1715

1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1715th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 715th year of the 2nd millennium, the 15th year of the 18th century, and the 6th year of the 1710s decade. As of the start of 1715, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1715 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1715
MDCCXV
Ab urbe condita2468
Armenian calendar1164
ԹՎ ՌՃԿԴ
Assyrian calendar6465
Balinese saka calendar1636–1637
Bengali calendar1122
Berber calendar2665
British Regnal yearGeo. 1 – 2 Geo. 1
Buddhist calendar2259
Burmese calendar1077
Byzantine calendar7223–7224
Chinese calendar甲午(Wood Horse)
4411 or 4351
    — to —
乙未年 (Wood Goat)
4412 or 4352
Coptic calendar1431–1432
Discordian calendar2881
Ethiopian calendar1707–1708
Hebrew calendar5475–5476
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1771–1772
 - Shaka Samvat1636–1637
 - Kali Yuga4815–4816
Holocene calendar11715
Igbo calendar715–716
Iranian calendar1093–1094
Islamic calendar1126–1128
Japanese calendarShōtoku 5
(正徳5年)
Javanese calendar1638–1639
Julian calendarGregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar4048
Minguo calendar197 before ROC
民前197年
Nanakshahi calendar247
Thai solar calendar2257–2258
Tibetan calendar阳木马年
(male Wood-Horse)
1841 or 1460 or 688
    — to —
阴木羊年
(female Wood-Goat)
1842 or 1461 or 689

Events

Breech loading firearm belonged to Philip V of Spain by A Tienza Madrid circa 1715
Breech-loading firearm that belonged to Philip V of Spain, made by A. Tienza, Madrid circa 1715.

January–June

  • January 13 – A fire in London, described by some as the worst since the 1666 blaze almost 50 years earlier, starts on Thames Street when fireworks prematurely explode "in the house of Mr. Walker, and oil man"; more than 100 houses are consumed in the blaze, which continues over to Tower Street before it is controlled [1].
  • February 11Tuscarora War: The Tuscarora and their allies sign a peace treaty with the Province of Carolina, and agree to move to a reservation near Lake Mattamuskeet, effectively ending the Tuscarora War. Large numbers of Tuscarora subsequently move to New York.
  • March 27Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, flees from Great Britain to France. His part in secret negotiations with France, leading to the Treaty of Utrecht, has cast suspicion on him in the eyes of the Whig government of Britain. He becomes secretary of state to the Pretender, James Edward Stuart.[2]
  • May 3 – A total solar eclipse is seen across southern England, Sweden and Finland (the last total eclipse visible in London for almost 900 years).

July–December

Date unknown

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ "Fires, Great", in The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p48-49
  2. ^ a b Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 294–295. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  3. ^ "Trading Places: Old Dock History". Liverpool Museums. Archived from the original on March 24, 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
  4. ^ "Liverpool: The docks". A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4. British History Online. 1911. pp. 41–43. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
  5. ^ Cates, William L. R. (1863). The Pocket Date Book. London: Chapman and Hall.
1715 British general election

The 1715 British general election returned members to serve in the House of Commons of the 5th Parliament of Great Britain to be held, after the merger of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland in 1707. In October 1714, soon after George I had arrived in London after ascending to the throne, he dismissed the Tory cabinet and replaced it with one almost entirely composed of Whigs, as they were responsible for securing his succession. The election of 1715 saw the Whigs win an overwhelming majority in the House of Commons, and afterwards virtually all Tories in central or local government were purged, leading to a period of Whig ascendancy lasting almost fifty years during which Tories were almost entirely excluded from office.

1715 in Canada

Events from the year 1715 in Canada.

1715 in Denmark

Events from the year 1715 in Denmark.

1715 in France

Events from the year 1715 in France

1715 in Ireland

Events from the year 1715 in Ireland.

1715 in Russia

Events from the year 1715 in Russia

1715 in Scotland

Events from the year 1715 in Scotland.

