1685

1685 (MDCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1685th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 685th year of the 2nd millennium, the 85th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1685, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1685 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1685
MDCLXXXV
Ab urbe condita2438
Armenian calendar1134
ԹՎ ՌՃԼԴ
Assyrian calendar6435
Balinese saka calendar1606–1607
Bengali calendar1092
Berber calendar2635
English Regnal year36 Cha. 2 – 1 Ja. 2
Buddhist calendar2229
Burmese calendar1047
Byzantine calendar7193–7194
Chinese calendar甲子(Wood Rat)
4381 or 4321
    — to —
乙丑年 (Wood Ox)
4382 or 4322
Coptic calendar1401–1402
Discordian calendar2851
Ethiopian calendar1677–1678
Hebrew calendar5445–5446
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1741–1742
 - Shaka Samvat1606–1607
 - Kali Yuga4785–4786
Holocene calendar11685
Igbo calendar685–686
Iranian calendar1063–1064
Islamic calendar1096–1097
Japanese calendarJōkyō 2
(貞享2年)
Javanese calendar1607–1609
Julian calendarGregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar4018
Minguo calendar227 before ROC
民前227年
Nanakshahi calendar217
Thai solar calendar2227–2228
Tibetan calendar阳木鼠年
(male Wood-Rat)
1811 or 1430 or 658
    — to —
阴木牛年
(female Wood-Ox)
1812 or 1431 or 659

Events

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ "La Salle Expedition". The Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved December 19, 2014.
  2. ^ "Wigtown Martyrs". Undiscovered Scotland. Retrieved October 26, 2011.
  3. ^ a b Harris, Tim (2004). "Scott (Crofts), James, duke of Monmouth and first duke of Buccleuch (1649–1685)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/24879. Retrieved October 26, 2011. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  4. ^ Roberts, J: History of the World, Penguin, 1994.
1685 in France

Events from the year 1685 in France

1685 in Ireland

Events from the year 1685 in Ireland.

1685 in Japan

Events in the year 1685 in Japan.

1685 in Norway

Events in the year 1685 in Norway.

1685 in Scotland

Events from the year 1685 in the Kingdom of Scotland.

1685 in Sweden

Events from the year 1685 in Sweden

3rd Dragoon Guards

The 3rd (Prince of Wales's) Dragoon Guards was a cavalry regiment in the British Army, first raised in 1685 as the Earl of Plymouth's Regiment of Horse. It was renamed as the 3rd Regiment of Dragoon Guards in 1751 and the 3rd (Prince of Wales's) Dragoon Guards in 1765. It saw service for two centuries, including the First World War, before being amalgamated into the 3rd/6th Dragoon Guards in 1922.

Anthony Sparrow

Anthony Sparrow (1612–1685) was an English Anglican priest. He was Bishop of Norwich and Bishop of Exeter.

Baron Jeffreys

Baron Jeffreys is a title that has been created twice, once in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The first creation came in the Peerage of England on 16 May 1685 when the lawyer and later Lord Chancellor, Sir George Jeffreys, 1st Baronet, was made Baron Jeffreys, of Wem. He had already been created a Baronet, of Bulstrode in the County of Buckingham, in the Baronetage of England in 1681. The titles became extinct on the death of his son, the second Baron, in 1702.

The next creation came in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1952 when General George Jeffreys was made Baron Jeffreys, of Burkham in the County of Southampton. He had also served as Conservative Member of Parliament for Petersfield. Jeffreys' father Arthur Frederick Jeffreys had previously represented Basingstoke in Parliament, and had been admitted to the Privy Council in 1902. Lord Jeffreys was succeeded by his grandson, the second Baron, his son and heir Captain Christopher John Darell Jeffreys (1907–1940) having been killed in action in May 1940. As of 2017 the title is held by the second Baron's eldest son, the third Baron, who succeeded in 1986.

The family seat is Bottom Farm, near Grantham, Lincolnshire.

Charles II of England

Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and king of England, Scotland and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death.

Charles II's father, Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland. Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, and Charles was invited to return to Britain. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660, all legal documents were dated as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649.

Charles's English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code even though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance. The major foreign policy issue of his early reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War. In 1670, he entered into the Treaty of Dover, an alliance with his first cousin King Louis XIV of France. Louis agreed to aid him in the Third Anglo-Dutch War and pay him a pension, and Charles secretly promised to convert to Catholicism at an unspecified future date. Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it. In 1679, Titus Oates's revelations of a supposed Popish Plot sparked the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charles's brother and heir, James, Duke of York, was a Catholic. The crisis saw the birth of the pro-exclusion Whig and anti-exclusion Tory parties. Charles sided with the Tories, and, following the discovery of the Rye House Plot to murder Charles and James in 1683, some Whig leaders were executed or forced into exile. Charles dissolved the English Parliament in 1681, and ruled alone until his death on 6 February 1685. He was received into the Catholic Church on his deathbed.

Charles was one of the most popular and beloved kings of England, known as the Merry Monarch, in reference to both the liveliness and hedonism of his court and the general relief at the return to normality after over a decade of rule by Cromwell and the Puritans. Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no live children, but Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses. He was succeeded by his brother James.

Code Noir

The Code Noir (French pronunciation: ​[kɔd nwaʁ], Black Code) was a decree originally passed by France's King Louis XIV in 1685. The Code Noir defined the conditions of slavery in the French colonial empire, restricted the activities of free Negroes, forbade the exercise of any religion other than Roman Catholicism, and ordered all Jews out of France's colonies.

The Code Noir resulted in a far higher percentage of blacks being free people of colour (13.2% in Louisiana compared to 0.8% in Mississippi). They were on average exceptionally literate, with a significant number of them owning businesses, properties and even slaves.The code has been described by Tyler Stovall as "one of the most extensive official documents on race, slavery, and freedom ever drawn up in Europe".

Edict of Fontainebleau

The Edict of Fontainebleau (22 October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, also known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The Edict of Nantes (1598) had granted the Huguenots the right to practice their religion without persecution from the state. Though Protestants had lost their independence in places of refuge under Richelieu on account of their supposed insubordination, they continued to live in comparative security and political contentment. From the outset, religious toleration in France had been a royal, rather than a popular policy. The lack of universal adherence to his religion did not sit well with Louis XIV's vision of perfected autocracy: "Bending all else to his will, Louis XIV resented the presence of heretics among his subjects."

IP-XACT

IP-XACT is an XML format that defines and describes individual, re-usable electronic circuit designs (individual pieces of intellectual property, or IPs) to facilitate their use in creating integrated circuits (i.e. microchips). IP-XACT was created by the SPIRIT Consortium as a standard to enable automated configuration and integration through tools.The goals of the standard are

to ensure delivery of compatible component descriptions from multiple component vendors,

to enable exchanging complex component libraries between electronic design automation (EDA) tools for SoC design (design environments),

to describe configurable components using metadata, and

to enable the provision of EDA vendor-neutral scripts for component creation and configuration (generators, configurators).Approved as IEEE 1685-2009 on December 9, 2009, published on February 18, 2010.

Superseded by IEEE 1685-2014. IEEE 1685-2009 was adopted as IEC 62014-4:2015.

James II of England

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James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The last Roman Catholic monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland, his reign is now remembered primarily for struggles over religious tolerance. However, it also involved the principles of absolutism and divine right of kings and his deposition ended a century of political and civil strife by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown.James inherited the thrones of England, Ireland and Scotland with widespread support in all three countries, largely based on the principle of divine right or birth. Tolerance for his personal Catholicism did not apply to it in general and when the English and Scottish Parliaments refused to pass his measures, James attempted to impose them by decree; it was a political principle, rather than a religious one that ultimately led to his removal.In June 1688, two events turned dissent into a crisis; the first on 10 June was the birth of James's son and heir James Francis Edward, threatening to create a Catholic dynasty and excluding his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange. The second was the prosecution of the Seven Bishops for seditious libel; this was viewed as an assault on the Church of England and their acquittal on 30 June destroyed his political authority in England. Anti-Catholic riots in England and Scotland now made it seem only his removal as monarch could prevent a civil war.Representatives of the English political elite invited William to assume the English throne; after he landed in Brixham on 5 November 1688, James's army deserted and he went into exile in France on 23 December. In February 1689, Parliament held he had 'vacated' the English throne and installed William and Mary as joint monarchs, establishing the principle that sovereignty derived from Parliament, not birth. James landed in Ireland on 14 March 1689 in an attempt to recover his kingdoms but despite a simultaneous rising in Scotland, in April a Scottish Convention followed their English colleagues by ruling James had 'forfeited' the throne and offered it to William and Mary. After defeat at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, James returned to France where he spent the rest of his life in exile at Saint-Germain, protected by Louis XIV.

