1691 (MDCXCI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1691st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 691st year of the 2nd millennium, the 91st year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1691, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|1691 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2444|
|Balinese saka calendar||1612–1613|
|English Regnal year||3 Will. & Mar. – 4 Will. & Mar.|
|Chinese calendar||庚午年 (Metal Horse)|
4387 or 4327
— to —
辛未年 (Metal Goat)
4388 or 4328
|- Vikram Samvat||1747–1748|
|- Shaka Samvat||1612–1613|
|- Kali Yuga||4791–4792|
|Japanese calendar||Genroku 4|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||221 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2233–2234|
1817 or 1436 or 664
— to —
1818 or 1437 or 665
Events from the year 1691 in Denmark1691 in England
Events from the year 1691 in England.1691 in France
Events from the year 1691 in France1691 in Norway
Events in the year 1691 in Norway.1691 in Scotland
Events from the year 1691 in the Kingdom of Scotland.1691 in Sweden
Events from the year 1691 in Sweden1691 papal conclave
The papal conclave of 1691 was convened on the death of Pope Alexander VIII and ended with the election of Antonio Pignatelli as Pope Innocent XII.
It lasted for five months, from 12 February to 12 July 1691. The conclave became deadlocked after Catholic monarchs opposed the election of Gregorio Barbarigo, who some members of the College of Cardinals also viewed as too strict. The conclave only ended in the July when cardinals started to become ill from the heat, and after French cardinals agreed to vote for Pignatelli despite him coming from Spanish-controlled Naples.Battle of Slankamen
The Battle of Slankamen (also Battle of Szlankamen in some sources) was fought near Slankamen in the Ottoman Sanjak of Syrmia (modern-day Vojvodina region, Serbia) on August 19, 1691, between the Ottoman Empire, and the Imperial Army, the personal forces of the Holy Roman Emperor, together with the Reichsarmee of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation and Austrian-Croatian-Serbian combined forces under the command of Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden, as part of the Great Turkish War.History of Ireland (1536–1691)
Ireland during the period 1536–1691 saw the first full conquest of the island by England and its colonization with Protestant settlers from Great Britain. This established two central themes in future Irish history: subordination of the country to London-based governments and sectarian animosity between Catholics and Protestants. The period saw Irish society transform from a locally driven, intertribal, clan-based Gaelic structure to a centralised, monarchical, state-governed society, similar to those found elsewhere in Europe. The period is bounded by the dates 1536, when King Henry VIII deposed the FitzGerald dynasty as Lords Deputies of Ireland (the new Kingdom of Ireland was declared by Henry VIII in 1541), and 1691, when the Irish Catholic Jacobites surrendered at Limerick, thus confirming British Protestant dominance in Ireland. This is sometimes called the early modern period.
The English Reformation, by which Henry VIII broke with Papal authority in 1536, was to change Ireland totally. While Henry VIII broke English Catholicism from Rome, his son Edward VI of England moved further, breaking with Papal doctrine completely. While the English, the Welsh and, later, the Scots accepted Protestantism, the Irish remained Catholic. Queen Mary I then reverted the state to Catholicism in 1553–58, and Queen Elizabeth I broke again with Rome after 1570. These confusing changes determined their relationship with the British state for the next four hundred years, as the Reformation coincided with a determined effort on behalf of the English state to re-conquer and colonise Ireland thereafter. The religious schism meant that the native Irish and the (Roman Catholic) Old English were to be excluded from power in the new settlement unless they converted to Protestantism.History of Ireland (1691–1800)
The history of Ireland from 1691–1800 was marked by the dominance of the Protestant Ascendancy. These were Anglo-Irish families of the Anglican Church of Ireland, whose English ancestors had settled Ireland in the wake of its conquest by England and colonisation in the Plantations of Ireland, and had taken control most of the land. Many were absentee landlords based in England, but others lived full-time in Ireland and increasingly identified as Irish. (See Early Modern Ireland 1536-1691). During this time, Ireland was nominally an autonomous Kingdom with its own Parliament; in actuality it was a client state controlled by the King of Great Britain and supervised by his cabinet in London. The great majority of its population, Roman Catholics, were excluded from power and land ownership under the penal laws. The second-largest group, the Presbyterians in Ulster, owned land and businesses but could not vote and had no political power. The period begins with the defeat of the Catholic Jacobites in the Williamite War in Ireland in 1691 and ends with the Acts of Union 1800, which formally annexed Ireland in a United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 and dissolved the Irish Parliament.List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1691
This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1691.Province of Massachusetts Bay
The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a crown colony in British America and one of the thirteen original states of the United States from 1776 onward. It was chartered on October 7, 1691 by William III and Mary II, the joint monarchs of the kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The charter took effect on May 14, 1692 and included the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Plymouth Colony, the Province of Maine, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick; the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the direct successor. Maine has been a separate state since 1820, and Nova Scotia and New Brunswick are now Canadian provinces, having been part of the colony only until 1697.