1715 in Sweden

Events from the year 1715 in Sweden

Alumni Oxonienses

Alumni Oxonienses: The Members of the University of Oxford is a biographical reference work by Joseph Foster (1844–1905), dealing with the alumni of the University of Oxford.

Foster's work was compiled principally from the colleges' matriculation registers and the university archives, but it also relies on numerous printed and other sources.

Battle of Preston (1715)

See Battle of Preston (1648) for the battle of the Second English Civil War.

The Battle of Preston (9–14 November 1715), also referred to as the Preston Fight, was fought during the Jacobite Rising of 1715 (often referred to as the First Jacobite Rising, or Rebellion by supporters of the Hanoverian government).

Battle of Sheriffmuir

The Battle of Sheriffmuir (Scottish Gaelic: Blàr Sliabh an t-Siorraim, [pl̪ˠaɾ ˈʃʎiəv əɲ ˈtʲʰirˠəm]) was an engagement in 1715 at the height of the Jacobite rising in England and Scotland. The battlefield has been included in the Inventory of Historic Battlefields in Scotland and protected by Historic Scotland under the Scottish Historical Environment Policy of 2009. Sheriffmuir was and is a remote elevated plateau of heathland lying between Stirling and Auchterarder on the north fringe of the Ochil Hills.

Isle de France (Mauritius)

Isle de France (Île de France in modern French) was the name of the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius and its dependent territories between 1715 and 1810, when the area was under the French East India Company and part of France's empire. Under the French, the island witnessed major changes. The increasing importance of agriculture led to the importation of slaves and the undertaking of vast infrastructural works that transformed Port Louis into a major capital, port, warehousing, and commercial centre.During the Napoleonic wars, Île de France became a base from which the French navy, including squadrons under Rear Admiral Linois or Commodore Jacques Hamelin, and corsairs such as Robert Surcouf, organised raids on British merchant ships. The raids (see Battle of Pulo Aura and Mauritius campaign of 1809–1811) continued until 1810 when the British sent a strong expedition to capture the island. The first British attempt, in August 1810, to attack Grand Port resulted in a French victory, one celebrated on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. A subsequent and much larger attack launched in December of the same year from Rodrigues, which had been captured a year earlier, was successful. The British landed in large numbers in the north of the island and rapidly overpowered the French, who capitulated (see Invasion of Isle de France). In the Treaty of Paris (1814), the French ceded Île de France together with its territories including the Chagos Archipelago, Rodrigues, Seychelles, Agaléga, Tromelin and Cargados Carajos to Great Britain. The island then reverted to its former name, 'Mauritius'.

Jacobite rising of 1715

The Jacobite rising of 1715 (Scottish Gaelic: Bliadhna Sheumais [ˈpliən̪ˠə ˈheːmɪʃ]; also referred to as the Fifteen or Lord Mar's Revolt), was the attempt by James Francis Edward Stuart (also called the Old Pretender) to regain the thrones of England, Ireland and Scotland for the exiled House of Stuart.

List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain, 1707–1719

This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain for the years 1707–1719. For Acts passed until 1707 see List of Acts of the Parliament of England and List of Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland to 1700 and the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland, 1701–1800.

For Acts passed from 1801 onwards see List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. For Acts of the devolved parliaments and assemblies in the United Kingdom, see the List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament from 1999, the List of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the List of Acts and Measures of the National Assembly for Wales; see also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.

The number shown after each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Union with Ireland Act 1800 is cited as "39 & 40 Geo. 3 c. 67", meaning the 67th Act passed during the session that started in the 39th year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 40th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "41 Geo. 3" rather than "41 Geo. III"). Note also that Acts of the last session of the Parliament of Great Britain and the first session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are both cited as "41 Geo. 3".

Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain did not have a short title; however, some of these Acts have subsequently been given a short title by Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (such as the Short Titles Act 1896).

Before the Acts of Parliament (Commencement) Act 1793 came into force on 8 April 1793, Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain were deemed to have come into effect on the first day of the session in which they were passed. Because of this, the years given in the list below may in fact be the year before a particular Act was passed.

