1728 (MDCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1728th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 728th year of the 2nd millennium, the 28th year of the 18th century, and the 9th year of the 1720s decade. As of the start of 1728, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1728 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1728
Ab urbe condita2481
Armenian calendar1177
Assyrian calendar6478
Balinese saka calendar1649–1650
Bengali calendar1135
Berber calendar2678
British Regnal yearGeo. 2 – 2 Geo. 2
Buddhist calendar2272
Burmese calendar1090
Byzantine calendar7236–7237
Chinese calendar丁未(Fire Goat)
4424 or 4364
    — to —
戊申年 (Earth Monkey)
4425 or 4365
Coptic calendar1444–1445
Discordian calendar2894
Ethiopian calendar1720–1721
Hebrew calendar5488–5489
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1784–1785
 - Shaka Samvat1649–1650
 - Kali Yuga4828–4829
Holocene calendar11728
Igbo calendar728–729
Iranian calendar1106–1107
Islamic calendar1140–1141
Japanese calendarKyōhō 13
Javanese calendar1652–1653
Julian calendarGregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar4061
Minguo calendar184 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar260
Thai solar calendar2270–2271
Tibetan calendar阴火羊年
(female Fire-Goat)
1854 or 1473 or 701
    — to —
(male Earth-Monkey)
1855 or 1474 or 702
Simple stellar aberration diagram
James Bradley calculates the speed of light using stellar aberration.




Date unknown




  1. ^ "The history of payments in the UK". BBC News. 2009-02-16. Retrieved 2016-02-25.
  2. ^ Delambre, J. B. (1827). Histoire de l'astronomie au dix-huitième siècle. Paris: Bachelier.
1728 English cricket season

The 1728 English cricket season was the 32nd cricket season since the earliest recorded eleven-aside match was played. Details have survived of four matches with another match possibly having been played in this year.

A Swiss traveller in southern England recorded his experiences of watching cricket being played. Teams which played under the names of counties were being formed as patrons, such as Edwin Stead, Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond and Sir William Gage sought stronger combinations to help them win

1728 in Canada

Events from the year 1728 in Canada.

1728 in Denmark

Events from the year 1728 in Denmark.

1728 in France

Events from the year 1728 in France.

1728 in Ireland

Events from the year 1728 in Ireland.

1728 in Norway

Events in the year 1728 in Norway.

1728 in Scotland

Events from the year 1728 in Scotland.

1728 in Sweden

Events from the year 1728 in Sweden


Apathy is a lack of feeling, emotion, interest, or concern about something of great importance. Apathy is a state of indifference, or the suppression of emotions such as concern, excitement, motivation, or passion. An apathetic individual has an absence of interest in or concern about emotional, social, spiritual, philosophical, or physical life and the world.

The apathetic may lack a sense of purpose, worth, or meaning in their life. An apathetic person may also exhibit insensibility or sluggishness. In positive psychology, apathy is described as a result of the individuals feeling they do not possess the level of skill required to confront a challenge (i.e. "flow"). It may also be a result of perceiving no challenge at all (e.g. the challenge is irrelevant to them, or conversely, they have learned helplessness). Apathy may be a sign of more specific mental problems such as schizophrenia or dementia. However, apathy is something that all people face in some capacity. It is a natural response to disappointment, dejection, and stress. As a response, apathy is a way to forget about these negative feelings. This type of common apathy is usually only felt in the short-term and when it becomes a long-term or even lifelong state is when deeper social and psychological issues are most likely present.

Apathy should be distinguished from reduced affect, which refers to reduced emotional expression but not necessarily reduced emotion.


An architrave (; from Italian: architrave "chief beam", also called an epistyle; from Greek ἐπίστυλον epistylon "door frame") is the lintel or beam that rests on the capitals of the columns. It is an architectural element in Classical architecture.

The term can also be applied to all sides, including the vertical members, of a frame with mouldings around a door or window. The word architrave is also used to refer more generally to a style of mouldings (or other elements) framing the top of a door, window or other rectangular opening, where the horizontal "head" casing extends across the tops of the vertical side casings where the elements join (creating a butt joint, as opposed to a miter joint).


Autumn, also known as fall in American English and sometimes in Canadian English, is one of the four temperate seasons. Autumn marks the transition from summer to winter, in September (Northern Hemisphere) or March (Southern Hemisphere), when the duration of daylight becomes noticeably shorter and the temperature cools considerably. One of its main features is the shedding of leaves from deciduous trees.

Some cultures regard the autumnal equinox as "mid-autumn", while others with a longer temperature lag treat it as the start of autumn. Meteorologists (and most of the temperate countries in the southern hemisphere) use a definition based on Gregorian calendar months, with autumn being September, October, and November in the northern hemisphere, and March, April, and May in the southern hemisphere.

In North America, autumn traditionally starts on September 21 and ends on December 21. It is considered to start with the September equinox (21 to 24 September) and end with the winter solstice (21 or 22 December). Popular culture in the United States associates Labor Day, the first Monday in September, as the end of summer and the start of autumn; certain summer traditions, such as wearing white, are discouraged after that date. As daytime and nighttime temperatures decrease, trees shed their leaves. In traditional East Asian solar term, autumn starts on or around 8 August and ends on or about 7 November. In Ireland, the autumn months according to the national meteorological service, Met Éireann, are September, October and November. However, according to the Irish Calendar, which is based on ancient Gaelic traditions, autumn lasts throughout the months of August, September and October, or possibly a few days later, depending on tradition. The names of the months in Manx Gaelic are similarly based on autumn covering August, September and October. In Argentina, Australia and New Zealand, autumn officially begins on 1 March and ends on 31 May.


A bastion or bulwark is a structure projecting outward from the curtain wall of a fortification, most commonly angular in shape and positioned at the corners. The fully developed bastion consists of two faces and two flanks with fire from the flanks being able to protect the curtain wall and also the adjacent bastions. It is one element in the style of fortification dominant from the mid 16th to mid 19th centuries. Bastion fortifications offered a greater degree of passive resistance and more scope for ranged defense in the age of gunpowder artillery compared with the medieval fortifications they replaced.


A gill ( (listen)) is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide. The gills of some species, such as hermit crabs, have adapted to allow respiration on land provided they are kept moist. The microscopic structure of a gill presents a large surface area to the external environment. Branchia (pl. branchiae) is the zoologists' name for gills (from Ancient Greek).

With the exception of some aquatic insects, the filaments and lamellae (folds) contain blood or coelomic fluid, from which gases are exchanged through the thin walls. The blood carries oxygen to other parts of the body. Carbon dioxide passes from the blood through the thin gill tissue into the water. Gills or gill-like organs, located in different parts of the body, are found in various groups of aquatic animals, including mollusks, crustaceans, insects, fish, and amphibians. Semiterrestrial marine animals such as crabs and mudskippers have gill chambers in which they store water, enabling them to use the dissolved oxygen when they are on land.

Immunity (medical)

In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.

Jagannatha Dasa

Jagannatha Dasa (Kannada: ಜಗನ್ನಾಥ ದಾಸ) (1728–1809), a native of Manvi town in the Raichur district, Karnataka state, India, is considered one of the notable Haridasa ("devotee of the Hindu god Vishnu") saint-poets of the Kannada language. Apart from authoring numerous well-known devotional songs that propagate the Vaishnava bhakti ("faith"), Jagannatha Dasa wrote the Harikathamritasara in the native shatpadi (six-line verse) metre and Tattva suvali in the native [[tripadi]] (three-line verse) metre. He was also an accomplished scholar in the Sanskrit language.

List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain, 1720–1739

This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain for the years 1720–1739. For Acts passed up until 1707 see List of Acts of the Parliament of England and List of Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland to 1700 and the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland, 1701–1800.

For Acts passed from 1801 onwards see List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. For Acts of the devolved parliaments and assemblies in the United Kingdom, see the List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament from 1999, the List of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the List of Acts and Measures of the National Assembly for Wales; see also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.

The number shown after each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Union with Ireland Act 1800 is cited as "39 & 40 Geo. 3 c. 67", meaning the 67th Act passed during the session that started in the 39th year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 40th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "41 Geo. 3" rather than "41 Geo. III"). Note also that Acts of the last session of the Parliament of Great Britain and the first session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are both cited as "41 Geo. 3".

Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain did not have a short title; however, some of these Acts have subsequently been given a short title by Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (such as the Short Titles Act 1896).

Before the Acts of Parliament (Commencement) Act 1793 came into force on 8 April 1793, Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain were deemed to have come into effect on the first day of the session in which they were passed. Because of this, the years given in the list below may in fact be the year before a particular Act was passed.

Picander cycle of 1728–29

Picander's cycle of 1728–29 is a cycle of church cantata librettos covering the liturgical year. It was published for the first time in 1728 as Cantaten auf die Sonn- und Fest-Tage durch das gantze Jahr (Cantatas for the Sun- and feastdays throughout the year). Johann Sebastian Bach set several of these librettos to music, but it is unknown whether he covered a substantial part of the cycle. This elusive cycle of cantata settings is indicated as the composer's fourth Leipzig cycle, or the Picander cycle (German: Picander Jahrgang).


A saltire, also called Saint Andrew's Cross or the crux decussata, is a heraldic symbol in the form of a diagonal cross, like the shape of the letter X in Roman type. The word comes from the Middle French sautoir ("stirrup"), possibly owing to the shape of the triangular areas in the design.It appears in numerous flags, including those of Scotland and Jamaica, and other coats of arms and seals. A variant, also appearing on many past and present flags and symbols, is the Cross of Burgundy.

A warning sign in the shape of a saltire is also used to indicate the point at which a railway line intersects a road at a level crossing.

In Unicode, the cross is encoded at U+2613 ☓ SALTIRE (HTML ☓). See X mark for similar symbols that might be more accessible.

In punycode, a representation of Unicode with the limited ASCII character subset used for Internet host names, the single-letter second-level domain of ☓.com is encoded at xn--33h.com.

Thoracic diaphragm

The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (Ancient Greek: διάφραγμα, translit. diáphragma, lit. 'partition'), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity. The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity, containing the heart and lungs, from the abdominal cavity and performs an important function in respiration: as the diaphragm contracts, the volume of the thoracic cavity increases, a negative vacuum is created which draws air into the lungs.The term diaphragm in anatomy can refer to other flat structures such as the urogenital diaphragm or pelvic diaphragm, but "the diaphragm" generally refers to the thoracic diaphragm. In humans, the diaphragm is slightly asymmetric—its right half is higher up (superior) to the left half, since the large liver rests beneath the right half of the diaphragm. There is also a theory that the diaphragm is lower on the other side due to the presence of the heart.

Other mammals have diaphragms, and other vertebrates such as amphibians and reptiles have diaphragm-like structures, but important details of the anatomy vary, such as the position of the lungs in the abdominal cavity.

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