1709 (MDCCIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1709th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 709th year of the 2nd millennium, the 9th year of the 18th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1709, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Friday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1709 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1709
Ab urbe condita2462
Armenian calendar1158
Assyrian calendar6459
Balinese saka calendar1630–1631
Bengali calendar1116
Berber calendar2659
British Regnal yearAnn. 1 – 8 Ann. 1
Buddhist calendar2253
Burmese calendar1071
Byzantine calendar7217–7218
Chinese calendar戊子(Earth Rat)
4405 or 4345
    — to —
己丑年 (Earth Ox)
4406 or 4346
Coptic calendar1425–1426
Discordian calendar2875
Ethiopian calendar1701–1702
Hebrew calendar5469–5470
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1765–1766
 - Shaka Samvat1630–1631
 - Kali Yuga4809–4810
Holocene calendar11709
Igbo calendar709–710
Iranian calendar1087–1088
Islamic calendar1120–1121
Japanese calendarHōei 6
Javanese calendar1632–1633
Julian calendarGregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar4042
Minguo calendar203 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar241
Thai solar calendar2251–2252
Tibetan calendar阳土鼠年
(male Earth-Rat)
1835 or 1454 or 682
    — to —
(female Earth-Ox)
1836 or 1455 or 683




Date unknown




  1. ^ Pain, Stephanie. "1709: The year that Europe froze." New Scientist, 7 February 2009.
  2. ^ Mott, R. A. (5 January 1957). "The earliest use of coke for ironmaking". The Gas World, coking section supplement. 145: 7–18.
  3. ^ Raistrick, Arthur (1953). Dynasty of Ironfounders: the Darbys and Coalbrookdale. London: Longmans, Green. p. 34.
  4. ^ a b c Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 292. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  5. ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  6. ^ Ober, Frederick A. (1912). Our West Indian Neighbors: the Islands of the Caribbean Sea. New York: James Pott & Company. p. 11.
  7. ^ Jackson, Michael H. (1993). Galapagos: a Natural History. University of Calgary Press. ISBN 1-895176-07-7.
  8. ^ Gardiner, Juliet (1995). Wenborn, Neil, ed. The History Today Companion to British History. London: Collins & Brown. p. 577. ISBN 1-85585-178-4.
  9. ^ Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 207–208. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
  10. ^ Majdalany, Fred (1959). The Red Rocks of Eddystone. London: Longmans. p. 86.
1700s (decade)

The 1700s decade ran from January 1, 1700, to December 31, 1709.

== Events ==

=== 1700 ===

==== January–June ====

January 1 – Protestant Western Europe, except England, starts using the Gregorian calendar.

January 1 (Julian) – The Tsardom of Russia begins numbering its calendar from the birth of Christ (Anno Domini), instead of since the Creation (Anno Mundi).

January 26 – At approximately 9 p.m., the Cascadia earthquake occurs, with an estimated moment magnitude of 8.7–9.2. This megathrust earthquake ruptures about 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) of the Cascadia Subduction Zone and causes a tsunami, that strikes the coast of Japan approximately 10 hours later.

February 3 – The 'Lesser Great Fire' destroys a substantial part of central Edinburgh, Scotland.

February 12 – The Great Northern War begins with a joint invasion of Swedish territory in Germany and Latvia, by Denmark and Poland/Saxony. Sweden has control of the Baltic Sea and holds territory that includes Finland, Estonia, Latvia and parts of northern Germany. To challenge its power, an alliance is formed between Tsar Peter I of Russia, King Frederick IV of Denmark and Augustus II the Strong, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony. Sweden's ruler is the militaristic Charles XII, known as the "Swedish Meteor".

February 27 – The island of New Britain is discovered by William Dampier, in the western Pacific.

March 1 (Gregorian) – Protestant Germany and Denmark–Norway adopt the Gregorian calendar.

March 1 (Swedish), March 11 (Gregorian), February 29 (Julian) – The Swedish calendar is adopted.

March 3 - Shivaji II acceded to the throne of Maratha Empire as 4th Chhatrapati after his father's Rajaram I's death.

March – William Congreve's comedy The Way of the World is first performed in London.

March 25 – The Treaty of London is signed between France, England and Holland.

April – Fire destroys many buildings in Gondar, the capital of Ethiopia, including two in the palace complex.

May – In Rhode Island (American colony), Walter Clarke, three term former Governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is elected deputy governor for the second time, serving under his brother-in-law Samuel Cranston.

