1693 (MDCXCIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1693rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 693rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 93rd year of the 17th century, and the 4th year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1693, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|1693 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2446|
|Balinese saka calendar||1614–1615|
|English Regnal year||5 Will. & Mar. – 6 Will. & Mar.|
|Chinese calendar||壬申年 (Water Monkey)|
4389 or 4329
— to —
癸酉年 (Water Rooster)
4390 or 4330
|- Vikram Samvat||1749–1750|
|- Shaka Samvat||1614–1615|
|- Kali Yuga||4793–4794|
|Japanese calendar||Genroku 6|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||219 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2235–2236|
1819 or 1438 or 666
— to —
1820 or 1439 or 667
The 1693 Sicily earthquake struck parts of southern Italy near Sicily, Calabria, and Malta on January 11 at around 21:00 local time. This earthquake was preceded by a damaging foreshock on January 9. The main quake had an estimated magnitude of 7.4 on the moment magnitude scale, the most powerful in Italian recorded history, and a maximum intensity of XI (Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale, destroying at least 70 towns and cities, seriously affecting an area of 5,600 square kilometres (2,200 sq mi) and causing the death of about 60,000 people. The earthquake was followed by tsunamis that devastated the coastal villages on the Ionian Sea and in the Straits of Messina. Almost two-thirds of the entire population of Catania were killed. The epicentre of the disaster was probably close to the coast, possibly offshore, although the exact position remains unknown. The extent and degree of destruction caused by the earthquake resulted in extensive rebuilding of the towns and cities of southeastern Sicily, particularly the Val di Noto, in a homogeneous late Baroque style, described as "the culmination and final flowering of Baroque art in Europe".According to a contemporary account of the earthquake by Vincentius Bonajutus, published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, "It was in this country impossible to keep upon our legs, or in one place on the dancing Earth; nay, those that lay along on the ground, were tossed from side to side, as if on a rolling billow."1693 in Denmark
Events from the year 1693 in Denmark1693 in England
Events from the year 1693 in England.1693 in France
Events from the year 1693 in France1693 in Ireland
Events from the year 1693 in Ireland.1693 in Norway
Events in the year 1693 in Norway.1693 in Scotland
Events from the year 1693 in the Kingdom of Scotland.1693 in Spain
Events in the year 1693 in Spain.1693 in Sweden
Events from the year 1693 in SwedenHMS Humber (1693)
HMS Humber was an 80-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched at Hull on 30 March 1693.She was rebuilt according to the 1706 Establishment at Deptford in 1708. Her guns, previously being mounted on two gundecks, were now mounted on three, though she remained classified as a third rate. On 30 October 1723 Humber was ordered to be taken to pieces and rebuilt to the 1719 Establishment at Portsmouth. She was renamed HMS Princess Amelia, and relaunched on 4 October 1726.Princess Amelia was broken up in 1752.HMS Portland (1693)
HMS Portland was a 50-gun fourth rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched at Woolwich Dockyard on 28 March 1693.She was rebuilt according to the 1719 Establishment at Portsmouth, and was relaunched on 25 February 1723.
On 17 March 1709, Portland recaptured Coventry, which the 54-gun Auguste and the 54-gun Jason (1704) had captured in September 1704.Portland was broken up in 1743.Leipzig Opera
The Leipzig Opera (in German: Oper Leipzig) is an opera house and opera company located at the Augustusplatz in Leipzig, Germany.List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1693
This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1693.Matanzas
Matanzas (Spanish pronunciation: [maˈtansas]) is the capital of the Cuban province of Matanzas. Known for its poets, culture, and Afro-Cuban folklore, it is located on the northern shore of the island of Cuba, on the Bay of Matanzas (Spanish Bahia de Matanzas), 90 kilometres (56 mi) east of the capital Havana and 32 kilometres (20 mi) west of the resort town of Varadero.
Matanzas is called the City of Bridges, for the seventeen bridges that cross the three rivers that traverse the city (Rio Yumuri, San Juan, and Canimar). For this reason it was referred to as the "Venice of Cuba." It was also called "La Atenas de Cuba" ("The Athens of Cuba") for its poets.
