1724

1724 (MDCCXXIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1724th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 724th year of the 2nd millennium, the 24th year of the 18th century, and the 5th year of the 1720s decade. As of the start of 1724, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1724 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1724
MDCCXXIV
Ab urbe condita2477
Armenian calendar1173
ԹՎ ՌՃՀԳ
Assyrian calendar6474
Balinese saka calendar1645–1646
Bengali calendar1131
Berber calendar2674
British Regnal year10 Geo. 1 – 11 Geo. 1
Buddhist calendar2268
Burmese calendar1086
Byzantine calendar7232–7233
Chinese calendar癸卯(Water Rabbit)
4420 or 4360
    — to —
甲辰年 (Wood Dragon)
4421 or 4361
Coptic calendar1440–1441
Discordian calendar2890
Ethiopian calendar1716–1717
Hebrew calendar5484–5485
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1780–1781
 - Shaka Samvat1645–1646
 - Kali Yuga4824–4825
Holocene calendar11724
Igbo calendar724–725
Iranian calendar1102–1103
Islamic calendar1136–1137
Japanese calendarKyōhō 9
(享保9年)
Javanese calendar1648–1649
Julian calendarGregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar4057
Minguo calendar188 before ROC
民前188年
Nanakshahi calendar256
Thai solar calendar2266–2267
Tibetan calendar阴水兔年
(female Water-Rabbit)
1850 or 1469 or 697
    — to —
阳木龙年
(male Wood-Dragon)
1851 or 1470 or 698
Blenheim engraving
Blenheim Palace is completed.

Events

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

Births

Deaths

1724 in Canada

Events from the year 1724 in Canada.

1724 in Denmark

Events from the year 1724 in Denmark.

1724 in France

Events from the year 1724 in France.

1724 in Ireland

Events from the year 1724 in Ireland.

1724 in Norway

Events in the year 1724 in Norway.

1724 in Russia

Events from the year 1724 in Russia

1724 in Scotland

Events from the year 1724 in Scotland.

1724 in Sweden

Events from the year 1724 in Sweden

Arguin

Arguin (Portuguese: Arguim) is an island off the western coast of Mauritania in the Bay of Arguin. It is approximately 6x2 km in size, with extensive and dangerous reefs around it. The island is now part of the Banc d'Arguin National Park.

Bach's first cantata cycle

Bach's first cantata cycle refers to the church cantatas Johann Sebastian Bach composed for the somewhat less than 60 occasions of the liturgical year of his first year as Thomaskantor in Leipzig which required concerted music. That year ran from the first Sunday after Trinity in 1723 to Trinity Sunday of the next year:

Trinity I, 30 May 1723: Die Elenden sollen essen, BWV 75

Trinity II, 6 June 1723: Die Himmel erzählen die Ehre Gottes, BWV 76

Trinity III, 13 June 1723: Weimar cantata Ich hatte viel Bekümmernis, BWV 21 restaged (third version in C minor)

Trinity IV, 20 June 1723: Ein ungefärbt Gemüte, BWV 24, and Weimar cantata Barmherziges Herze der ewigen Liebe, BWV 185 restaged

Nativity of St. John the Baptist, 24 June 1723: Ihr Menschen, rühmet Gottes Liebe, BWV 167; Possibly also the Sanctus in C major, BWV 237 was composed for this occasion.

Trinity V, 27 June 1723: no extant cantata

Visitation, 2 July 1723: Herz und Mund und Tat und Leben, BWV 147 (adaptation of BWV 147a, a Weimar cantata for Advent IV) and possibly Magnificat in E-flat major, BWV 243a (early version without Christmas interpolations)

Trinity VI, 4 July 1723: no extant cantata

Trinity VII, 11 July 1723: Ärgre dich, o Seele, nicht, BWV 186 (adapted from BWV 186a, a Weimar cantata for Advent III)

Trinity VIII, 18 July 1723: Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz, BWV 136

Trinity IX, 25 July 1723: Herr, gehe nicht ins Gericht mit deinem Knecht, BWV 105

Trinity X, 1 August 1723: Schauet doch und sehet, ob irgend ein Schmerz sei, BWV 46