May 5

Within a few days of John Dryden's death (May 1 O.S.), his last written work (The Secular Masque) is performed as part of Vanbrugh's version of The Pilgrim.

William Penn begins monthly meetings for blacks advocating emancipation.

June – Massachusetts, then New York, passes similar laws that order all Roman Catholic priests to leave their colony; otherwise, after three months, their penalty will be life imprisonment or execution.

==== July–December ====

July 11 – The Prussian Academy of Sciences is founded, with Gottfried Leibniz as president.

Summer – Charles XII of Sweden counter-attacks his enemies by invading Zealand (Denmark), assisted by an Anglo-Dutch naval squadron under Sir George Rooke, rapidly compelling the Danes to submit to peace.

August 18 (August 7 O.S.) – The Peace of Travendal is concluded between the Swedish Empire, Denmark–Norway and Holstein-Gottorp in Traventhal. On the same day, Augustus II, King of Poland, and Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia, enter the war against Sweden.

Late summer – A Russian army invades Swedish Estonia, and besieges the town of Narva.

November 1 – Charles II, the last Spanish king of the House of Habsburg, dies insane at the Royal Alcazar of Madrid (aged 38), leaving no children.

November 15 – Louis XIV accepts the Spanish crown on behalf of his grandson Philip of Anjou, who becomes Philip V of Spain (to 1746), thus triggering the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1741).

November 18 – Lithuanian Civil War – Battle of Olkieniki: The anti-Sapieha coalition is victorious.

November 23 – Pope Clement XI succeeds Pope Innocent XII, as the 243rd pope.

November 30 (November 19 O.S.; November 20 Swedish calendar) – Battle of Narva, Estonia: Having led his army of 8,000 on a forced march from Denmark to Estonia, Charles XII of Sweden routs the huge Russian army.

December 28 – Laurence Hyde, 1st Earl of Rochester, is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.

==== Date unknown ====

Mission San Xavier del Bac is founded in New Spain near Tucson, as a Spanish Roman Catholic mission. The mission's location had first been scouted by the Spanish in 1692 according to most historians.

An inventory made for the Medici family of Florence is the first documentary evidence for a piano, invented by their instrument keeper Bartolomeo Cristofori.

An English translation of the novel Don Quixote, "translated from the original by many hands and published by Peter Motteux", begins publication in London. While popular among readers, it will eventually come to be known as one of the worst translations of the novel, totally betraying the spirit of Miguel de Cervantes's masterpiece.

The value of sales of English manufactured products to the Atlantic economy is £3.9 million.

==== Approximate date ====

Lions become extinct in Libya.

=== 1701 ===

==== January–June ====

January 12 – Parts of the Netherlands adopt the calendar.

January 18 – The electorate of Brandenburg-Prussia becomes the Kingdom of Prussia, as Elector Frederick III is proclaimed King Frederick I. Prussia remains part of the Holy Roman Empire. It consists of Brandenburg, Pomerania and East Prussia. Berlin is the capital.

January 28 – The Chinese storm Dartsedo.

January – Robert Walpole enters the Parliament of England, and soon makes his name as a spokesman for Whig policy.

March 8 – Mecklenburg-Strelitz is created as a north German duchy.

March – The War of the Spanish Succession begins. It is an international retaliation against Louis XIV’s acceptance in 1700 of the Spanish crown on behalf of his grandson Philip of Anjou, who became Philip V, first Bourbon king of Spain. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor forms the Grand Alliance with Great Britain, the Netherlands, Denmark, Portugal, Savoy and Prussia. Louis XIV allies France with Spain and Bavaria.

April 21 – In Japan, the young daimyō Asano Naganori is ordered to commit seppuku (ritual suicide). A group of 47 samurai of his service begin planning to avenge his death.

May 23 – After being convicted of murdering William Moore, and for piracy, Captain William Kidd is hanged in London.

June 24 – The Act of Settlement 1701 is passed by the Parliament of England, to exclude the Catholic Stuarts from the British monarchy. Under its terms, King William III, childless, will be succeeded by Queen Mary II's sister Princess Anne and her descendants. If Anne should have no descendants, she will be succeeded by Sophia of Hanover and her descendants (hence the Hanoverian Succession in 1714).

==== July–December ====

July 9 – Crossing of the Düna: Following his victories over Denmark and Russia in 1700, Charles XII of Sweden escalates the conflict in the Great Northern War by an invasion of Poland. The Swedish defeat the army of Saxony (then in personal union with Poland) at the River Dvina.

