1681 (MDCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1681st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 681st year of the 2nd millennium, the 81st year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1681, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|1681 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2434|
|Balinese saka calendar||1602–1603|
|English Regnal year||32 Cha. 2 – 33 Cha. 2|
|Chinese calendar||庚申年 (Metal Monkey)|
4377 or 4317
— to —
辛酉年 (Metal Rooster)
4378 or 4318
|- Vikram Samvat||1737–1738|
|- Shaka Samvat||1602–1603|
|- Kali Yuga||4781–4782|
|Japanese calendar||Enpō 9 / Tenna 1|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||231 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2223–2224|
1807 or 1426 or 654
— to —
1808 or 1427 or 655
Events from the year 1681 in Denmark.1681 in England
Events from the year 1681 in England.1681 in France
Events from the year 1681 in France1681 in Ireland
Events from the year 1681 in Ireland.1681 in Norway
Events in the year 1681 in Norway.1681 in Sweden
Events from the year 1681 in SwedenCockburn Town
Cockburn Town ( KOH-bərn) is the capital city of the Turks and Caicos Islands.Cromer Windmill, Ardeley
Cromer Windmill, restored in 1967-69, is a Grade II* listed post mill at Cromer, Ardeley, Hertfordshire, England.Earl of Nottingham
See also Earl of WinchilseaEarl of Nottingham is a title that has been created seven times in the Peerage of England. It was first created for John de Mowbray in 1377, at the coronation of Richard II. As this creation could only pass to his legitimate heirs, it went extinct on his death in 1383. It was re-created for his elder brother Thomas de Mobray in the same year, however. This branch of the family became Dukes of Norfolk, and the title would descend with them until John de Mobray died without male heirs in 1476.
The third creation was for Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, son of Edward IV and one of the Princes in the Tower. Richard was imprisoned by his uncle Richard III (then Lord Protector), disappearing shortly after, presumed murdered.
The earldom was briefly recreated in 1483 for William Berkeley, who later became Marquess of Berkeley, then in 1525 Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset and illegitimate son of Henry VIII. Both died childless within ten years of being granted the title.
The sixth creation was for Charles Howard, Lord High Admiral for Elizabeth I and James VI and I. He was commander of the English navy against the Spanish Armada, and a notable statesman in both reigns. His descendants held the earldom until 1681.
The current, seventh, creation was made in 1681 for Heneage Finch, 1st Earl of Nottingham, who died one year later. Before being created earl he was the Attorney General and Lord Chancellor, and played an active part in the aftermath of the Popish Plot. His son Daniel Finch inherited the Earldom of Winchilsea in 1729. The second earl was a prominent politician, serving as Lord President of the Council, Secretary of State for the Northern and Southern Departments, and First Lord of the Admiralty.
For subsequent family history, see Earl of Winchilsea and Nottingham.
The title is currently held by Daniel Finch-Hatton, 17th Earl of Winchilsea and 12th Earl of Nottingham.Giardia
Giardia ( or ) is a genus of anaerobic flagellated protozoan parasites of the phylum metamonada that colonise and reproduce in the small intestines of several vertebrates, causing giardiasis. Their life cycle alternates between a swimming trophozoite and an infective, resistant cyst. Giardia were first described by the Dutch microscopist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1681. The genus is named after French zoologist Alfred Mathieu Giard.List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1681
This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1681.Mehdya, Morocco
Mehdya (Arabic: المهدية, translit. al-Mahdiyā), also Mehdia or Mehedya, is a town in Kénitra Province, Rabat-Salé-Kénitra, Morocco. Previously called al-Ma'mura, it was known as São João da Mamora under 16th century Portuguese occupation, or as La Mamora under 17th century Spanish occupation.
According to the 2004 census, the town has a population of 16,262. It is located on Sebou River (Oued Sebu).Narsinghgarh State
Narsinghgarh State is a former princely state of the British Raj in India. It formed an enclave within Rajgarh State and was placed administratively under the Bhopal Agency subdivision of the Central India Agency. The state covered an area of 1,920 square kilometres (740 sq mi) and had a population of 92,093 in 1901.The capital of state was town of the same name Narsinghgarh.Province of Pennsylvania
The Province of Pennsylvania, also known as the Pennsylvania Colony, was founded in English North America by William Penn on March 4, 1681 as dictated in a royal charter granted by King Charles II. The name Pennsylvania, which translates roughly as "Penn's Woods", was created by combining the Penn surname (in honor of William's father, Admiral Sir William Penn) with the Latin word sylvania, meaning "forest land". The Province of Pennsylvania was one of the two major Restoration colonies, the other being the Province of Carolina. The proprietary colony's charter remained in the hands of the Penn family until the American Revolution, when the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania was created and became one of the original thirteen states. "The lower counties on Delaware", a separate colony within the province, would breakaway during the American Revolution as "the Delaware State" and also be one of the original thirteen states.Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681)
The Russo–Turkish War of 1676–1681, a war between the Tsardom of Russia and Ottoman Empire, caused by Turkish expansionism in the second half of the 17th century.Slaughter Beach, Delaware
Slaughter Beach is a town in Sussex County, Delaware, United States. The population was 207 at the 2010 census, an increase of 4.5% over the past decade. It is part of the Salisbury, Maryland-Delaware Metropolitan Statistical Area.Tenna
Tenna (天和) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, "year name") after Enpō and before Jōkyō. This period spanned the years from September 1681 through February 1684. The reigning emperor was Reigen-tennō (霊元天皇).Wu Sangui
Wu Sangui (Chinese: 吳三桂; pinyin: Wú Sānguì; Wade–Giles: Wu San-kuei; courtesy name Changbai (長白) or Changbo (長伯); 1612 – 2 October 1678) was a Chinese military general who was instrumental in the fall of the Ming dynasty and the establishment of the Qing dynasty in 1644. He is considered by traditional scholars as a traitor to both the Ming and the Qing dynasty. In 1678, Wu declared himself the Emperor of China and the ruler of the "Great Zhou". However, his revolt was eventually quelled by the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty.Zheng Jing
Zheng Jing, Prince of Yanping (Chinese: 鄭經; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tēⁿ Keng; 25 October 1642 – 17 March 1681), courtesy names Xianzhi (賢之) and Yuanzhi (元之), pseudonym Shitian (式天), was a 17th-century Chinese warlord, Ming dynasty loyalist and ruler of the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan.