1723 (MDCCXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1723rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 723rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 23rd year of the 18th century, and the 4th year of the 1720s decade. As of the start of 1723, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1723 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1723
Ab urbe condita2476
Armenian calendar1172
Assyrian calendar6473
Balinese saka calendar1644–1645
Bengali calendar1130
Berber calendar2673
British Regnal yearGeo. 1 – 10 Geo. 1
Buddhist calendar2267
Burmese calendar1085
Byzantine calendar7231–7232
Chinese calendar壬寅(Water Tiger)
4419 or 4359
    — to —
癸卯年 (Water Rabbit)
4420 or 4360
Coptic calendar1439–1440
Discordian calendar2889
Ethiopian calendar1715–1716
Hebrew calendar5483–5484
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1779–1780
 - Shaka Samvat1644–1645
 - Kali Yuga4823–4824
Holocene calendar11723
Igbo calendar723–724
Iranian calendar1101–1102
Islamic calendar1135–1136
Japanese calendarKyōhō 8
Javanese calendar1647–1648
Julian calendarGregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar4056
Minguo calendar189 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar255
Thai solar calendar2265–2266
Tibetan calendar阳水虎年
(male Water-Tiger)
1849 or 1468 or 696
    — to —
(female Water-Rabbit)
1850 or 1469 or 697




Date unknown




  1. ^ "Historical Events for Year 1723 | OnThisDay.com". Historyorb.com. Retrieved 2016-06-30.
  2. ^ Wolf, C. (1985). Michael Albrecht, ed. Oratio de Sinarum philosophia practica/Rede über die praktische Philosophie der Chinesen. Philosophische Bibliothek (in German). Hamburg, Germany: Felix Meiner Verlag. p. XXXIX.
1723 in Canada

Events from the year 1723 in Canada.

1723 in Denmark

Events from the year 1723 in Denmark.

1723 in France

Events from the year 1723 in France

1723 in Ireland

Events from the year 1723 in Ireland.

1723 in Norway

Events in the year 1723 in Norway.

1723 in Russia

Events from the year 1723 in Russia

1723 in Scotland

Events from the year 1723 in Scotland.

1723 in Sweden

Events from the year 1723 in Sweden

Adam Smith

Adam Smith (16 June [O.S. 5 June] 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment , also known as ''The Father of Economics''. Smith wrote two classic works, The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The latter, often abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics. In his work, Adam Smith introduced his theory of absolute advantage.Smith studied social philosophy at the University of Glasgow and at Balliol College, Oxford, where he was one of the first students to benefit from scholarships set up by fellow Scot John Snell. After graduating, he delivered a successful series of public lectures at Edinburgh, leading him to collaborate with David Hume during the Scottish Enlightenment. Smith obtained a professorship at Glasgow, teaching moral philosophy and during this time, wrote and published The Theory of Moral Sentiments. In his later life, he took a tutoring position that allowed him to travel throughout Europe, where he met other intellectual leaders of his day.

Smith laid the foundations of classical free market economic theory. The Wealth of Nations was a precursor to the modern academic discipline of economics. In this and other works, he developed the concept of division of labour and expounded upon how rational self-interest and competition can lead to economic prosperity. Smith was controversial in his own day and his general approach and writing style were often satirised by Tory writers in the moralising tradition of William Hogarth and Jonathan Swift. In 2005, The Wealth of Nations was named among the 100 best Scottish books of all time.

Bach's first cantata cycle

Bach's first cantata cycle refers to the church cantatas Johann Sebastian Bach composed for the somewhat less than 60 occasions of the liturgical year of his first year as Thomaskantor in Leipzig which required concerted music. That year ran from the first Sunday after Trinity in 1723 to Trinity Sunday of the next year:

Trinity I, 30 May 1723: Die Elenden sollen essen, BWV 75

Trinity II, 6 June 1723: Die Himmel erzählen die Ehre Gottes, BWV 76

Trinity III, 13 June 1723: Weimar cantata Ich hatte viel Bekümmernis, BWV 21 restaged (third version in C minor)

Trinity IV, 20 June 1723: Ein ungefärbt Gemüte, BWV 24, and Weimar cantata Barmherziges Herze der ewigen Liebe, BWV 185 restaged

Nativity of St. John the Baptist, 24 June 1723: Ihr Menschen, rühmet Gottes Liebe, BWV 167; Possibly also the Sanctus in C major, BWV 237 was composed for this occasion.