July 24 – A French emporium named Fort Ponchartrain is founded (later to become Detroit).

August 4 – The Great Peace of Montreal is signed, ending 100 years of war between the Iroquois Confederacy and New France, and its Huron and Algonquian allies. Formerly allied with the English, the treaty assures the Iroquois will be neutral, if France and England ever resume hostilities.

September 16 – Deposed King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) dies in exile, at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye in France. His supporters, the Jacobites, turn to his son James Francis Edward Stuart (later called "The Old Pretender"), whom they recognise as James VIII and III. Louis XIV of France, the Papal States and Spain also recognise him as the rightful heir.

October 9 – The Collegiate School of Connecticut (later renamed Yale University) is chartered in Old Saybrook, Connecticut.

==== Date unknown ====

English agriculturalist Jethro Tull invents a drill for planting seeds in rows.

The Philharmonic Society (Academia Philharmonicorum) is established in Ljubljana, Slovenia.

=== 1702 ===

==== January–June ====

January 9 – The Jamaican town of Port Royal, a center of trade in the Western Hemisphere and, at the time, the largest city in the Caribbean, is destroyed by a fire. British ships in the harbor are able to rescue much of the merchandise that has been unloaded on the docks, but the inventory in marketplaces in town is destroyed.

January 12 – In North America, ships from Fort Maurepas arrive at Twenty-Seven Mile Bluff, to build Fort Louis de la Mobile (future Mobile, Alabama), to become the capital of French Louisiana.

March 8 (O.S.) – William III of England dies of complications following a fall from his horse on February 20; his sister-in-law, Princess Anne Stuart, becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. Anne is the mother of 17 children by her husband, Prince George of Denmark and Norway, but none will survive childhood, and she will die without an heir, to enable the Hanoverian Succession. The States General of the Netherlands do not appoint a new stadtholder, and so the Dutch Republic becomes a true republic again.

March 11 (O.S.) – The first regular English-language national newspaper, The Daily Courant, is published for the first time on Fleet Street, in the City of London; it covers only foreign news.

May – Warsaw is conquered by Charles XII of Sweden.

May 14 (N.S.) – War of the Spanish Succession: War is declared on France by the Grand Alliance (Kingdom of England, Dutch Republic and Holy Roman Empire).

June – Queen Anne's Captain-General, John Churchill, forces the surrender of Kaiserswerth on the Rhine.

==== July–December ====

July 19 (July 8 O.S.; July 9 Swedish calendar) – Battle of Klissow: Charles XII of Sweden decisively defeats the Polish–Lithuanian-Saxon army as part of the Great Northern War.

July 30 (July 19 O.S.; July 20 Swedish calendar) – Great Northern War: Russia defeats Sweden during the Battle of Hummelshof.

September 19 – Jupiter occults Neptune

September – John Churchill forces the surrender of Venlo on the Meuse River.


Sir George Rooke fails to take Cadiz, but captures a Spanish treasure fleet and destroys French and Spanish warships. Churchill forces the surrender of Liège.

Battle of Flint River: Spanish and Apalachee Indian forces fail in their attack against Creek Indians, supported by English traders, in what is now the state of Georgia.

October 10 – Queen Anne's War in North America: The Siege of St. Augustine opens; English forces besiege St. Augustine, Spanish Florida.

October 23 – Battle of Vigo Bay: English and Dutch forces capture the defended harbor of Cádiz.

October 27 – English troops plunder St. Augustine, Spanish Florida.

December 14 – John Churchill is created duke of Marlborough.

December 30 – The Siege of St. Augustine is lifted.

==== Date unknown ====

Delaware is designated a separate colony.

=== 1703 ===

==== January–June ====

January 14 – The magnitude 6.7 Norcia earthquake affects Central Italy with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme). With a death toll of 6,240–9,761, it is the first in a sequence of three destructive events.

January 16 – The magnitude 6.2 Montereale earthquake causes damage at Accumoli, Armatrice, Cittareale, and Montereale, with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe).

January 30 (December 14 of previous year in the Chinese calendar) – In Japan, Forty-seven rōnin assassinate daimyō Kira Yoshinaka, the enemy of their former lord Asano Naganori, at his own mansion as a vengeance; 46 of the 47 samurai commit seppuku, a ritual suicide on March 20 (February 4 in the Chinese calendar).

February – Soldiers at Fort Louis de la Mobile celebrate Mardi Gras in Mobile, starting the tradition for Mobile, Alabama.