Trinity XI, 8 August 1723: Siehe zu, daß deine Gottesfurcht nicht Heuchelei sei, BWV 179 and Weimar cantata Mein Herze schwimmt im Blut, BWV 199 restaged (Leipzig version in D minor)

Trinity XII, 15 August 1723: Lobe den Herrn, meine Seele, BWV 69a

Trinity XIII, 22 August 1723: Du sollt Gott, deinen Herren, lieben, BWV 77

Trinity XIV, 29 August 1723: Es ist nichts Gesundes an meinem Leibe, BWV 25

(30 August 1723, Ratswechsel: not part of the liturgical year, see below)

Trinity XV, 5 September 1723: Warum betrübst du dich, mein Herz, BWV 138

Trinity XVI, 12 September 1723: Christus, der ist mein Leben, BWV 95

Trinity XVII, 19 September 1723: Bringet dem Herrn Ehre seines Namens, BWV 148

Trinity XVIII, 26 September 1723: no extant cantata

St. Michael's Day, 29 September 1723: no extant cantata

Trinity XIX, 3 October 1723: Ich elender Mensch, wer wird mich erlösen, BWV BWV 48

Trinity XX, 10 October 1723: Weimar cantata Ach! ich sehe, itzt, da ich zur Hochzeit gehe, BWV 162 restaged

Trinity XXI, 17 October 1723: Ich glaube, lieber Herr, hilf meinem Unglauben, BWV 109

Trinity XXII, 24 October 1723: Was soll ich aus dir machen, Ephraim, BWV 89

Reformation Day, 31 October 1723 (coinciding with Trinity XXIII): possibly Weimar cantata Nur jedem das Seine, BWV 163 restaged; Alternatively an early version of BWV 80/80b?

Trinity XXIV, 7 November 1723: O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort, BWV 60

Trinity XXV, 14 November 1723: Es reißet euch ein schrecklich Ende, BWV 90

Trinity XXVI, 21 November 1723: Wachet! betet! betet! wachet! BWV 70 (adapted from a Weimar Advent II cantata)

Advent I, 28 November 1723: Weimar cantata Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 61 restaged

Christmas, 25 December 1723: Weimar cantata Christen, ätzet diesen Tag, BWV 63 restaged; Also Magnificat, BWV 243a (including Christmas interpolations) and Sanctus in D major, BWV 238

Second Day of Christmas, 26 December 1723: Darzu ist erschienen der Sohn Gottes, BWV 40

Third Day of Christmas, 27 December 1723: Sehet, welch eine Liebe hat uns der Vater erzeiget, BWV 64

New Year, 1 January 1724: Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied, BWV 190 (instrumental parts lost)

Sunday after New Year, 2 January 1724: Schau, lieber Gott, wie meine Feind, BWV 153

Epiphany, 6 January 1724: Sie werden aus Saba alle kommen, BWV 65

Epiphany I, 9 January 1724: Mein liebster Jesus ist verloren, BWV 154

Epiphany II, 16 January 1724: Weimar cantata Mein Gott, wie lang, ach lange? BWV 155 restaged

Epiphany III, 23 January 1724: Herr, wie du willt, so schicks mit mir, BWV 73

Epiphany IV, 30 January 1724: Jesus schläft, was soll ich hoffen? BWV 81

Purification, 2 February 1724: Erfreute Zeit im neuen Bunde, BWV 83

Septuagesima, 6 February 1724: Nimm, was dein ist, und gehe hin, BWV 144

Sexagesima, 13 February 1724: Leichtgesinnte Flattergeister, BWV 181 and Weimar cantata Gleichwie der Regen und Schnee vom Himmel fällt, BWV 18 restaged in its Leipzig version (A minor, Kammerton)

Estomihi, 7 February 1723 (Leipzig audition for the post as Thomaskantor) and 20 February 1724 (first cycle): Jesus nahm zu sich die Zwölfe, BWV 22 and Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn, BWV 23 restaged in its first Leipzig version (B minor, four movements)

Annunciation and Palm Sunday 25 March 1724: Siehe eine Jungfrau ist schwanger, BWV 1135 (previously BWV Anh. 199; music lost) and Weimar cantata Himmelskönig, sei willkommen, BWV 182 restaged

(Good Friday, 7 April 1724: St John Passion, BWV 245, 1st version — Passion, not considered as a cantata part of the cycle)

Easter, 9 April 1724: early cantata Christ lag in Todes Banden, BWV 4 restaged (Leipzig version); Weimar cantata Der Himmel lacht! Die Erde jubilieret, BWV 31 restaged (Leipzig version)

Easter Monday, 10 April 1724: Erfreut euch, ihr Herzen, BWV 66

Easter Tuesday, 11 April 1724: Ein Herz, das seinen Jesum lebend weiß, BWV 134

Quasimodogeniti, 16 April 1724: Halt im Gedächtnis Jesum Christ, BWV 67

Misericordias Domini, 23 April 1724: Du Hirte Israel, höre, BWV 104

Jubilate, 30 April 1724: Weimar cantate Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen, BWV 12 restaged in a version with a slightly modified instrumentation

Cantate, 7 May 1724: Wo gehest du hin? BWV 166

Rogate, 14 May 1724: Wahrlich, wahrlich, ich sage euch, BWV BWV 86

Ascension, 18 May 1724: Wer da gläubet und getauft wird, BWV 37

Exaudi, 21 May 1724: Sie werden euch in den Bann tun, BWV 44

Pentecost, 28 May 1724: Wer mich liebet, der wird mein Wort halten, BWV 59 and Weimar cantata Erschallet, ihr Lieder, erklinget, ihr Saiten! BWV 172 restaged in its first Leipzig version (D major)

Pentecost Monday, 29 May 1724: no extant cantata

Pentecost Tuesday, 30 May 1724: Erwünschtes Freudenlicht, BWV 184

Trinity, 4 June 1724: Höchsterwünschtes Freudenfest, BWV 194, originally a consecration cantata (2 November 1723), restaged in its first Leipzig versionNot a part of the liturgical year:

New council (Ratswechsel), 30 August 17: Preise, Jerusalem, den Herrn, BWV 119

Chorale cantata (Bach)

There are 52 chorale cantatas by Johann Sebastian Bach surviving in at least one complete version. Around 40 of these were composed during his second year as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, which started after Trinity Sunday 4 June 1724, and form the backbone of his chorale cantata cycle. The eldest known cantata by Bach, an early version of Christ lag in Todes Banden, BWV 4, presumably written in 1707, was a chorale cantata. The last chorale cantata he wrote in his second year in Leipzig was Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern, BWV 1, first performed on Palm Sunday, 25 March 1725. In the ten years after that he wrote at least a dozen further chorale cantatas and other cantatas that were added to his chorale cantata cycle.

Lutheran hymns, also known as chorales, have a prominent place in the liturgy of that denomination. A chorale cantata is a church cantata based on a single hymn, both its text and tune. Bach was not the first to compose them, but for his 1724-25 second Leipzig cantata cycle he developed a specific format: in this format the opening movement is a chorale fantasia on the first stanza of the hymn, with the hymn tune appearing as a cantus firmus. The last movement is a four-part harmonisation of the chorale tune for the choir, with the last stanza of the hymn as text. While the text of the stanzas used for the outer movements was retained unchanged, the text of the inner movements of the cantata, a succession of recitatives alternating with arias, was paraphrased from the inner stanzas of the hymn.

Chorale cantata cycle

Johann Sebastian Bach's chorale cantata cycle is the year-cycle of church cantatas he started composing in Leipzig from the first Sunday after Trinity in 1724. It followed the cantata cycle he had composed from his appointment as Thomaskantor after Trinity in 1723.

Bach's second cantata cycle is commonly used as a synonym for his chorale cantata cycle, but strictly speaking both cycles overlap only for 40 cantatas. Two further chorale cantatas may belong to both cycles: the final version of Christ lag in Todes Banden, BWV 4, and the earliest version of Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott, BWV 80; it is, however, uncertain whether these versions were first presented in Bach's second year in Leipzig. Bach composed a further 13 cantatas in his second year at Leipzig, none of them chorale cantatas, although two of them became associated with the chorale cantata cycle. After his second year in Leipzig, he composed at least eight further cantatas for inclusion in his chorale cantata cycle.

