1678 (MDCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1678th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 678th year of the 2nd millennium, the 78th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1670s decade. As of the start of 1678, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|1678 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2431|
|Balinese saka calendar||1599–1600|
|English Regnal year||29 Cha. 2 – 30 Cha. 2|
|Chinese calendar||丁巳年 (Fire Snake)|
4374 or 4314
— to —
戊午年 (Earth Horse)
4375 or 4315
|- Vikram Samvat||1734–1735|
|- Shaka Samvat||1599–1600|
|- Kali Yuga||4778–4779|
|Japanese calendar||Enpō 6|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||234 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2220–2221|
1804 or 1423 or 651
— to —
1805 or 1424 or 652
Events from the year 1678 in Denmark.1678 in England
Events from the year 1678 in England.1678 in Ireland
Events from the year 1678 in Ireland.1678 in Norway
Events in the year 1678 in Norway.1678 in Sweden
Events from the year 1678 in SwedenArguin
Arguin (Portuguese: Arguim) is an island off the western coast of Mauritania in the Bay of Arguin. It is approximately 6x2 km in size, with extensive and dangerous reefs around it. The island is now part of the Banc d'Arguin National Park.County of Burgundy
The Free County of Burgundy (French: Franche Comté de Bourgogne; German: Freigrafschaft Burgund) was a medieval county (from 982 to 1678) of the Holy Roman Empire, within the modern region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, whose very name is still reminiscent of the title of its count: Freigraf ('free count', denoting imperial immediacy, or franc comte in French, hence the term franc(he) comté for his feudal principality). It should not be confused with the more westerly Duchy of Burgundy, a fiefdom of Francia since 843.Franco-Dutch War
The 1672-1678 Franco-Dutch War, or Dutch War (French: Guerre de Hollande, Dutch: Hollandse Oorlog), was a conflict whose primary participants were the Dutch Republic and France, supported initially by Münster, Cologne and England.
The war began in May 1672 when France invaded the Netherlands and nearly over-ran it, an event still referred to as het Rampjaar or 'Disaster Year'. By late July, the Dutch position had stabilised, with support from Emperor Leopold, Brandenburg-Prussia and Spain; this was formalised in the August 1673 Treaty of the Hague, joined by Denmark in January 1674.
Faced by a financial crisis, Sweden agreed to remain neutral in return for French subsidies, but became involved in the 1675-1679 Scanian War with its regional rivals Denmark and Brandenburg. On balance, the cost of funding the Swedish army made its support largely negative for France.
The period of English participation as an ally of France is also known as the Third Anglo-Dutch War; the alliance was always unpopular and domestic opposition led to its exit in the February 1674 Treaty of Westminster. In November 1677, William of Orange married his cousin Mary, niece to Charles II of England and England agreed a defensive alliance with the Dutch in March 1678.
Under the Peace of Nijmegen, France returned Charleroi to Spain. In return, it received the Franche-Comté and cities in Flanders and Hainaut, essentially establishing modern France's northern border. However, it also marked the highpoint of French expansion under Louis and William's arrival as leader of an anti-French coalition, which would hold together in the 1688-1697 Nine Years War and 1701-1714 War of the Spanish Succession.HMS Lenox (1678)
HMS Lenox was a 70-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched at Deptford Dockyard on 18 April 1678.She was rebuilt at Deptford in 1701, remaining as a 70-gun third rate.In 1702 William Jumper took this ship as his most notable command. Lenox was part of Sir George Rooke's command during his unsuccessful attack on Cadiz in 1702, and was present at the capture of Gibraltar in 1704. Lenox's captain was honoured by having Jumper's Bastion in Gibraltar named after him.
In 1707 Lenox was part of the fleet commanded by Sir Cloudesley Shovel, a substantial part of which was wrecked off the Scilly Isles. Lenox herself was undamaged and was able to return to Portmsouth after the disaster. On 2 May 1721 she was ordered to be taken to pieces and rebuilt at Chatham as a 70-gun third rate to the 1719 Establishment. She was relaunched on 19 September 1723 and served until 1756, when she was sunk as a breakwater.Habeas corpus petitions of Guantanamo Bay detainees
The nature of international human rights law has been seemingly altered by Americans since the attacks on New York City and Washington, D.C. on September 11, 2001. The Guantanamo Bay detention camp is one example of recent developments that seem to disregard long standing human rights. The United States of America (USA) has pursued a 'seemingly deliberate strategy' to put suspected terrorists outside the reach of habeas corpus protections. Naval Station Guantanamo Bay serves as the location for a United States military prison in Cuba designed for the detention of non-citizens suspected of terrorist activity. At the time of its creation President Bush stated that its purpose was to respond to serious war crimes, primarily 'a new way to deal with terrorists'. The first camp was set up 3 months after the attacks on the twin towers and since then a human rights debate has begun over the legality of denying detainees the right to petition habeas corpus.
The detainees at the United States Guantanamo Bay detention camps, in Cuba have had over 200 writs of habeas corpus submitted on their behalf.List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1678
This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in its 19th year, 1678.List of windmills in Essex
A list of all windmills and windmill sites which lie in the current Ceremonial county of Essex.Michael Ward (bishop)
Michael Ward was a Seventeenth century Anglican bishop and academic in Ireland.Ward was born in Newport, Shropshire and educated at Trinity College, Dublin. Ward was Regius Professor of Divinity at Trinity College, Dublin from 1670 to 1678 and its Provost from 1674 to 1678; Dean of Lismore from 1670 to 1678; Archdeacon of Armagh from 1674 to 1678; Bishop of Ossory from 1678 to 1680; and Derry from 1680; until his death on 3 October 1681.
His nephew was an Irish politician and judge.New Paltz, New York
New Paltz (locally ) is a town in Ulster County, New York, United States. The population was 14,003 at the 2010 census. The town is located in the southeastern part of the county and is south of Kingston. New Paltz contains a village also with the name New Paltz. The town is named for Palz (IPA: [ˈpalts]), the dialect name of the Rhenish Palatinate, called Pfalz (IPA: [ˈpfalts] (listen)) in standard German.
Due to the presence of what is now the State University of New York at New Paltz, it has been a college town for over 150 years.Test Act
The Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that served as a religious test for public office and imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and nonconformists. The principle was that none but people taking communion in the established Church of England were eligible for public employment, and the severe penalties pronounced against recusants, whether Catholic or nonconformist, were affirmations of this principle. In practice nonconformists were often exempted from some of these laws through the regular passage of Acts of Indemnity. After 1800 they were seldom enforced, except at Oxbridge, where nonconformists and Catholics could not matriculate (Oxford) or graduate (Cambridge). The Conservative government repealed them in 1828 with little controversy.Tories (British political party)
The Tories were members of two political parties which existed sequentially in the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Great Britain and later the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from the 17th to the early 19th centuries. The first Tories emerged in 1678 in England, when they opposed the Whig-supported Exclusion Bill which set out to disinherit the heir presumptive James, Duke of York, who eventually became James II of England and VII of Scotland. This party ceased to exist as an organised political entity in the early 1760s, although it was used as a term of self-description by some political writers. A few decades later, a new Tory party would rise to establish a hold on government between 1783 and 1830, with William Pitt the Younger followed by Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool.The Earl of Liverpool was succeeded by fellow Tory Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, whose term included the Catholic Emancipation, which occurred mostly due to the election of Daniel O'Connell as a Catholic MP from Ireland. When the Whigs subsequently regained control, the Representation of the People Act 1832 removed the rotten boroughs, many of which were controlled by Tories. In the following general election, the Tory ranks were reduced to 180 MPs. Under the leadership of Robert Peel, the Tamworth Manifesto was issued, which began to transform the Tories into the Conservative Party. However, Peel lost many of his supporters by repealing the Corn Laws, causing the party to break apart. One faction, led by Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, survived to become the modern Conservative Party, whose members are commonly still referred to as Tories as they still often follow and promote the ideology of Toryism.Treaties of Nijmegen
The Treaties of Peace of Nijmegen (Traités de Paix de Nimègue; German: Friede von Nimwegen) were a series of treaties signed in the Dutch city of Nijmegen between August 1678 and December 1679. The treaties ended various interconnected wars among France, the Dutch Republic, Spain, Brandenburg, Sweden, Denmark, the Prince-Bishopric of Münster, and the Holy Roman Empire. The most significant of the treaties was the first, which established peace between France and the Dutch Republic and placed the northern border of France very near its modern position.Whigs (British political party)
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Between the 1680s and 1850s, they contested power with their rivals, the Tories. The Whigs' origin lay in constitutional monarchism and opposition to absolute monarchy. The Whigs played a central role in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and were the standing enemies of the Stuart kings and pretenders, who were Roman Catholic. The Whigs took full control of the government in 1715 and remained totally dominant until King George III, coming to the throne in 1760, allowed Tories back in. The Whig Supremacy (1715–1760) was enabled by the Hanoverian succession of George I in 1714 and the failed Jacobite rising of 1715 by Tory rebels. The Whigs thoroughly purged the Tories from all major positions in government, the army, the Church of England, the legal profession and local offices. The Party's hold on power was so strong and durable, historians call the period from roughly 1714 to 1783 the age of the Whig Oligarchy. The first great leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government through the period 1721–1742 and whose protégé Henry Pelham led from 1743 to 1754.
Both parties began as loose groupings or tendencies, but became quite formal by 1784 with the ascension of Charles James Fox as the leader of a reconstituted Whig Party, arrayed against the governing party of the new Tories under William Pitt the Younger. Both parties were founded on rich politicians more than on popular votes, and there were elections to the House of Commons, but a small number of men controlled most of the voters.
The Whig Party slowly evolved during the 18th century. The Whig tendency supported the great aristocratic families, the Protestant Hanoverian succession and toleration for nonconformist Protestants (the dissenters, such as Presbyterians), while some Tories supported the exiled Stuart royal family's claim to the throne (Jacobitism) and virtually all Tories supported the established Church of England and the gentry. Later on, the Whigs drew support from the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants, while the Tories drew support from the landed interests and the royal family. However, by the first half of the 19th century the Whig political programme came to encompass not only the supremacy of parliament over the monarch and support for free trade, but Catholic emancipation, the abolition of slavery and expansion of the franchise (suffrage). The 19th century Whig support for Catholic emancipation was a complete reversal of the party's historic sharply anti-Catholic position at its late 17th century origin.Wu Sangui
Wu Sangui (Chinese: 吳三桂; pinyin: Wú Sānguì; Wade–Giles: Wu San-kuei; courtesy name Changbai (長白) or Changbo (長伯); 1612 – 2 October 1678) was a Chinese military general who was instrumental in the fall of the Ming dynasty and the establishment of the Qing dynasty in 1644. He is considered by traditional scholars as a traitor to both the Ming and the Qing dynasty. In 1678, Wu declared himself the Emperor of China and the ruler of the "Great Zhou". However, his revolt was eventually quelled by the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty.