1677

1677 (MDCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1677th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 677th year of the 2nd millennium, the 77th year of the 17th century, and the 8th year of the 1670s decade. As of the start of 1677, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1677 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1677
MDCLXXVII
Ab urbe condita2430
Armenian calendar1126
ԹՎ ՌՃԻԶ
Assyrian calendar6427
Balinese saka calendar1598–1599
Bengali calendar1084
Berber calendar2627
English Regnal year28 Cha. 2 – 29 Cha. 2
Buddhist calendar2221
Burmese calendar1039
Byzantine calendar7185–7186
Chinese calendar丙辰(Fire Dragon)
4373 or 4313
    — to —
丁巳年 (Fire Snake)
4374 or 4314
Coptic calendar1393–1394
Discordian calendar2843
Ethiopian calendar1669–1670
Hebrew calendar5437–5438
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1733–1734
 - Shaka Samvat1598–1599
 - Kali Yuga4777–4778
Holocene calendar11677
Igbo calendar677–678
Iranian calendar1055–1056
Islamic calendar1087–1088
Japanese calendarEnpō 5
(延宝5年)
Javanese calendar1599–1600
Julian calendarGregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar4010
Minguo calendar235 before ROC
民前235年
Nanakshahi calendar209
Thai solar calendar2219–2220
Tibetan calendar阳火龙年
(male Fire-Dragon)
1803 or 1422 or 650
    — to —
阴火蛇年
(female Fire-Snake)
1804 or 1423 or 651

Events

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ Kreyszig, Erwin. Differential Geometry. ISBN 978-0-486-66721-8.
  2. ^ Grun, Bernard (1991). The Timetables of History: A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 308–309. Ice cream becomes popular as dessert in Paris.
1677 in Denmark

Events from the year 1677 in Denmark.

1677 in England

Events from the year 1677 in England.

1677 in France

Events from the year 1677 in France.

1677 in Ireland

Events from the year 1677 in Ireland.

1677 in Norway

Events in the year 1677 in Norway.

1677 in Sweden

Events from the year 1677 in Sweden

1689 Baptist Confession of Faith

The 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith, also called the Second London Baptist Confession, was written by Particular Baptists, who held to a Calvinistic soteriology in England to give a formal expression of their Christian faith from a Baptist perspective. Because it was adopted by the Philadelphia Association of Baptist Churches in the 18th century, it is also known as the Philadelphia Confession of Faith. The Philadelphia Confession was a modification of the Second London Confession that added an allowance for singing of hymns, psalms and spiritual songs in the Lord's Supper and made optional the laying on of hands in baptism.

Charlottenborg Palace

Charlottenborg Palace (Danish: Charlottenborg Slot) is a large town mansion located on the corner of Kongens Nytorv and Nyhavn in Copenhagen, Denmark. Originally built as a residence for Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve, it has served as the base of the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts since its foundation in 1754. Today it also houses Kunsthal Charlottenborg, an institution for contemporary art, and Danmarks Kunstbibliotek, the Royal Art Library.

Earl of Kintore

Earl of Kintore is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1677 for Sir John Keith, third son of William Keith, 6th Hereditary Earl Marischal of Scotland (see Earl Marischal for earlier history of the family) and Chief of Clan Keith. He was made Lord Keith of Inverurie and Keith Hall at the same time, also in the Peerage of Scotland. At the death of William, the 4th Earl, in 1761, the Earldom and Lordship became dormant, as no-one could prove a claim to them. In 1778, it was decided that the Earldom, Lordship and Chieftaincy of Clan should pass to Anthony Adrian Falconer, Lord Falconer of Halkerton, who changed his surname to Keith-Falconer. The Lordship Falconer of Halkerton and the Earldom of Kintore and Lordship Keith of Inverurie and Keith Hall remained united until 1966, when, at the death of the 10th Earl, the Lordship Falconer of Halkerton became dormant.

The 11th holder of the titles, Ethel Sydney Keith-Falconer, married John Baird, 1st Viscount Stonehaven. At the death of Lord Stonehaven, the titles Viscount Stonehaven (created 1938), and Baron Stonehaven (created 1925), both in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, as well as the Baird of Urie Baronetcy, in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom, passed to the couple's son, James Ian. The Countess of Kintore, who died the day after her one-hundredth birthday, was the longest-lived female holder of a British Peerage; upon inheriting his mother's titles, her son James Ian changed his surname from Baird to Keith.

The family seat is Keith Hall, near Inverurie, Aberdeenshire.

The heir apparent to the earldom uses the courtesy title Lord Keith of Inverurie and Keith Hall.

Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne

Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne is a title in the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was first created as Earl of Kinghorne in Peerage of Scotland in 1606 for Patrick Lyon. In 1677, the designation of the earldom changed to "Strathmore and Kinghorne". A second Earldom was bestowed on the 14th Earl in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1937, leading to him being titled as the 14th and 1st Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne.

