1710

1710 (MDCCX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1710th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 710th year of the 2nd millennium, the 10th year of the 18th century, and the 1st year of the 1710s decade. As of the start of 1710, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Saturday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1710 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1710
MDCCX
Ab urbe condita2463
Armenian calendar1159
ԹՎ ՌՃԾԹ
Assyrian calendar6460
Balinese saka calendar1631–1632
Bengali calendar1117
Berber calendar2660
British Regnal yearAnn. 1 – 9 Ann. 1
Buddhist calendar2254
Burmese calendar1072
Byzantine calendar7218–7219
Chinese calendar己丑(Earth Ox)
4406 or 4346
    — to —
庚寅年 (Metal Tiger)
4407 or 4347
Coptic calendar1426–1427
Discordian calendar2876
Ethiopian calendar1702–1703
Hebrew calendar5470–5471
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1766–1767
 - Shaka Samvat1631–1632
 - Kali Yuga4810–4811
Holocene calendar11710
Igbo calendar710–711
Iranian calendar1088–1089
Islamic calendar1121–1122
Japanese calendarHōei 7
(宝永7年)
Javanese calendar1633–1634
Julian calendarGregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar4043
Minguo calendar202 before ROC
民前202年
Nanakshahi calendar242
Thai solar calendar2252–2253
Tibetan calendar阴土牛年
(female Earth-Ox)
1836 or 1455 or 683
    — to —
阳金虎年
(male Iron-Tiger)
1837 or 1456 or 684

Events

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  2. ^ "Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center". Archived from the original on November 21, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-16.
  3. ^ Kamen, Henry (2000). Felipe V, el rey que reinó dos veces. Historia (3rd ed.). Madrid: Temas de Hoy. pp. 96–97. ISBN 8478808477.
  4. ^ "Smithwick's History". Smithwick's. Retrieved 2012-07-16.
  5. ^ 1987 estimate. Rosenberg, Matt T. "Largest Cities Through History". About.com Geography. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
1710 British general election

The 1710 British general election produced a landslide victory for the Tories in the wake of the prosecution of Henry Sacheverell and the collapse of the previous Whig government led by Godolphin and the Whig Junto. In November 1709 the clergyman Henry Sacheverell had delivered a sermon fiercely criticising the government's policy of toleration for Protestant dissenters and attacking the personal conduct of the ministers. The government had Sacherevell impeached, and he was narrowly found guilty but received only a light sentence, making the government appear weak and vindictive; the trial enraged a large section of the population, and riots in London led to attacks on dissenting places of worship and cries of "Church in Danger".

The government's unpopularity was further increased by its enthusiasm for the war with France, as peace talks with the French king Louis XIV had broken down over the government's insistence that the Bourbons hand over the Spanish throne to the Habsburgs. The Tories' policy of pursuing peace appealed to a country worn out by constant war. Queen Anne, disliking the Junto and sensing that the government could not survive long, gradually replaced it with a Tory ministry throughout the summer of 1710. The overwhelming Tory victory surprised few, and following the election most remaining Whigs resigned from office. The new government was led by the moderate Tory Robert Harley who was unpopular among the more partisan Tories, and his ministry faced increasing pressure from the extremists whose position in Parliament had been enormously strengthened by the result. Contests occurred in 131 constituencies in England and Wales, around half the total; the election was bitterly contested in almost all the counties and "open" boroughs, even when a poll was not held.

1710 in Canada

Events from the year 1710 in Canada.

1710 in Denmark

Events from the year 1710 in Denmark.

1710 in France

Events from the year 1710 in France.

1710 in Ireland

The following is a list of events which took place in Ireland in 1710.

1710 in Japan

Events in the year 1710 in Japan.

1710 in Norway

Events in the year 1710 in Norway.

1710 in Russia

Events from the year 1710 in Russia

1710 in Scotland

Events from the year 1710 in Scotland.

1710 in Sweden

Events from the year 1710 in Sweden

Administrative divisions of Russia in 1708–1710

The administrative division reform of 1708 was carried out by Russian Tsar Peter the Great in an attempt to improve the manageability of the vast territory of Russia. Prior to the reform, the country was subdivided into uyezds and volosts, and in the 17th century the number of the uyezds was 166.

Allison V-1710

The Allison V-1710 aircraft engine designed and produced by the Allison Engine Company was the only US-developed V-12 liquid-cooled engine to see service during World War II. Versions with a turbocharger gave excellent performance at high altitude in the twin-engined Lockheed P-38 Lightning, and turbo-superchargers were fitted to experimental single-engined fighters with similar results.

The United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) preference for turbochargers early in the V-1710's development program meant that less effort was spent on developing suitable mechanically-driven centrifugal superchargers for the Allison V-12 design, as other V-12 designs from friendly nations like the British Rolls-Royce Merlin were already using.

When smaller-dimensioned or lower-cost versions of the V-1710 were desired, they generally had poor performance at higher altitudes. The V-1710 nevertheless gave excellent service when turbocharged, notably in the P-38 Lightning, which accounted for much of the extensive production run.

Great Northern War

The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. The initial leaders of the anti-Swedish alliance were Peter I of Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway and Augustus II the Strong of Saxony–Poland–Lithuania. Frederick IV and Augustus II were defeated by Sweden, under Charles XII, and forced out of the alliance in 1700 and 1706 respectively, but rejoined it in 1709 after the defeat of Charles XII at the Battle of Poltava. George I of Great Britain and of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) joined the coalition in 1714 for Hanover and in 1717 for Britain, and Frederick William I of Brandenburg-Prussia joined it in 1715.

Charles XII led the Swedish army. Swedish allies included Holstein-Gottorp, several Polish magnates under Stanisław I Leszczyński (1704–1710) and Cossacks under the Ukrainian Hetman Ivan Mazepa (1708–1710). The Ottoman Empire temporarily hosted Charles XII of Sweden and intervened against Peter I.

