most important entomologists of the 18th century, having named nearly 10,000 species of animals, and established the basis for the modern insect classification.

Maria Luisa of Spain

Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain (Spanish: María Luisa, German: Maria Ludovika) (24 November 1745 – 15 May 1792) was Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Grand Duchess of Tuscany as the spouse of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor.

War of the Austrian Succession

The War of the Austrian Succession (German: Österreichischer Erbfolgekrieg, 1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the issue of Archduchess Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy. The war included peripheral events such as King George's War in British America, the War of Jenkins' Ear (which formally began on 23 October 1739), the First Carnatic War in India, the Jacobite rising of 1745 in Scotland, and the First and Second Silesian Wars.

The cause of the war was Maria Theresa's alleged ineligibility to succeed to her father Charles VI's various crowns, because Salic law precluded royal inheritance by a woman. This was to be the key justification for France and Prussia, joined by Bavaria, to challenge Habsburg power. Maria Theresa was supported by Britain, the Dutch Republic, Sardinia and Saxony.

Spain, which had been at war with Britain over colonies and trade since 1739, entered the war on the Continent to re-establish its influence in northern Italy, further reversing Austrian dominance over the Italian peninsula that had been achieved at Spain's expense as a consequence of Spain's war of succession earlier in the 18th century.

The war ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, by which Maria Theresa was confirmed as Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary, but Prussia retained control of Silesia. The peace was soon to be shattered, however, when Austria's desire to recapture Silesia intertwined with the political upheaval in Europe, culminating in the Seven Years' War (1756–1763).

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