1731 (MDCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1731st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 731st year of the 2nd millennium, the 31st year of the 18th century, and the 2nd year of the 1730s decade. As of the start of 1731, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1731 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1731
Ab urbe condita2484
Armenian calendar1180
Assyrian calendar6481
Balinese saka calendar1652–1653
Bengali calendar1138
Berber calendar2681
British Regnal yearGeo. 2 – 5 Geo. 2
Buddhist calendar2275
Burmese calendar1093
Byzantine calendar7239–7240
Chinese calendar庚戌(Metal Dog)
4427 or 4367
    — to —
辛亥年 (Metal Pig)
4428 or 4368
Coptic calendar1447–1448
Discordian calendar2897
Ethiopian calendar1723–1724
Hebrew calendar5491–5492
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1787–1788
 - Shaka Samvat1652–1653
 - Kali Yuga4831–4832
Holocene calendar11731
Igbo calendar731–732
Iranian calendar1109–1110
Islamic calendar1143–1144
Japanese calendarKyōhō 16
Javanese calendar1655–1656
Julian calendarGregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar4064
Minguo calendar181 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar263
Thai solar calendar2273–2274
Tibetan calendar阳金狗年
(male Iron-Dog)
1857 or 1476 or 704
    — to —
(female Iron-Pig)
1858 or 1477 or 705
Crab Nebula
John Bevis observes the Crab Nebula for the first time.




Date unknown




  1. ^ a b c d e "Fires, Great", in The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p49
  2. ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 303. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  3. ^ "Beowulf: Ashburnham House Fire" Archived 2011-07-23 at the Wayback Machine[Positional parameters ignored]
  4. ^ "The 18th Century Women Scientists of Bologna". ScienceWeek. 2004. Archived from the original on March 2, 2012. Retrieved April 26, 2011.
1731 English cricket season

The 1731 English cricket season was the 35th cricket season since the earliest recorded eleven-aside match was played. Details have survived of 29 matches as well as one notable single wicket match. Match reports in newspapers were increasingly common and began to contain more detail, sometimes including the names of patrons and players.

The most notable match played during the year was at Richmond Green in August which ended in a riot. It is the earliest match for which the team totals were recorded and have been preserved, rather than simply who won the wager.

1731 in Canada

Events from the year 1731 in Canada.

1731 in Denmark

Events from the year 1731 in Denmark.

1731 in France

Events from the year 1731 in France

1731 in Ireland

Events from the year 1731 in Ireland.

1731 in Norway

Events in the year 1731 in Norway.

1731 in Russia

Events from the year 1731 in Russia

1731 in Scotland

Events from the year 1731 in Scotland.

1731 in Sweden

Events from the year 1731 in Sweden

First Maroon War

The First Maroon War was a conflict between the Jamaican Maroons and the colonial British authorities that started around 1728 and continued until the peace treaties of 1739 and 1740.

List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain, 1720–1739

This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain for the years 1720–1739. For Acts passed up until 1707 see List of Acts of the Parliament of England and List of Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland to 1700 and the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland, 1701–1800.

For Acts passed from 1801 onwards see List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. For Acts of the devolved parliaments and assemblies in the United Kingdom, see the List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament from 1999, the List of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the List of Acts and Measures of the National Assembly for Wales; see also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.

The number shown after each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Union with Ireland Act 1800 is cited as "39 & 40 Geo. 3 c. 67", meaning the 67th Act passed during the session that started in the 39th year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 40th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "41 Geo. 3" rather than "41 Geo. III"). Note also that Acts of the last session of the Parliament of Great Britain and the first session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are both cited as "41 Geo. 3".

Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain did not have a short title; however, some of these Acts have subsequently been given a short title by Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (such as the Short Titles Act 1896).

Before the Acts of Parliament (Commencement) Act 1793 came into force on 8 April 1793, Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain were deemed to have come into effect on the first day of the session in which they were passed. Because of this, the years given in the list below may in fact be the year before a particular Act was passed.

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1731

Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1731.

Maria Josepha of Saxony, Dauphine of France

Maria Josepha of Saxony (Maria Josepha Karolina Eleonore Franziska Xaveria; 4 November 1731 – 13 March 1767) was a Dauphine of France from the age of fifteen through her marriage to Louis de France, the son and heir of Louis XV. Marie Josèphe was the mother of three kings of France, including Louis XVI, as well as Madame Élisabeth.

Pacific Fleet (Russia)

The Pacific Fleet (Russian: Тихоокеанский флот, translit: Tikhookeanskiy flot) is the Russian Navy fleet in the Pacific Ocean.