Matanzas is known as the birthplace of the music and dance traditions danzón and rumba.Matthew Hutton (archbishop of Canterbury)
Matthew Hutton (3 January 1693 – 18 March 1758) was a high churchman in the Church of England, serving as Archbishop of York (1747–1757) and Archbishop of Canterbury (1757–1758).Mehmed IV
Mehmed IV (Ottoman Turkish: محمد رابع Meḥmed-i rābiʿ; Modern Turkish: IV. Mehmet; also known as Avcı Mehmet, Mehmed the Hunter; 2 January 1642 – 6 January 1693) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. He came to the throne at the age of six after his father was overthrown in a coup. Mehmed went on to become the second longest reigning sultan in Ottoman history after Suleiman the Magnificent. While the first and last years of his reign were characterized by military defeat and political instability, during his middle years he oversaw the revival of the empire's fortunes associated with the Köprülü era. Mehmed IV was known by contemporaries as a particularly pious ruler, and was referred to as gazi, or "holy warrior" for his role in the many conquests carried out during his long reign. Under his reign the empire reached the height of its territorial expansion in Europe. From a young age he developed a keen interest in hunting, for which he is known as avcı (translated as "the Hunter"). In 1687 Mehmed was overthrown by soldiers disenchanted by the course of the ongoing War of the Holy League. He subsequently retired to Edirne, where he resided until his natural death in 1693.Order of Saint Louis
The Royal and Military Order of Saint Louis (French: Ordre Royal et Militaire de Saint-Louis) is a dynastic order of chivalry founded 5 April 1693 by King Louis XIV , named after Saint Louis (King Louis IX of France). It was intended as a reward for exceptional officers, notable as the first decoration that could be granted to non-nobles. By the authorities of the French Republic, it is considered a predecessor of the Legion of Honour, with which it shares the red ribbon (though the Legion of Honour is awarded to military personnel and civilians alike).
Although officially abolished by the government authorities of the July Revolution in 1830 following the French Revolution, its activities carried on as a dynastic order of the formerly sovereign royal family. As such, it is still recognised by the International Commission on Orders of Chivalry.Salem witch trials
The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693. More than 200 people were accused, 19 of whom were found guilty and executed by hanging (14 women and five men). One other man, Giles Corey, was crushed to death for refusing to plead, and at least five people died in jail. It was the deadliest witch hunt in the history of the United States.
Twelve other women had previously been executed in Massachusetts and Connecticut during the 17th century. Despite being generally known as the Salem witch trials, the preliminary hearings in 1692 were conducted in several towns: Salem Village (now Danvers), Salem Town, Ipswich, and Andover. The most infamous trials were conducted by the Court of Oyer and Terminer in 1692 in Salem Town.
The episode is one of Colonial America's most notorious cases of mass hysteria. It has been used in political rhetoric and popular literature as a vivid cautionary tale about the dangers of isolationism, religious extremism, false accusations, and lapses in due process. It was not unique, but a Colonial American example of the much broader phenomenon of witch trials in the early modern period, which took place also in Europe. Many historians consider the lasting effects of the trials to have been highly influential in subsequent United States history. According to historian George Lincoln Burr, "the Salem witchcraft was the rock on which the theocracy shattered."At the 300th anniversary events in 1992 to commemorate the victims of the trials, a park was dedicated in Salem and a memorial in Danvers. In November 2001, an act passed by the Massachusetts legislature exonerated five people, while another one, passed in 1957, had previously exonerated six other victims. As of 2004, there was still talk about exonerating all the victims, though some think that happened in the 19th century as the Massachusetts colonial legislature was asked to reverse the attainders of "George Burroughs and others". In January 2016, the University of Virginia announced its Gallows Hill Project team had determined the execution site in Salem, where the 19 "witches" had been hanged. The city owns the site and is planning to establish a memorial to the victims.Surp Astvatsatsin Church of Karbi
The church of Surp Astvatsatsin (Armenian: Սուրբ Աստվածածին; meaning Holy Mother of God) is located just off of the main highway through the village of Karbi in the Aragatsotn Province of Armenia. The basilica was completed between the years of 1691-1693, while the belfry was built earlier in 1338.