The name Massachusetts comes from the Massachusett Indians, an Algonquian tribe. It has been translated as "at the great hill", "at the place of large hills", or "at the range of hills", with reference to the Blue Hills and to Great Blue Hill in particular.Siege of Limerick (1691)
The Siege of Limerick in western Ireland was a second siege of the town during the Williamite War in Ireland (1689–91). The city, held by Jacobite forces was able to beat off a Williamite assault in 1690. However, after a second siege in August – October 1691, it surrendered on favourable terms.Suleiman II
Suleiman II (15 April 1642 – 22/23 June 1691) (Ottoman Turkish: سليمان ثانى Süleymān-i sānī) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1687 to 1691. After being brought to the throne by an armed mutiny, Suleiman and his grand vizier Fazıl Mustafa Pasha were successfully able to turn the tide of the War of the Holy League, reconquering Belgrade in 1690, as well as carrying out significant fiscal and military reforms.Thomas Lamplugh
Thomas Lamplugh (1615 – 5 May 1691) was an English churchman who became Archbishop of York.Treaty of Limerick
The Treaty of Limerick (Irish: Conradh Luimnigh) ended the Williamite War in Ireland between the Jacobites and the supporters of William of Orange and concluded the Siege of Limerick. The treaty really consisted of two treaties, both of which were signed on 3 October 1691. Reputedly they were signed on the Treaty Stone, an irregular block of limestone which once served as a mounting block for horses. This stone is now displayed on a pedestal in Limerick, put there to prevent souvenir hunters from taking pieces of it. Because of the treaty, Limerick is sometimes known as the Treaty City.West Point, Virginia
West Point (formerly Delaware) is an incorporated town in King William County, Virginia, United States. The population was 3,306 at the 2010 census.Yorktown, Virginia
Yorktown is a census-designated place (CDP) in York County, Virginia, United States. It is the county seat of York County, one of the eight original shires formed in colonial Virginia in 1682. Yorktown's population was 195 as of the 2010 census, while York County's population was 66,134 in the 2011 census estimate.
The town is most famous as the site of the siege and subsequent surrender of General Charles Cornwallis to General George Washington and the French Fleet during the American Revolutionary War on October 19, 1781. Although the war would last for another year, this British defeat at Yorktown effectively ended the war. Yorktown also figured prominently in the American Civil War (1861–1865), serving as a major port to supply both northern and southern towns, depending upon who held Yorktown at the time.
Today, Yorktown is one of three sites of the Historic Triangle, which also includes Jamestown and Williamsburg as important colonial-era settlements. It is the eastern terminus of the Colonial Parkway connecting these locations. Yorktown is also the eastern terminus of the TransAmerica Trail, a bicycle touring route created by the Adventure Cycling Association.
One of Yorktown's historic sister cities is Zweibrücken in Germany, based on participation of a unit from there during the American Revolutionary War.