James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth

James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, 1st Duke of Buccleuch, KG, PC (9 April 1649 – 15 July 1685) was a Dutch-born English nobleman. Originally called James Crofts or James Fitzroy, he was born in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, the eldest illegitimate son of Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his mistress Lucy Walter.

He served in the Second Anglo-Dutch War and commanded English troops taking part in the Third Anglo-Dutch War before commanding the Anglo-Dutch brigade fighting in the Franco-Dutch War. He led the unsuccessful Monmouth Rebellion in 1685, an attempt to depose his uncle, King James II and VII. After one of his officers declared Monmouth the legitimate King in the town of Taunton in Somerset, Monmouth attempted to capitalise on his Protestantism and his position as the son of Charles II, in opposition to James, who was a Roman Catholic. The rebellion failed, and Monmouth was beheaded for treason on 15 July 1685.

John III Sobieski

John III Sobieski (Polish: Jan III Sobieski; Lithuanian: Jonas III Sobieskis; Latin: Ioannes III Sobiscius; 17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death, and one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Sobieski's military skill, demonstrated in combating the invasions of the Ottoman Empire, contributed to his prowess as King of Poland. Sobieski's 22-year reign marked a period of the Commonwealth's stabilization, much needed after the turmoil of the Deluge and the Khmelnytsky Uprising. Popular among his subjects, he was an able military commander, most famous for his victory over the Turks at the 1683 Battle of Vienna. After his victories over them, the Ottomans called him the "Lion of Lechistan"; and the Pope hailed him as the savior of Christendom.

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1685

This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1685.

Monmouth Rebellion

The Monmouth Rebellion, also known as The Pitchfork Rebellion, The Revolt of the West or The West Country rebellion, was an attempt to overthrow James II. Prince James, Duke of York, had become King of England, Scotland, and Ireland upon the death of his elder brother Charles II on 6 February 1685. James II was a Roman Catholic and some Protestants under his rule opposed his kingship. James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, the eldest illegitimate son of Charles II, claimed to be rightful heir to the throne and attempted to displace James II.

Plans were discussed to overthrow the monarch, following the failure of the Rye House Plot to assassinate Charles II and James in 1683, while Monmouth was in self-imposed exile in the Dutch Republic. The Monmouth rebellion was coordinated with Argyll's Rising a rebellion in Scotland, where Archibald Campbell, the Earl of Argyll, landed with a small force. The Duke of Monmouth had been popular in the South West of England, so he planned to recruit troops locally and take control of the area before marching on London.

Monmouth landed at Lyme Regis on 11 June 1685. In the following few weeks, his growing army of nonconformists, artisans and farm workers fought a series of skirmishes with local militias and regular soldiers commanded by Louis de Duras, 2nd Earl of Feversham and John Churchill, who later became the Duke of Marlborough. Monmouth's forces were unable to compete with the regular army and failed to capture the city of Bristol. The rebellion ended with the defeat of Monmouth's army at the Battle of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685 by forces led by Feversham and Churchill.

Monmouth was executed for treason on 15 July 1685. Many of his supporters were tried during the Bloody Assizes, led by Judge Jeffreys and were condemned to death or transportation. James II was able to consolidate his power and reigned until 1688, when he was overthrown in a coup d'état by William of Orange in the Glorious Revolution.

Semper fidelis

Semper fidelis (Latin pronunciation: [ˈsɛm.pɛr fɪˈdeː.lɪs]) is a Latin phrase that means "always faithful" or "always loyal". It is the motto of the United States Marine Corps, usually shortened to Semper Fi. It is also in use as a motto for towns, families, schools, and other military units.

The earliest definitively recorded use of semper fidelis is as the motto of the French town of Abbeville since 1369. It has also been used by other towns, and is recorded as the motto of various European families since the 16th century, and possibly since the 13th century or earlier. Records show many families in England, France and Ireland using this motto.

The earliest recorded use of semper fidelis by a military unit is by the Duke of Beaufort's Regiment of Foot, raised in south-western England in 1685. This is apparently linked to its use as a motto by the city of Exeter since no later than 1660. Subsequently, a variety of military organizations adopted the motto.

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