1708 (MDCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1708th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 708th year of the 2nd millennium, the 8th year of the 18th century, and the 9th year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1708, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a leap year starting on Wednesday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.
|1708 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2461|
|Balinese saka calendar||1629–1630|
|British Regnal year||6 Ann. 1 – 7 Ann. 1|
|Chinese calendar||丁亥年 (Fire Pig)|
4404 or 4344
— to —
戊子年 (Earth Rat)
4405 or 4345
|- Vikram Samvat||1764–1765|
|- Shaka Samvat||1629–1630|
|- Kali Yuga||4808–4809|
|Japanese calendar||Hōei 5|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 11 days|
|Minguo calendar||204 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2250–2251|
1834 or 1453 or 681
— to —
1835 or 1454 or 682
The 1708 British general election was the first general election to be held after the Acts of Union had united the Parliaments of England and Scotland.
The election saw the Whigs finally gain a majority in the House of Commons, and by November the Whig-dominated parliament had succeeded in pressuring the Queen into accepting the Junto into the government for the first time since the late 1690s. The Whigs were unable to take full control of the government, however, owing to the continued presence of the moderate Godolphin in the cabinet and the opposition of the Queen. Contests were held in 95 of the 269 English and Welsh constituencies and 28 of the 45 Scottish constituencies.1708 in Canada
Events from the year 1708 in Canada.1708 in Denmark
Events from the year 1708 in Denmark.1708 in France
Events from the year 1708 in France.1708 in Great Britain
Events from the year 1708 in Great Britain.1708 in Ireland
Events from the year 1708 in Ireland.1708 in Norway
Events in the year 1708 in Norway.1708 in Russia
Events from the year 1708 in Russia1708 in Scotland
Events from the year 1708 in Scotland.1708 in Sweden
Events from the year 1708 in SwedenAdministrative divisions of Russia in 1708–1710
The administrative division reform of 1708 was carried out by Russian Tsar Peter the Great in an attempt to improve the manageability of the vast territory of Russia. Prior to the reform, the country was subdivided into uyezds and volosts, and in the 17th century the number of the uyezds was 166.Bulavin Rebellion
The Bulavin Rebellion (Astrakhan Revolt) is the name given to a war
of Don Cossacks against Imperial Russia between the years 1707 and 1708. The war was led by Kondraty Bulavin, a democratically elected Ataman of Don Cossacks. The war was triggered by a number of underlying tensions between the Imperial government under Peter I of Russia, the Cossacks, and Russian peasants fleeing from serfdom in Russia to gain freedom in the autonomous Don area. It started with the assassination of Prince Yury Dolgorukov, the leader of Imperial army's punitive expedition to the Don area, by Don Cossacks under Bulavin's command. The end of the rebellion is associated with Bulavin's death in 1708.Great Frost of 1709
The Great Frost, as it was known in England, or Le Grand Hiver ("The Great Winter"), as it was known in France, was an extraordinarily cold winter in Europe in late 1708 and early 1709, and was the coldest European winter during the past 500 years. The severe cold occurred during the time of low sunspot activity known as the Maunder Minimum.Jacobite risings
The Jacobite risings, also known as the Jacobite rebellions or the War of the British Succession, were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in Great Britain and Ireland occurring between 1688 and 1746. The uprisings had the aim of returning James II of England and VII of Scotland, the last Catholic British monarch, and later his descendants of the House of Stuart, to the throne of Great Britain after they had been deposed by Parliament during the Glorious Revolution. The series of conflicts takes its name Jacobitism, from Jacobus, the Latin form of James.
Jacobite rising may refer to any of the following:
Jacobite rising of 1689
Williamite War in Ireland, James's attempts to regain the throne in Ireland
Jacobite assassination plot 1696
Planned French invasion of Britain (1708), included Jacobite support.
Jacobite rising of 1715
Jacobite rising of 1719
Planned French invasion of Britain (1744), included Jacobite support.
Jacobite rising of 1745
Planned French invasion of Britain (1759), included Jacobite support.List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain, 1707–1719
This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain for the years 1707–1719. For Acts passed until 1707 see List of Acts of the Parliament of England and List of Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland to 1700 and the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland, 1701–1800.
For Acts passed from 1801 onwards see List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. For Acts of the devolved parliaments and assemblies in the United Kingdom, see the List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament from 1999, the List of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the List of Acts and Measures of the National Assembly for Wales; see also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.
The number shown after each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Union with Ireland Act 1800 is cited as "39 & 40 Geo. 3 c. 67", meaning the 67th Act passed during the session that started in the 39th year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 40th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "41 Geo. 3" rather than "41 Geo. III"). Note also that Acts of the last session of the Parliament of Great Britain and the first session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are both cited as "41 Geo. 3".
Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain did not have a short title; however, some of these Acts have subsequently been given a short title by Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (such as the Short Titles Act 1896).
Before the Acts of Parliament (Commencement) Act 1793 came into force on 8 April 1793, Acts passed by the Parliament of Great Britain were deemed to have come into effect on the first day of the session in which they were passed. Because of this, the years given in the list below may in fact be the year before a particular Act was passed.List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1708
This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1708.Moscow Governorate
Moscow Governorate (Russian: Московская губерния; pre-reform Russian: Московская губернія), or the Government of Moscow, was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire, and the Russian SFSR, which existed in 1708–1929.Saint Petersburg Governorate
Saint Petersburg Governorate (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́ргская губе́рния, Sankt-Peterburgskaya guberniya), or Government of Saint Petersburg, was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire, and the Russian SFSR, which existed in 1708–1927.Scottish Westminster constituencies 1708 to 1832
As a result of the union of Scotland with England and Wales and the creation of the Parliament of Great Britain in 1707, Scotland had 48 constituencies representing seats for 45 Members of Parliament (MPs) in the House of Commons of the new Parliament of Great Britain, normally at the Palace of Westminster. Westminster was previously the meeting place for the Parliament of England, which covered both England and Wales.
Scottish Westminster constituencies were first used in the 1708 general election. Prior to that election Scotland was represented by MPs who were co-opted as commissioners of the former Parliament of Scotland.
In the Parliament of Great Britain, Scotland had 15 burgh constituencies and 33 county constituencies, with each representing a seat for one MP. The county constituencies included, however, three pairs of alternating constituencies, so that only one member of a pair was represented at any one time. Therefore, Scotland had more constituencies than seats. With the exception of Edinburgh, the burgh constituencies were districts of burghs.
1708 boundaries were used for all subsequent election of the Parliament of Great Britain.
In 1801 the Parliament of Ireland was merged with the Parliament of Great Britain to form the Parliament of the United Kingdom, also at Westminster. The first general election of the new parliament was the general election of 1802, and there was no change to the boundaries of any pre-existing Westminster constituency.
1802 boundaries were used also in the general elections of 1806, 1807, 1812, 1818, 1820, 1826, 1830 and 1831.
For the 1832 general election, Scottish Westminster constituencies were redefined by the Representation of the People (Scotland) Act 1832.