Around the start of the Bach Revival in the 19th century, almost no manuscripts of Bach's music remained in St. Thomas in Leipzig, apart from an incomplete chorale cantata cycle. In Leipzig the chorale cantatas were, after the motets, the second most often performed compositions of Bach between the composer's death and the Bach Revival. Philipp Spitta, in his 19th-century biography of the composer, praised the chorale cantatas, but failed to see them as a cycle tied to 1724–25. It took about a century after Spitta before Bach's cantata cycles were analysed in scholarly literature, but then Bach's ambitious project to write a chorale cantata for each occasion of the liturgical year was characterized as "the largest musical project that the composer ever undertook".

Fahrenheit

The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by Dutch–German–Polish physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736). It uses the degree Fahrenheit (symbol: °F) as the unit. Several accounts of how he originally defined his scale exist. The lower defining point, 0 °F, was established as the freezing temperature of a solution of brine made from equal parts of ice, water and salt (ammonium chloride). Further limits were established as the melting point of ice (32 °F) and his best estimate of the average human body temperature (96 °F, about 2.6 °F less than the modern value due to a later redefinition of the scale). The scale is now usually defined by two fixed points: the temperature at which water freezes into ice is defined as 32 °F, and the boiling point of water is defined to be 212 °F, a 180 °F separation, as defined at sea level and standard atmospheric pressure.

At the end of the 2010s, Fahrenheit was used as the official temperature scale only in the United States (including its unincorporated territories), its freely associated states in the Western Pacific (Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands), the Bahamas, the Cayman Islands and Liberia. Antigua and Barbuda and other islands which use the same meteorological service, such as Anguilla, the British Virgin Islands, Montserrat and Saint Kitts and Nevis, as well as Bermuda, Belize and the Turks and Caicos Islands, use Fahrenheit and Celsius. All other countries in the world officially now use the Celsius scale, named after Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius.

Jantar Mantar, New Delhi

Jantar Mantar is located in the modern city of New Delhi. It consists of 13 architectural astronomy instruments. The site is one of five built by Maharaja Jai Singh II of Jaipur, from 1723 onwards, as he was given by Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah the task of revising the calendar and astronomical tables. There is a plaque fixed on one of the structures in the Jantar Mantar observatory in New Delhi that was placed there in 1910 mistakenly dating the construction of the complex to the year 1710. Later research, though, suggests 1724 as the actual year of construction. It's height is 723ft(9.039in)

The primary purpose of the observatory was to compile astronomical tables, and to predict the times and movements of the sun, moon and planets. Some of these purposes nowadays would be classified as astronomy.

Completed in 1724, the Delhi Jantar Mantar had decayed considerably by 1867. The Ram Yantra, the Samrat Yantra, the Jayprakash Yantra and the Mishra Yantras are the distinct instruments of Jantar Mantar.

List of Bach cantatas

This is a sortable list of the Bach cantatas, the cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach's almost 200 extant cantatas are among his important vocal compositions.

The list includes both extant cantatas and, as far as known, lost cantatas. It is sortable by the cantata number which equals the number in the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis (BWV), by title, by occasion during the liturgical year, the year of composition and date of first performance, as far as known. The scoring is provided, grouped by singers and groups of instruments. Colouring shows which cantatas are not extant church cantatas and which works were not even composed by Bach, but attributed to him in the past. A link to the free score of the Bach Gesellschaft in the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) is provided if available.

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1724

This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1724.

List of windmills in Essex

A list of all windmills and windmill sites which lie in the current Ceremonial county of Essex.

Louis I of Spain

Louis I (Luis Felipe; 25 August 1707 – 31 August 1724) was King of Spain from 15 January 1724 until his death in August the same year. His reign is one of the shortest in history, lasting for just over seven months.

Solar eclipse of May 22, 1724

A total solar eclipse occurred on May 22, 1724. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is larger than the Sun's, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across Earth's surface, with the partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometres wide.

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