February 2 – The magnitude 6.7 L'Aquila earthquake affects Central Italy, with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme). In the final large event (an example of Coulomb stress transfer), damage occurs as far distant as Rome, with landslides, liquefaction, slope failures and 2,500–3,000 deaths.

April 21 – The Company of Quenching of Fire (i.e., a fire brigade) is founded in Edinburgh, Scotland.

May 26 – Portugal joins the Grand Alliance.

May 27 (May 16 OS) – The city of Saint Petersburg, Russia is founded, following Peter the Great's reconquest of Ingria from Sweden, during the Great Northern War.

June 15 – Hungarians rebel under Prince Francis II Rákóczi.

June – The completed Icelandic census of 1703 is presented in the Althing, the first complete census of any country.

June 19 – Bavarian troops, who during the so-called Bavarian Rummel had invaded Tyrol, besiege Kufstein. Fires break out on the outskirts that engulf the town, destroy it and reach the powder store of the supposedly impregnable fortress. The enormous gunpowder supplies explode and Kufstein has to surrender on 20 June. That same day the Tyrolese surrender in Wörgl; two days later Rattenberg is captured and Innsbruck is cleared without a fight on 25 June.

==== July–December ====

July 26 – After their victories at the Pontlatzer Bridge and the Brenner Pass, Tyrolese farmers drive out the Bavarian Elector, Maximilian II Emanuel, from North Tyrol and thus prevent the Bavarian Army, which is allied with France, from marching on Vienna during the War of the Spanish Succession. This success, at low cost, is the signal for the rebellion of the Tyrolese against Bavaria, and Elector Maximilian II Emanuel has to flee from Innsbruck. The Bavarian Army withdraws through Seefeld in Tirol back to Bavaria.

July 29–31 – Daniel Defoe is placed in a pillory, then imprisoned for four months for the crime of seditious libel after publishing his satirical political pamphlet The Shortest Way with the Dissenters (1702) (his release is granted in mid-November).

August 23 – Edirne event: Sultan Mustafa II of the Ottoman Empire is dethroned.

September 7 – War of the Spanish Succession: The town of Breisach is retaken for France by Camille d'Hostun, duc de Tallard.

September 12 – War of the Spanish Succession: Habsburg Archduke Charles is proclaimed King of Spain, but never exercises full rule.

October – A whirlwind blows down the tower of the Gan Takal in Gondar, capital of Ethiopia, killing 30.

November 15

War of the Spanish Succession: Battle of Speyerbach (in modern-day Germany) – The French defeat a German relief army, allowing the French to take the besieged town of Landau two days later, for which Tallard is made a Marshal of France.

Rákóczi's War of Independence: Battle of Zvolen (in modern-day Slovakia) – The Kurucs defeat the Austrians and their allies (Denmark, Hungary and the Serbs).

November 19 – The Man in the Iron Mask dies in the Bastille, in France.

November 30 – Isaac Newton is elected president of the Royal Society in London, a position he will hold until his death in 1727.

December 7–10 (November 26–29 O.S.) – The Great Storm of 1703, an Atlantic hurricane, ravages southern England and the English Channel, killing at least 8,000, mostly at sea. The Eddystone Lighthouse off Plymouth is destroyed in the storm together with its designer Henry Winstanley.

December 27 – Portugal and England sign the Methuen Treaty, which gives preference to Portuguese wines imported into England.

December 28 – Ahmed III succeeds the deposed Mustafa II, as Ottoman Emperor.

==== Date unknown ====

French-born imposter George Psalmanazar arrives in London.

Between 1702 and 1703, an epidemic of smallpox breaks out in Quebec, in which 2,000-3,000 people die (300-400 in Quebec City).

=== 1704 ===

==== January–June ====

January 25–26 – Apalachee massacre: English colonists from the Province of Carolina, and their native allies, stage a series of brutal raids against a largely pacific population of Apalachee, in Spanish Florida.

February 29 – Raid on Deerfield (Queen Anne's War): French Canadians and Native Americans sack Deerfield, Massachusetts, killing over 50 English colonists.

February – In America, Mardi Gras is celebrated with the Masque de la Mobile in the capital of Louisiana (New France), Mobile, Alabama.

April 21 – The Hungarians (Kurucs) win a costly victory over the Danes in the Battle of Biskupice.

April 24 – The first regular newspaper in the Thirteen Colonies of British North America, The Boston News-Letter, is published.

May 28 – Kuruc rebels defeat the Austrian army and its allies in the Battle of Smolenice.