Trinity V, 27 June 1723: no extant cantata

Visitation, 2 July 1723: Herz und Mund und Tat und Leben, BWV 147 (adaptation of BWV 147a, a Weimar cantata for Advent IV) and possibly Magnificat in E-flat major, BWV 243a (early version without Christmas interpolations)

Trinity VI, 4 July 1723: no extant cantata

Trinity VII, 11 July 1723: Ärgre dich, o Seele, nicht, BWV 186 (adapted from BWV 186a, a Weimar cantata for Advent III)

Trinity VIII, 18 July 1723: Erforsche mich, Gott, und erfahre mein Herz, BWV 136

Trinity IX, 25 July 1723: Herr, gehe nicht ins Gericht mit deinem Knecht, BWV 105

Trinity X, 1 August 1723: Schauet doch und sehet, ob irgend ein Schmerz sei, BWV 46

Trinity XI, 8 August 1723: Siehe zu, daß deine Gottesfurcht nicht Heuchelei sei, BWV 179 and Weimar cantata Mein Herze schwimmt im Blut, BWV 199 restaged (Leipzig version in D minor)

Trinity XII, 15 August 1723: Lobe den Herrn, meine Seele, BWV 69a

Trinity XIII, 22 August 1723: Du sollt Gott, deinen Herren, lieben, BWV 77

Trinity XIV, 29 August 1723: Es ist nichts Gesundes an meinem Leibe, BWV 25

(30 August 1723, Ratswechsel: not part of the liturgical year, see below)

Trinity XV, 5 September 1723: Warum betrübst du dich, mein Herz, BWV 138

Trinity XVI, 12 September 1723: Christus, der ist mein Leben, BWV 95

Trinity XVII, 19 September 1723: Bringet dem Herrn Ehre seines Namens, BWV 148

Trinity XVIII, 26 September 1723: no extant cantata

St. Michael's Day, 29 September 1723: no extant cantata

Trinity XIX, 3 October 1723: Ich elender Mensch, wer wird mich erlösen, BWV BWV 48

Trinity XX, 10 October 1723: Weimar cantata Ach! ich sehe, itzt, da ich zur Hochzeit gehe, BWV 162 restaged

Trinity XXI, 17 October 1723: Ich glaube, lieber Herr, hilf meinem Unglauben, BWV 109

Trinity XXII, 24 October 1723: Was soll ich aus dir machen, Ephraim, BWV 89

Reformation Day, 31 October 1723 (coinciding with Trinity XXIII): possibly Weimar cantata Nur jedem das Seine, BWV 163 restaged; Alternatively an early version of BWV 80/80b?

Trinity XXIV, 7 November 1723: O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort, BWV 60

Trinity XXV, 14 November 1723: Es reißet euch ein schrecklich Ende, BWV 90

Trinity XXVI, 21 November 1723: Wachet! betet! betet! wachet! BWV 70 (adapted from a Weimar Advent II cantata)

Advent I, 28 November 1723: Weimar cantata Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 61 restaged

Christmas, 25 December 1723: Weimar cantata Christen, ätzet diesen Tag, BWV 63 restaged; Also Magnificat, BWV 243a (including Christmas interpolations) and Sanctus in D major, BWV 238

Second Day of Christmas, 26 December 1723: Darzu ist erschienen der Sohn Gottes, BWV 40

Third Day of Christmas, 27 December 1723: Sehet, welch eine Liebe hat uns der Vater erzeiget, BWV 64

New Year, 1 January 1724: Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied, BWV 190 (instrumental parts lost)

Sunday after New Year, 2 January 1724: Schau, lieber Gott, wie meine Feind, BWV 153

Epiphany, 6 January 1724: Sie werden aus Saba alle kommen, BWV 65

Epiphany I, 9 January 1724: Mein liebster Jesus ist verloren, BWV 154

Epiphany II, 16 January 1724: Weimar cantata Mein Gott, wie lang, ach lange? BWV 155 restaged

Epiphany III, 23 January 1724: Herr, wie du willt, so schicks mit mir, BWV 73

Epiphany IV, 30 January 1724: Jesus schläft, was soll ich hoffen? BWV 81

Purification, 2 February 1724: Erfreute Zeit im neuen Bunde, BWV 83

Septuagesima, 6 February 1724: Nimm, was dein ist, und gehe hin, BWV 144

Sexagesima, 13 February 1724: Leichtgesinnte Flattergeister, BWV 181 and Weimar cantata Gleichwie der Regen und Schnee vom Himmel fällt, BWV 18 restaged in its Leipzig version (A minor, Kammerton)

Estomihi, 7 February 1723 (Leipzig audition for the post as Thomaskantor) and 20 February 1724 (first cycle): Jesus nahm zu sich die Zwölfe, BWV 22 and Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn, BWV 23 restaged in its first Leipzig version (B minor, four movements)

Annunciation and Palm Sunday 25 March 1724: Siehe eine Jungfrau ist schwanger, BWV 1135 (previously BWV Anh. 199; music lost) and Weimar cantata Himmelskönig, sei willkommen, BWV 182 restaged

(Good Friday, 7 April 1724: St John Passion, BWV 245, 1st version — Passion, not considered as a cantata part of the cycle)

Easter, 9 April 1724: early cantata Christ lag in Todes Banden, BWV 4 restaged (Leipzig version); Weimar cantata Der Himmel lacht! Die Erde jubilieret, BWV 31 restaged (Leipzig version)

Easter Monday, 10 April 1724: Erfreut euch, ihr Herzen, BWV 66

Easter Tuesday, 11 April 1724: Ein Herz, das seinen Jesum lebend weiß, BWV 134

Quasimodogeniti, 16 April 1724: Halt im Gedächtnis Jesum Christ, BWV 67

Misericordias Domini, 23 April 1724: Du Hirte Israel, höre, BWV 104

Jubilate, 30 April 1724: Weimar cantate Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen, BWV 12 restaged in a version with a slightly modified instrumentation

Cantate, 7 May 1724: Wo gehest du hin? BWV 166

Rogate, 14 May 1724: Wahrlich, wahrlich, ich sage euch, BWV BWV 86

Ascension, 18 May 1724: Wer da gläubet und getauft wird, BWV 37

Exaudi, 21 May 1724: Sie werden euch in den Bann tun, BWV 44

Pentecost, 28 May 1724: Wer mich liebet, der wird mein Wort halten, BWV 59 and Weimar cantata Erschallet, ihr Lieder, erklinget, ihr Saiten! BWV 172 restaged in its first Leipzig version (D major)

Pentecost Monday, 29 May 1724: no extant cantata

Pentecost Tuesday, 30 May 1724: Erwünschtes Freudenlicht, BWV 184

Trinity, 4 June 1724: Höchsterwünschtes Freudenfest, BWV 194, originally a consecration cantata (2 November 1723), restaged in its first Leipzig versionNot a part of the liturgical year:

New council (Ratswechsel), 30 August 17: Preise, Jerusalem, den Herrn, BWV 119

Bhavnagar State

Bhavnagar State was one of the 13-gun salute princely states of British India. It was part of Kathiawar Agency.It was in Saurashtra during the British Raj.The Principality of Bhavnagar covered an area of 2,961 sq. miles and a population of 618,429 in 1941.

Its last ruler signed the accession to the Indian Union on 15 February 1948.

Capture of the schooner Fancy

The Capture of the schooner Fancy was a famous British victory over two pirate ships under Captain Edward Low. When off Delaware Bay Low attacked a Royal Navy man-of-war which he mistook for a whaler. The resulting combat lasted several hours and ended with the capture of one pirate vessel. In fact, the captured vessel was not the one named Fancy - factually, the combat should have been called "Capture of the sloop Ranger."

George Lowther (pirate)

George Lowther (died 1723) was an 18th-century English pirate who, although little is known of his life, was active in the Caribbean and Atlantic. One of his lieutenants was Edward Low.

John Robinson (bishop of London)

John Robinson (7 November 1650 – 11 April 1723) was an English diplomat and prelate.

John Smith (Chancellor of the Exchequer)

John Smith (1656–1723) of Tedworth House, Hampshire, was an English politician who sat in the English and British House of Commons between 1678 and 1723. He served as Speaker and twice as Chancellor of the Exchequer.

List of Bach cantatas

This is a sortable list of the Bach cantatas, the cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach's almost 200 extant cantatas are among his important vocal compositions.

The list includes both extant cantatas and, as far as known, lost cantatas. It is sortable by the cantata number which equals the number in the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis (BWV), by title, by occasion during the liturgical year, the year of composition and date of first performance, as far as known. The scoring is provided, grouped by singers and groups of instruments. Colouring shows which cantatas are not extant church cantatas and which works were not even composed by Bach, but attributed to him in the past. A link to the free score of the Bach Gesellschaft in the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) is provided if available.

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1723

This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1723.

Philippe II, Duke of Orléans

Philippe II, Duke of Orléans (Philippe Charles; 2 August 1674 – 2 December 1723), was a member of the royal family of France and served as Regent of the Kingdom from 1715 to 1723. Born at his father's palace at Saint-Cloud, he was known from birth under the title of Duke of Chartres. His father was Louis XIV's younger brother Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, his mother was Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate.

In 1692, Philippe married his first cousin, Françoise Marie de Bourbon - the youngest legitimised daughter (légitimée de France) of Philippe's uncle Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan. Named regent of France for Louis XV until Louis attained his majority on 15 February 1723, the period of his de facto rule was known as the Regency (1715–1723). He died at Versailles in 1723.

He is also referred to as le Régent.

Russo-Persian War (1722–1723)

The Russo-Persian War of 1722–1723, known in Russian historiography as the Persian campaign of Peter the Great, was a war between the Russian Empire and Safavid Iran, triggered by the tsar's attempt to expand Russian influence in the Caspian and Caucasus regions and to prevent its rival, the Ottoman Empire, from territorial gains in the region at the expense of declining Safavid Iran.

The Russian victory ratified for Safavid Iran's cession of their territories in the North Caucasus, South Caucasus and contemporary northern Iran to Russia, comprising the cities of Derbent (southern Dagestan) and Baku and their nearby surrounding lands, as well as the provinces of Gilan, Shirvan, Mazandaran and Astarabad conform the Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1723).The territories remained in Russian hands for 9 and 12 years, when respectively according to the Treaty of Resht of 1732 and the Treaty of Ganja of 1735, they were returned to Iran.

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