1704

1704 (MDCCIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1704th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 704th year of the 2nd millennium, the 4th year of the 18th century, and the 5th year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1704, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a leap year starting on Friday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1704 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1704
MDCCIV
Ab urbe condita2457
Armenian calendar1153
ԹՎ ՌՃԾԳ
Assyrian calendar6454
Balinese saka calendar1625–1626
Bengali calendar1111
Berber calendar2654
English Regnal yearAnn. 1 – 3 Ann. 1
Buddhist calendar2248
Burmese calendar1066
Byzantine calendar7212–7213
Chinese calendar癸未(Water Goat)
4400 or 4340
    — to —
甲申年 (Wood Monkey)
4401 or 4341
Coptic calendar1420–1421
Discordian calendar2870
Ethiopian calendar1696–1697
Hebrew calendar5464–5465
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1760–1761
 - Shaka Samvat1625–1626
 - Kali Yuga4804–4805
Holocene calendar11704
Igbo calendar704–705
Iranian calendar1082–1083
Islamic calendar1115–1116
Japanese calendarGenroku 17 / Hōei 1
(宝永元年)
Javanese calendar1627–1628
Julian calendarGregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar4037
Minguo calendar208 before ROC
民前208年
Nanakshahi calendar236
Thai solar calendar2246–2247
Tibetan calendar阴水羊年
(female Water-Goat)
1830 or 1449 or 677
    — to —
阳木猴年
(male Wood-Monkey)
1831 or 1450 or 678

Events

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ "Historical Events for Year 1704 | OnThisDay.com". Historyorb.com. Retrieved 2018-04-02.
1704 in Canada

Events from the year 1704 in Canada.

1704 in Denmark

Events from the year 1704 in Denmark.

1704 in France

Events from the year 1704 in France.

1704 in Ireland

Events from the year 1704 in Ireland.

1704 in Norway

Events in the year 1704 in Norway.

1704 in Russia

Events from the year 1704 in Russia

1704 in Scotland

Events from the year 1704 in the Kingdom of Scotland.

1704 in Sweden

Events from the year 1704 in Sweden

Battle of Blenheim

The Battle of Blenheim (German: Zweite Schlacht bei Höchstädt; French Bataille de Höchstädt), fought on 13 August 1704, was a major battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. The overwhelming Allied victory ensured the safety of Vienna from the Franco-Bavarian army, thus preventing the collapse of the Grand Alliance.

Louis XIV of France sought to knock the Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold out of the war by seizing Vienna, the Habsburg capital, and gain a favourable peace settlement. The dangers to Vienna were considerable: the Elector of Bavaria and Marshal Marsin's forces in Bavaria threatened from the west, and Marshal Vendôme's large army in northern Italy posed a serious danger with a potential offensive through the Brenner Pass. Vienna was also under pressure from Rákóczi's Hungarian revolt from its eastern approaches. Realising the danger, the Duke of Marlborough resolved to alleviate the peril to Vienna by marching his forces south from Bedburg and help maintain Emperor Leopold within the Grand Alliance.

A combination of deception and skilled administration – designed to conceal his true destination from friend and foe alike – enabled Marlborough to march 400 kilometres (250 miles) unhindered from the Low Countries to the River Danube in five weeks. After securing Donauwörth on the Danube, Marlborough sought to engage the Elector's and Marsin's army before Marshal Tallard could bring reinforcements through the Black Forest. However, with the Franco-Bavarian commanders reluctant to fight until their numbers were deemed sufficient, the Duke enacted a policy of plundering in Bavaria designed to force the issue. The tactic proved unsuccessful, but when Tallard arrived to bolster the Elector's army, and Prince Eugene arrived with reinforcements for the Allies, the two armies finally met on the banks of the Danube in and around the small village of Blindheim, from which the English "Blenheim" is derived.

Blenheim was one of the battles that altered the course of the war, which until then was leaning for Louis' coalition, and ended French plans of knocking the Emperor out of the war. France suffered as many as 38,000 casualties including the commander-in-chief, Marshal Tallard, who was taken captive to England. Before the 1704 campaign ended, the Allies had taken Landau, and the towns of Trier and Trarbach on the Moselle in preparation for the following year's campaign into France itself. The offensive never materialised as the Grand Alliance's army had to depart the Moselle to defend Liège from a French counteroffensive. The war would rage on for another decade.

Battle of Chamkaur (1704)

The Battle of Chamkaur, also known as Battle of Chamkaur Sahib, was fought between the Khalsa led by Guru Gobind Singh and the Mughal forces led by Wazir Khan. Guru Gobind Singh makes a reference to this battle in his victory letter Zafarnama.

Battle of Raigarh (1703-1704)

The Battle of Rajgad (1703-1704) was fought on between the Mughal Empire and the Maratha Empire. Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb, ordered for Hamiduddin Khan and Tarbiyat Khan to attack the Rajgad fortress once again, which was being held by Santaji Silimkar. The Mughals devastated the fortress and inflicted massive damage on the Maratha position. Eventually the majority of the fort was captured, but the Marathas surrendered shortly after.

Capture of Gibraltar

The Capture of Gibraltar by Anglo-Dutch forces of the Grand Alliance occurred between 1 and 4 August 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession. Since the beginning of the war the Alliance had been looking for a harbour in the Iberian Peninsula to control the Strait of Gibraltar and facilitate naval operations against the French fleet in the western Mediterranean Sea. An attempt to seize Cádiz had ended in failure in September 1702, but following the Alliance fleet's successful raid in Vigo Bay in October that year, the combined fleets of the 'Maritime Powers', the Netherlands and England, had emerged as the dominant naval force in the region. This strength helped persuade King Peter II of Portugal to sever his alliance with France and Bourbon-controlled Spain, and ally himself with the Grand Alliance in 1703. Now with access to the Portuguese port of Lisbon the Alliance fleets could campaign in the Mediterranean, and conduct operations in support of the Austrian Habsburg candidate to the Spanish throne, the Archduke Charles, known to his supporters as Charles III of Spain.

Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt represented the Habsburg cause in the region. In May 1704 the Prince and Admiral George Rooke, commander of the main Grand Alliance fleet, failed to take Barcelona in the name of 'Charles III'; Rooke subsequently evaded pressure from his allies to make another attempt on Cádiz. In order to compensate for their lack of success the Alliance commanders resolved to capture Gibraltar, a small town on the southern Spanish coast. Following a heavy bombardment the town was invaded by English and Dutch marines and sailors. The governor, Diego de Salinas, agreed to surrender Gibraltar and its small garrison on 4 August. Three days later Prince George entered the town with Austrian and Spanish Habsburg troops in the name of Charles III of Spain. The Grand Alliance failed in its objective of replacing Philip V with Charles III as King of Spain, but in the peace negotiations Gibraltar was ceded to Britain.

Gibraltar

Gibraltar (; Spanish pronunciation: [xiβɾalˈtaɾ]) is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. It has an area of 6.7 km2 (2.6 sq mi) and is bordered to the north by Spain. The landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar at the foot of which is a densely populated town area, home to over 30,000 people, primarily Gibraltarians. It shares a maritime border with Morocco.

In 1704, Anglo-Dutch forces captured Gibraltar from Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of the Habsburg claim to the Spanish throne. The territory was ceded to Great Britain in perpetuity under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. During World War II it was an important base for the Royal Navy as it controlled the entrance and exit to the Mediterranean Sea, which is only 8 miles (13 km) wide at this naval choke point. It remains strategically important, with half the world's seaborne trade passing through the strait. Today Gibraltar's economy is based largely on tourism, online gambling, financial services and cargo ship refuelling.The sovereignty of Gibraltar is a point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations because Spain asserts a claim to the territory. Gibraltarians rejected proposals for Spanish sovereignty in a 1967 referendum and, in a 2002 referendum, the idea of shared sovereignty was also rejected.

John Locke

John Locke (; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism". Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.Locke's theory of mind is often cited as the origin of modern conceptions of identity and the self, figuring prominently in the work of later philosophers such as David Hume, Rousseau, and Immanuel Kant. Locke was the first to define the self through a continuity of consciousness. He postulated that, at birth, the mind was a blank slate or tabula rasa. Contrary to Cartesian philosophy based on pre-existing concepts, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge is instead determined only by experience derived from sense perception. This is now known as empiricism. An example of Locke's belief in empiricism can be seen in his quote, "whatever I write, as soon as I discover it not to be true, my hand shall be the forwardest to throw it into the fire." This shows the ideology of science in his observations in that something must be capable of being tested repeatedly and that nothing is exempt from being disproven. Challenging the work of others, Locke is said to have established the method of introspection, or observing the emotions and behaviours of one's self.

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1704

This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1704.

Old White Bear

The Old White Bear is a pub at 1 Well Road, Hampstead, in the London Borough of Camden.

It dates back to 1704, but closed on 2 February 2014, as the property developer Braaid Ventures Ltd tried to obtain a change of use application to turn it into a six-bedroom luxury house. Camden Council rejected this, and it reopened as a pub eight months later, following community protests and a petition signed by 4,000 people and supported by the actors Ricky Gervais and Peter Egan.

Ottoman Iraq

Ottoman Iraq refers to the period of the history of Iraq when the region was ruled by the Ottoman Empire (1534–1704 and 1831–1920).

Before reforms (1534–1704), Iraq was divided into four eyalets (provinces):

Baghdad Eyalet

Shahrizor Eyalet

Basra Eyalet

Mosul EyaletOttoman Iraq was later (1831–1920) divided into the three vilayets (provinces):

Mosul Vilayet

Baghdad Vilayet

Basra VilayetDuring World War I, an invasion of the region was undertaken by British Empire forces and was known as the Mesopotamian campaign. Fighting commenced with the Battle of Basra in 1914 and continued for the duration of the war. The most notable action was the Siege of Kut, which resulted in the surrender of the British and British Indian Army garrison of the town in April 1916, after a siege of 147 days. Of the 11,800 Allied soldiers who survived to be made prisoners, 4,250 died of disease or at the hands of their Ottoman guards during captivity.

Santa Bárbara, Minas Gerais

Santa Bárbara is a Brazilian municipality founded in 1704 and located in the state of Minas Gerais.

It is a historic town on the Gold Circuit of Minas Gerais, located ninety-eight kilometres from Belo Horizonte, in the centre of the Estrada Real. The bucolic landscape, with its churches, roofs and backyards at the foot of the imposing Serra do Caraça makes Santa Bárbara one of the most beautiful towns in Minas Gerais. Despite the current increase in economic development, it is a peaceful and welcoming town with simple and hospitable people who preserve their traditions and live an active cultural life.

Siege of Colonia del Sacramento

The Siege of Colonia del Sacramento was a successful siege in 1704 by Spanish forces of the Portuguese colonial town of Colonia del Sacramento, opposite Buenos Aires and now in the nation of Uruguay. Four thousand natives and 650 Spaniards, led by the governor of Buenos Aires, Don Alonso Juan de Valdes e Inclán, and Baltasar García Ros, besieged the city beginning late in 1704. One week after a frontal assault failed, in early February 1705, the Portuguese abandoned Colonia del Sacramento.

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