June 13 – Austrians and their allies from Denmark, Prussia, Croatia, Germany and Vojvodina defeat the Kurucs in the Battle of Koroncó.

==== July–December ====

July – Daniel Defoe documents the Great Storm of 1703 in England, with eyewitness testimonies, in The Storm.

July 12 – Great Northern War – King Charles XII of Sweden forces the election of his ally Stanisław Leszczyński as King of Poland, in place of Augustus II the Strong.

August 3 (July 23 Old Style) – War of the Spanish Succession – Gibraltar is captured from Spain, by English and Dutch forces under Sir George Rooke.

August 7 – Battle of Orford Ness.

August 13 (August 2 OS) – War of the Spanish Succession – Battle of Blenheim: Allied troops under John Churchill, Earl of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy defeat the Franco-Bavarian army.

August 24 (August 13 OS) – War of the Spanish Succession – French and English fleets clash off Málaga, causing heavy casualties on both sides, but without sinking any ships.

September – War of the Spanish Succession – The Twelfth Siege of Gibraltar by French and Spanish troops begins.

December 6 - Battle of Chamkaur: During the Mughal-Sikh Wars, an outnumbered Sikh Khalsa defeats a Mughal army.

==== Date unknown ====

Great Northern War: Russian troops under Tsar Peter the Great capture Tartu and Narva.

The Sultanate of Brunei cedes its north-east territories to the Sultanate of Sulu.

The lower three counties of the Province of Pennsylvania become the colony of Delaware.

An earthquake strikes Gondar, Ethiopia.

A Tale of a Tub, the first major satire by Jonathan Swift (written 1694–1697), is published in London, running through three editions this year.

Isaac Newton publishes his Opticks.

The Students' Monument is built in Aiud, Romania.

Rome decrees that Roman ceremonial practice in Latin (not in Chinese) is to be the law for Chinese missions.

Thomas Darley purchases the bay Arabian horse Darley Arabian in Aleppo, Syria, and ships him to stud in England, where he becomes the most important foundation sire of all modern thoroughbred racing bloodstock.

=== 1705 ===

==== January–June ====

March 8 – The Province of Carolina incorporates the town of Bath, making it the first incorporated town in present-day North Carolina. The town becomes the political center and de facto capital of the northern portion of the Province of Carolina, until Edenton is incorporated in 1722.

April 16 – Anne, Queen of Great Britain honours Isaac Newton with a Knight Bachelor.

May – The Twelfth Siege of Gibraltar ends, with the defending Confederate forces retaining control of the town.

May 5 – Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor succeeds his father Leopold I.

==== July–December ====

November – In Williamsburg, capital of the Colony of Virginia in America, construction of the Capitol Building is completed.

November 5 – The Dublin Gazette of Ireland publishes its first edition.

November 15 – Battle of Zsibó: The Austrian-Danish forces defeat the Kurucs (Hungarians).

December – The Sophia Naturalization Act is passed by the English Parliament, which naturalizes Sophia of Hanover and the "issue of her body" as English subjects.

December 25 – In Munich, capital of Bavaria, 1,100 militiamen from the Oberland are killed during the Sendlinger Mordweihnacht, after a failed attempt to break through several gates and capture a depot to seize better weaponry; many men were slaughtered by German federal infantry and Hungarian Hussars, despite their capitulation to Austrian officers.

==== Date unknown ====

Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England; it is completed in 1724.

Taichung City, Taiwan is founded as the village of Dadun.

With the interest paid from daimyō loans, the Konoike buy a tract of ponds and swampland, turn the land into rice paddies, and settle 480 households numbering perhaps 2,880 peasants on the land.

The Shogunate confiscates the property of a merchant in Osaka "for conduct unbecoming a member of the commercial class". The government seizes 50 pairs of gold screens, 360 carpets, several mansions, 48 granaries and warehouses scattered around the country, and hundreds of thousands of gold pieces.

=== 1706 ===

==== January–June ====

March 27 – Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia has abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia.

March 31 – The last Courts (parliament) of the Principality of Catalonia are finished; their dissolution is presided over by King Charles III of Spain.

May 23 – War of the Spanish Succession – Battle of Ramillies: English, Dutch, German, Swiss and Scottish troops led by John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, defeat Franco-Bavarian forces in the Low Countries.

==== July–December ====

July 22 – The Treaty of Union between Scotland and England is agreed upon in London, for ratification by the national legislatures.

September 7 – War of the Spanish Succession – Battle of Turin: Forces of Austria and Savoy defeat the French.