The war began when an alliance of Denmark–Norway, Saxony, Poland and Russia, sensing an opportunity as Sweden was ruled by the young Charles XII, declared war on the Swedish Empire and launched a threefold attack on Swedish Holstein-Gottorp, Swedish Livonia, and Swedish Ingria. Sweden parried the Danish and Russian attacks at Travendal (August 1700) and Narva (November 1700) respectively, and in a counter-offensive pushed Augustus II's forces through the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth to Saxony, dethroning Augustus on the way (September 1706) and forcing him to acknowledge defeat in the Treaty of Altranstädt (October 1706). The treaty also secured the extradition and execution of Johann Reinhold Patkul, architect of the alliance seven years earlier. Meanwhile the forces of Peter I had recovered from defeat at Narva and gained ground in Sweden's Baltic provinces, where they cemented Russian access to the Baltic Sea by founding Saint Petersburg in 1703. Charles XII moved from Saxony into Russia to confront Peter, but the campaign ended in 1709 with the destruction of the main Swedish army at the decisive Battle of Poltava (in present-day Ukraine) and Charles' exile in the Ottoman town of Bender. The Ottoman Empire defeated the Russian-Moldavian army in the Pruth River Campaign, but that peace treaty was in the end without great consequence to Russia's position.

After Poltava, the anti-Swedish coalition revived and subsequently Hanover and Prussia joined it. The remaining Swedish forces in plague-stricken areas south and east of the Baltic Sea were evicted, with the last city, Riga, falling in 1710. The coalition members partitioned most of the Swedish dominions among themselves, destroying the Swedish dominium maris baltici. Sweden proper was invaded from the west by Denmark–Norway and from the east by Russia, which had occupied Finland by 1714. Sweden defeated the Danish invaders at the Battle of Helsingborg (1710). Charles XII opened up a Norwegian front but was killed in Fredriksten in 1718.

The war ended with the defeat of Sweden, leaving Russia as the new dominant power in the Baltic region and as a new major force in European politics. The Western powers, Great Britain and France, became caught up in the separate War of the Spanish Succession (1702–1715), which broke out over the Bourbon Philip of Anjou's succession to the Spanish throne and a possible joining of France and Spain. The formal conclusion of the Great Northern War came with the Swedish-Hanoverian and Swedish-Prussian Treaties of Stockholm (1719), the Dano-Swedish Treaty of Frederiksborg (1720), and the Russo-Swedish Treaty of Nystad (1721). By these treaties Sweden ceded her exemption from the Sound Dues and lost the Baltic provinces and the southern part of Swedish Pomerania. The peace treaties also ended her alliance with Holstein-Gottorp. Hanover gained Bremen-Verden, Brandenburg-Prussia incorporated the Oder estuary (Stettin Lagoons), Russia secured the Baltic Provinces, and Denmark strengthened her position in Schleswig-Holstein. In Sweden, the absolute monarchy had come to an end with the death of Charles XII, and Sweden's Age of Liberty began.

List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain, 1707–1719

This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain for the years 1707–1719. For Acts passed until 1707 see List of Acts of the Parliament of England and List of Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland to 1700 and the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland, 1701–1800.

For Acts passed from 1801 onwards see List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. For Acts of the devolved parliaments and assemblies in the United Kingdom, see the List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament from 1999, the List of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the List of Acts and Measures of the National Assembly for Wales; see also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.

The number shown after each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Union with Ireland Act 1800 is cited as "39 & 40 Geo. 3 c. 67", meaning the 67th Act passed during the session that started in the 39th year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 40th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "41 Geo. 3" rather than "41 Geo. III"). Note also that Acts of the last session of the Parliament of Great Britain and the first session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are both cited as "41 Geo. 3".

Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain did not have a short title; however, some of these Acts have subsequently been given a short title by Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (such as the Short Titles Act 1896).

Before the Acts of Parliament (Commencement) Act 1793 came into force on 8 April 1793, Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain were deemed to have come into effect on the first day of the session in which they were passed. Because of this, the years given in the list below may in fact be the year before a particular Act was passed.

List of Royal Society Fellows elected in 1710

This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1710.

Mansion House, Dublin

The Mansion House (Irish: Teach an Ard-Mhéara) on Dawson Street, Dublin, has been the official residence of the Lord Mayor of Dublin since 1715, and was also the meeting place of the Dáil Éireann from 1919 until 1922.

Pruth River Campaign

The Russo-Ottoman War of 1710–11, also known as the Pruth River Campaign after the main event of the war, erupted as a consequence of the defeat of Sweden by the Russian Empire in the Battle of Poltava and the escape of the wounded Charles XII of Sweden and his large retinue to the Ottoman-held fortress of Bender. Incessant Russian demands for Charles's eviction were met with refusal from Sultan Ahmed III, prompting Peter to attack the Ottoman Empire, which in its turn declared war on Russia on 20 November 1710. Concurrently with these events, the Prince Dimitrie Cantemir of Moldavia and Peter the Great signed the Treaty of Lutsk (13 April 1711), by which Moldavia pledged to support Russia in its war against the Ottomans with troops and by allowing the Russian army to cross its territory and place garrisons in Moldavian fortresses. After having gathered near the Moldavian capital Iași, the combined army started on 11 July the march southwards along the Prut River with the intention of crossing the Danube and invade the Balkan peninsula.

Rio Espera

Rio Espera is a municipality in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The town has 6594 inhabitants and is 160 km to the southeast of Belo Horizonte. The town was founded in 1710 when a group of Portuguese explorers, coming from São Paulo, stopped beside a brook to wait for their companions. The site was originally known as Arraial de Espera.

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