List of Royal Society Fellows elected in 1715

This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1715.

List of windmills in Oxfordshire

This is a list of windmills in the ceremonial county of Oxfordshire, England.

Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting on 14 May 1643 when Louis was 4 years old, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralisation of power.Louis began his personal rule of France in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin. An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings, which advocates the divine origin of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralised state governed from the capital. He sought to eliminate the remnants of feudalism persisting in parts of France and, by compelling many members of the nobility to inhabit his lavish Palace of Versailles, succeeded in pacifying the aristocracy, many members of which had participated in the Fronde rebellion during Louis' minority. By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs and consolidated a system of absolute monarchical rule in France that endured until the French Revolution.

Louis encouraged and benefited from the work of prominent political, military, and cultural figures such as Mazarin, Colbert, Louvois, the Grand Condé, Turenne, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, André Charles Boulle, Molière, Racine, Boileau, La Fontaine, Lully, Marais, Le Brun, Rigaud, Bossuet, Le Vau, Mansart, Charles, Claude Perrault, and Le Nôtre. Under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished. The revocation effectively forced Huguenots to emigrate or convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to virtually destroy the French Protestant minority.

During Louis' reign, France was the leading European power, and it fought three major wars: the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, and the War of the Spanish Succession. There were also two lesser conflicts: the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. Warfare defined the foreign policy of Louis XIV, and his personality shaped his approach. Impelled "by a mix of commerce, revenge, and pique", Louis sensed that warfare was the ideal way to enhance his glory. In peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats that their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military.

Peter the Great

Peter the Great (Russian: Пётр Вели́кий, tr. Pyotr Velikiy, IPA: [ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj]), Peter I (Russian: Пётр I, tr. Pyotr I, IPA: [ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj]) or Peter Alexeyevich (Russian: Пётр Алексе́евич, IPA: [ˈpʲɵtr ɐlʲɪˈksʲejɪvʲɪtɕ]; 9 June [O.S. 30 May] 1672 – 8 February [O.S. 28 January] 1725) ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May [O.S. 27 April] 1682 until his death in 1725, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. Through a number of successful wars, he expanded the Tsardom into a much larger empire that became a major European power and also laid the groundwork for the Russian navy after capturing ports at Azov and the Baltic Sea. He led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political systems with ones that were modern, scientific, Westernised and based on the Enlightenment. Peter's reforms made a lasting impact on Russia, and many institutions of Russian government trace their origins to his reign. He is also known for founding and developing the city of Saint Petersburg, which remained the capital of Russia until 1917.

Solar eclipse of May 3, 1715

A total solar eclipse occurred on 3 May 1715. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. Totality occurs in a narrow path across Earth's surface, with the partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometres wide.

The 1715 total eclipse was visible across England and Wales, northern Europe, and northern Asia.

The 1715 eclipse is known as Halley's Eclipse, after Edmond Halley (1656–1742) who predicted this eclipse to within 4 minutes accuracy. Halley observed the eclipse from London where the city of London enjoyed 3 minutes 33 seconds of totality. He also drew a predictive map showing the path of totality across England. The original map was about 20 miles off the observed eclipse path, mainly due to his use of inaccurate lunar ephemeris. After the eclipse, he corrected the eclipse path, and added the path and description of the 1724 total solar eclipse.Drawing upon lunar tables made by the first Astronomer Royal John Flamsteed, William Whiston produced a more technical predictive eclipse map around the same time as Halley. Both Halley's and Whiston's maps were published by John Senex in March 1715.Totality was observed in England from Cornwall in the south-west to Lincolnshire and Norfolk in the east. It was also observed in Ireland, where large crowds turned out in Dublin to watch it: the weather in Dublin was exceptionally cold and wet, and the eminent judge Joseph Deane caught a fatal chill as a result.Note: Great Britain didn't adopt the Gregorian calendar until 1752, so the date was at the time considered 22 April 1715.

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