October – Twinings founder, Thomas Twining, opens the first known tea room at 216 Strand, London, still open as of 2019.

==== Date unknown ====

The English Parliament establishes the first turnpike trusts, which place a length of road under the control of trustees, drawn from local landowners and traders. The turnpike trusts borrow capital for road maintenance against the security of tolls, and this arrangement becomes the common method of road maintenance for the next 150 years.

=== 1707 ===

==== January–June ====

January 1 – John V is crowned King of Portugal and the Algarves in Lisbon.

January 16 – The Treaty (or Act) of Union, of the two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, is ratified by the Parliament of Scotland.

March 3 – Emperor Aurangzeb dies in Delhi.

March 19 – The Act of Union with Scotland is ratified by the Parliament of England.

April 25 (April 14 Old Style) – War of the Spanish Succession – Battle of Almansa: The Bourbon army of Spain and France (with Irish mercenaries) under the French-born Englishman James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick, soundly defeats the allied forces of Portugal, England, and the Dutch Republic led by the French-born Huguenot (in English service) Henri de Massue, Earl of Galway. Following this, Philip V of Spain promulgates the first Nueva Planta decrees, bringing the Kingdoms of Valencia and Aragon under the laws of the Crown of Castile.

May 12 (May 1 Old Style) – The new sovereign state of Great Britain comes into being, as a result of the Acts of Union, which combine the Kingdoms of Scotland and England into a single united Kingdom of Great Britain, and merge the Parliaments of England and Scotland, to form the Parliament of Great Britain.

May 23 – Volcanic eruption in the Santorini caldera begins.

==== July–December ====

July 29–August 21 – War of the Spanish Succession – Battle of Toulon: The Allies are obliged to withdraw, but the French fleet is effectively put out of action.

October 22 – Scilly naval disaster: Four British Royal Navy ships run aground in the Isles of Scilly, because of faulty navigation. Admiral Sir Cloudesley Shovell and at least 1,450 sailors all drown.

October 23 – The Parliament of the Kingdom of Great Britain first meets in London.

October 28 – The Hōei earthquake (the most powerful in Japan until 2011) strikes, with an estimated local magnitude of 8.6.

November 30 – War of the Spanish Succession: The Siege of Pensacola ends, with the Spanish successfully defending their fort.

December 16 – The last recorded eruption of Mount Fuji begins in Japan.

December 24 – The first British Governor of Gibraltar, directly appointed by Queen Anne, Roger Elliott, takes up his residence in the Convent of the Franciscan Friars.

December – Charles XII of Sweden launches his campaign to conquer Russia, marching to the east from Leipzig with 60,000 coalition troops. Another 16,000 soldiers are waiting on the outskirts of Riga, guarding the Swedish supply lines.

==== Date unknown ====

A fortress is founded on the future site of Ust-Abakanskoye (modern Abakan).

The Lao empire of Lan Xang officially ends, and splits into the kingdoms of Vientiane, Luang Prabang, and Champasak.

Hacienda Juriquilla is built in Querétaro, Mexico.

=== 1708 ===

==== January–June ====

March 11 – Queen Anne withholds Royal Assent from the Scottish Militia Bill, the last time a British monarch vetoes legislation.

March 23 – James Francis Edward Stuart, Jacobite pretender to the throne of Great Britain, unsuccessfully tries to land from a French fleet, in the Firth of Forth in Scotland.

==== July–December ====

July 1 – Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia.

July 11 – War of the Spanish Succession – Battle of Oudenarde: Allied forces under the command of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, defeat the French.

August – The future Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor weds Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.

August 18 – War of the Spanish Succession: Menorca is captured by British forces.

August 23 – Meidingu Pamheiba is crowned King of Manipur.

August 29 – A native American attack in Haverhill, Massachusetts kills 16 settlers.

September 28 (O.S.); September 29 (Swedish calendar); October 9 (N.S.) – Great Northern War – Battle of Lesnaya: Peter the Great of Russia defeats the forces of the Swedish Empire.

October 12 – War of the Spanish Succession: British forces capture Lille after a two-month siege, although the citadel continues to hold out for another six weeks.

October 26 – The construction of St Paul's Cathedral in London is completed.

==== Date unknown ====

Kandahar is conquered by Mir Wais.

Fearful of a Swedish attack, the Russians blow up the city of Tartu, Estonia.

One third of the population of Masuria dies of the plague.

Johann Sebastian Bach is appointed as chamber musician and organist, at the court in Weimar.

Italian philosopher Giambattista Vico delivers his inaugural lecture to the University of Naples, which will be published in 1709 as his first book, De Nostri Temporis Studiorum Ratione (On the Order of the Scholarly Disciplines of Our Times).

Calcareous hard-paste porcelain is produced for the first time in Europe, at Dresden, Saxony, by Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, and developed after his death (October) by Johann Friedrich Böttger.

The Company of Merchants of London Trading (with consent of the Parliament of Great Britain) merges with the East Indies, and the more recently established English Company Trading to the East Indies, to form the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies, known as the Honourable East India Company.

=== 1709 ===

==== January–June ====

January 6 – Western Europe's Great Frost of 1709, the coldest period in 500 years, begins during the night, lasting three months, with its effects felt for the entire year. In France, the Atlantic coast and Seine River freeze, crops fail, and 24,000 Parisians die. Floating ice enters the North Sea.

January 10 – Abraham Darby I successfully produces cast iron, using coke fuel at his Coalbrookdale blast furnace in Shropshire, England.

February – In America, Mardi Gras is celebrated one more time with Masque de la Mobile in the capital of French Louisiana, Mobile, Alabama, before Mobile is moved 27 miles (43 km) down the Mobile River to Mobile Bay, in 1711.

February 1 or 2 – During his first voyage, Captain Woodes Rogers encounters marooned privateer Alexander Selkirk, and rescues him after four years living on one of the Juan Fernández Islands, inspiring Daniel Defoe's novel Robinson Crusoe. After sacking Guayaquil, he and Selkirk will visit the Galápagos Islands.

March 28 – Johann Friedrich Böttger reports the first production of hard-paste porcelain in Europe, at Dresden.

May – The first influx into Britain of poor refugee families of German Palatines from the Rhenish Palatinate arrives, mostly Protestants en route to the New World colonies.

June 27 (June 28 in the Swedish calendar; July 8 New Style) – Great Northern War – Battle of Poltava: In the Ukraine, Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia, defeats Charles XII of Sweden, thus effectively ending Sweden's role as a major power in Europe.

==== July–December ====

July 27 – Emperor Nakamikado accedes to the throne of Japan.

July 30 – War of the Spanish Succession: Tournai is captured by John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy.

August 8 – The hot air balloon of Bartolomeu de Gusmão flies in Portugal.

August 28 – Pamheiba is crowned King of Manipur.

September 11 (August 31 Old Style) – War of the Spanish Succession – Battle of Malplaquet: Troops of the Dutch Republic, Habsburg Austria, the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Prussia, led by the Duke of Marlborough, drive the French from the field, but suffer twice as many casualties.

October 9 – War of the Spanish Succession: The British army captures Mons.

October 12 – The city of Chihuahua, Mexico is founded.

December 25 – From London, ten ships leave for the New York Colony, carrying over 4,000 people.

==== Date unknown ====

Trinity School is founded as the Charity School of Trinity Church, in New York City.

The second Eddystone Lighthouse, erected off the south west coast of England by John Rudyerd, is completed.

The first modern edition of William Shakespeare's plays is published in London, edited by Nicholas Rowe.

De Nostri Temporis Studiorum Rationae (On the Study Methods of Our Times) is published by Neapolitan philosopher Giambattista Vico.

Priceless medieval altarpieces, created by Tyrolese sculptor Michael Pacher, are destroyed.

1709 in Canada

Events from the year 1709 in Canada.

1709 in Denmark

Events from the year 1709 in Denmark.

1709 in France

Events from the year 1709 in France

1709 in Ireland

Events from the year 1709 in Ireland.

1709 in Norway

Events in the year 1709 in Norway.

1709 in Russia

Events from the year 1718 in Russia

1709 in Scotland

Events from the year 1709 in Scotland.

1709 in Sweden

Events from the year 1709 in Sweden

18th century BC

The 18th century BC was the century which lasted from 1800 BC to 1701 BC.

Battle of Poltava

The Battle of Poltava (8 July 1709) was the decisive victory of Peter I of Russia, also known as "the Great," over the Swedish forces under Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld, in one of the battles of the Great Northern War.

It is widely believed by historians to have been the beginning of the Swedish Empire's decline as a European great power, while the Tsardom of Russia took its place as the leading nation of north-eastern Europe. The battle also bears major importance in Ukrainian national history, as Hetman of Zaporizhian Host Ivan Mazepa sided with the Swedes, seeking to create an uprising in Ukraine against the tsardom.