Established in 1731 as part of the Imperial Russian Navy, the fleet was known as the Okhotsk Military Flotilla (1731-1856) and Siberian Military Flotilla (1856-1918), formed to defend Russian interests in the Russian Far East region along the Pacific coast. In 1918 the fleet was inherited by the Russian SFSR then the Soviet Union in 1922 as part of the Soviet Navy, being reformed several times before being disbanded in 1926. In 1932 it was re-established as the Pacific Fleet, and was known as the Red Banner Pacific Fleet (Краснознамённый Тихоокеанский флот) after World War II as it had earned the Order of the Red Banner. In the Soviet years, the fleet was also responsible for the Soviet Navy's operations in the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Red Banner Pacific Fleet was inherited by the Russian Federation as part of the Russian Navy and its current name was adopted.

The Pacific Fleet's headquarters is located in Vladivostok, with numerous facilities within the Peter the Great Gulf in Primorsky Krai, and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Vilyuchinsk in Avacha Bay on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Kamchatka Krai. Following the APEC Russia 2012 summit, it was announced that the main naval base of the Pacific Fleet in the Russian Far East will be moved to the town of Fokino, Primorsky Krai. The current commander is Admiral Sergei Avakyants, who has held the position since May 2012.

Rinaldo (opera)

Rinaldo (HWV 7) is an opera by George Frideric Handel, composed in 1711, and was the first Italian language opera written specifically for the London stage. The libretto was prepared by Giacomo Rossi from a scenario provided by Aaron Hill, and the work was first performed at the Queen's Theatre in London's Haymarket on 24 February 1711. The story of love, war and redemption, set at the time of the First Crusade, is loosely based on Torquato Tasso's epic poem Gerusalemme liberata ("Jerusalem Delivered"), and its staging involved many original and vivid effects. It was a great success with the public, despite negative reactions from literary critics hostile to the contemporary trend towards Italian entertainment in English theatres.

Handel composed Rinaldo quickly, borrowing and adapting music from operas and other works that he had composed during a long stay in Italy in the years 1706–10, during which he established a considerable reputation. In the years following the premiere, he made numerous amendments to the score. Rinaldo is regarded by critics as one of Handel's greatest operas. Of its individual numbers, the soprano aria "Lascia ch'io pianga" has become a particular favourite, and is a popular concert piece.

Handel went on to dominate opera in England for several decades. Rinaldo was revived in London regularly up to 1717, and in a revised version in 1731; of all Handel's operas, Rinaldo was the most frequently performed during his lifetime. After 1731, however, the opera was not staged for more than 200 years. Renewed interest in baroque opera during the 20th century led to the first modern professional production in Handel's birthplace, Halle, Germany, in 1954. The opera was mounted sporadically over the following thirty years; after a successful run at New York's Metropolitan Opera in 1984, performances and recordings of the work have become more frequent worldwide. Rinaldo was the first Handel Opera to have found its way to the Metropolitan. The opera's tercentenary in 2011 brought a modernized production at the Glyndebourne Festival.

Royal Dublin Society

The Royal Dublin Society (RDS) is the name given in 1820 to a philanthropic organisation which was founded as the 'Dublin Society' on 25 June 1731 to see Ireland thrive culturally and economically. The RDS is synonymous with its campus in Ballsbridge in Dublin, Ireland. This campus includes the "RDS Arena", "RDS Simmonscourt", "RDS Main Hall" and other venues which are used regularly for exhibitions, concerts and sporting events, including regular use by the Leinster Rugby team.

The Gentleman's Magazine

The Gentleman's Magazine was founded in London, England, by Edward Cave in January 1731. It ran uninterrupted for almost 200 years, until 1922. It was the first to use the term magazine (from the French magazine, meaning "storehouse") for a periodical. Samuel Johnson's first regular employment as a writer was with The Gentleman's Magazine.

The Weekly Rehearsal

The Weekly Rehearsal or The Rehearsal (1731-1735) was a literary newspaper published in Boston, Massachusetts, in the 1730s. Jeremiah Gridley served as editor and publisher (1731-1733); other publishers/printers included John Draper and Thomas Fleet. In 1735 it was continued by Thomas Fleet's Boston Evening Post.

Worcester County, Massachusetts

Worcester County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. As of the 2010 census, the population was 798,552, making it the second-most populous county in Massachusetts while also being the largest in area. The estimated population as of July 1, 2017 is 826,116. The largest city and traditional county seat is the city of Worcester.Worcester County is included in the Worcester, MA-CT Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT Combined Statistical Area.

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