Today, at the site of the battle there is a State Cultural Heritage Preserve Complex in Poltava known as the "Poltava Battle Field" and consists of monuments and churches commemorating the event.

Beaufort, North Carolina

Beaufort ( BOH-fərt) is a town in and the county seat of Carteret County, North Carolina, United States. Established in 1709 and incorporated in 1723, Beaufort is the third-oldest town in North Carolina (after Bath and Edenton).

On February 1, 2012, Beaufort was ranked as "America's Coolest Small Town" by readers of Budget Travel Magazine.The population was 4,039 at the 2010 census. It is sometimes confused with a city of the same name in South Carolina; the two are distinguished by different pronunciations.Beaufort is located in North Carolina's "Inner Banks" region. The town is home to the North Carolina Maritime Museum, the Duke University Marine Laboratory (Nicholas School of the Environment), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Center for Coastal Fisheries and Habitat Research. It is also the location of the Rachel Carson Coastal Reserve.

Great Frost of 1709

The Great Frost, as it was known in England, or Le Grand Hiver ("The Great Winter"), as it was known in France, was an extraordinarily cold winter in Europe in late 1708 and early 1709, and was the coldest European winter during the past 500 years. The severe cold occurred during the time of low sunspot activity known as the Maunder Minimum.

Hotak dynasty

The Hotak dynasty (Pashto: د هوتکيانو ټولواکمني‎) was an Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji Pashtuns, established in April 1709 by Mirwais Hotak after leading a successful revolution against their declining Persian Safavid overlords in the region of Loy Kandahar ("Greater Kandahar") in what is now southern Afghanistan. It lasted until 1738 when the founder of the Afsharid dynasty, Nader Shah Afshar, defeated Hussain Hotak during the long siege of Kandahar, and started the reestablishment of Iranian suzerainty over all regions lost decades before against the Iranian archrival, the Ottoman Empire, and the Russian Empire. At its peak, the Hotak dynasty ruled briefly over an area which is now Afghanistan, Iran, western Pakistan, and some parts of Tajikistan and Turkmenistan.

In 1715, Mirwais died of a natural cause and his brother Abdul Aziz succeeded the monarchy. He was quickly followed by Mahmud who ruled the empire at its largest extent for a mere three years. Following the 1729 Battle of Damghan, where Ashraf Hotak was roundly defeated by Nader Shah, Ashraf was banished to what is now southern Afghanistan with Hotak rule being confined to it. Hussain Hotak became the last ruler until he was also defeated in 1738.

Khanate of Kokand

The Khanate of Kokand (Uzbek: Qo‘qon Xonligi, Қўқон Хонлиги, قۇقان خانلىگى; Kyrgyz: Кокон хандыгы, translit. Qoqon xandığı, قوقون حاندىعى; Persian: خانات خوقند‎, translit. Xânâte Xuqand) was an Uzbek state in Fergana Valley, Central Asia that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan, eastern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and southeastern Kazakhstan. The name of the city and the khanate may also be spelled as Khoqand in modern scholarly literature.

Langham House, Ham

Langham House is a grade II-listed house facing Ham Common, London, built in about 1709 and former home of several notable residents.

List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain, 1707–1719

This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain for the years 1707–1719. For Acts passed until 1707 see List of Acts of the Parliament of England and List of Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland to 1700 and the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland, 1701–1800.

For Acts passed from 1801 onwards see List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. For Acts of the devolved parliaments and assemblies in the United Kingdom, see the List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament from 1999, the List of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the List of Acts and Measures of the National Assembly for Wales; see also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.

The number shown after each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Union with Ireland Act 1800 is cited as "39 & 40 Geo. 3 c. 67", meaning the 67th Act passed during the session that started in the 39th year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 40th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "41 Geo. 3" rather than "41 Geo. III"). Note also that Acts of the last session of the Parliament of Great Britain and the first session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are both cited as "41 Geo. 3".

Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain did not have a short title; however, some of these Acts have subsequently been given a short title by Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (such as the Short Titles Act 1896).

Before the Acts of Parliament (Commencement) Act 1793 came into force on 8 April 1793, Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain were deemed to have come into effect on the first day of the session in which they were passed. Because of this, the years given in the list below may in fact be the year before a particular Act was passed.

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1709

This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1709.

Zulu people

The Zulu (; Zulu: amaZulu) are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa and the largest ethnic group in South Africa, with an estimated 10–12 million people living mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. Small numbers also live in Zimbabwe, Zambia, Tanzania and Mozambique.

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