Aside from the Earldoms, the Earl holds the subsidiary titles: Viscount Lyon (created 1677), Lord Glamis, Tannadyce, Sidlaw and Strathdichtie (1677), Lord Lyon and Glamis (1606), Lord Glamis (1445) and Baron Bowes (1887) of Streatlam Castle, in the County of Durham, and of Lunedale, in the County of York. An earlier creation of Baron Bowes (1815), in favour of the 10th Earl became extinct on his death in 1821. The first three are in the Peerage of Scotland; the last two in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The eldest son of the Earl uses Lord Glamis as a courtesy title. Normally, the highest subsidiary title (in this case Viscount Lyon) would be used, but Lord Glamis is used instead to prevent confusion with the officer of arms, Lord Lyon King of Arms. The Earl is also Chief of Clan Lyon.

Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (1900–2002), the Queen consort of King George VI from 1936 until 1952, and mother of the present Sovereign, Elizabeth II was the daughter of the 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, and the sister of the 15th Earl.

The family seat is Glamis Castle, in Angus, Scotland. Other family seats were Gibside, near Burnopfield, County Durham and Streatlam Castle, near Barnard Castle in County Durham. The traditional burial place of the Earls of Strathmore and Kinghorne is in an aisle of Glamis parish church.

John Washington

John Washington (1631–1677) was an English planter, soldier, and politician in colonial Virginia in North America. He was a lieutenant colonel in the local militia. Born in Hertfordshire, England, he settled in Westmoreland County, Virginia. He was the colonist paternal English ancestor and great-grandfather of George Washington, general of the Continental Army and first president of the United States of America.

Koyikkal Palace

8°36′31.55″N 77°0′11.37″E

The Koyikkal Palace is a palace situated in Nedumangadu, Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala in South India. The palace was built in 16th century for Umayamma Rani of the Venad Royal Family. Umayamma Rani was the queen of Venad between 1677 and 1684. The palace is a double storeyed building and built with traditional architectural style of Kerala.

The palace is maintained by the Kerala State Department of Archaeology. There is a Folklore Museum and a Numismatics Museum are working in this palace.The exhibits in the museum contains rare instruments like 'Chandravalam', a small percussion instrument used in Ramakathappattu and 'Nanthuni', a small musical instrument made of wood and string used in Onappattu etc.

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1677

This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in its 18th year, 1677.

Monument to the Great Fire of London

The Monument to the Great Fire of London, more commonly known simply as the Monument, is a Doric column in London, United Kingdom, situated near the northern end of London Bridge. Commemorating the Great Fire of London, it stands at the junction of Monument Street and Fish Street Hill, 202 feet (62 m) in height and 202 feet west of the spot in Pudding Lane where the Great Fire started on 2 September 1666. Constructed between 1671 and 1677, it was built on the site of St. Margaret's, Fish Street, the first church to be destroyed by the Great Fire. It is Grade I listed and is a scheduled monument. Another monument, the Golden Boy of Pye Corner, marks the point near Smithfield where the fire was stopped.

The Monument comprises a fluted Doric column built of Portland stone topped with a gilded urn of fire. It was designed by Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke. Its height marks its distance from the site of the shop of Thomas Farriner (or Farynor), the king's baker, where the blaze began.

The viewing platform near the top of the Monument is reached by a narrow winding staircase of 311 steps. A mesh cage was added in the mid-19th century to prevent people jumping to the ground, after six people had committed suicide there between 1788 and 1842.

Three sides of the base carry inscriptions in Latin. The one on the south side describes actions taken by King Charles II following the fire. The inscription on the east side describes how the Monument was started and brought to perfection, and under which mayors. Inscriptions on the north side describe how the fire started, how much damage it caused, and how it was eventually extinguished. The Latin words "Sed Furor Papisticus Qui Tamdiu Patravit Nondum Restingvitur" (but Popish frenzy, which wrought such horrors, is not yet quenched) were added to the end of the inscription on the orders of the Court of Aldermen in 1681 during the foment of the Popish Plot. Text on the east side originally falsely blamed Roman Catholics for the fire ("burning of this protestant city, begun and carried on by the treachery and malice of the popish faction"), which prompted Alexander Pope (himself a Catholic) to say of the area:

The words blaming Catholics were chiselled out with Catholic Emancipation in 1830.The west side of the base displays a sculpture, by Caius Gabriel Cibber, in alto and bas relief, of the destruction of the City; with Charles II and his brother, James, the Duke of York (later King James II), surrounded by liberty, architecture, and science, giving directions for its restoration.It gives its name to the nearby London Underground station, Monument.

Spermatozoon

A spermatozoon (pronounced , alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from Ancient Greek: σπέρμα "seed" and Ancient Greek: ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete. A spermatozoon joins an ovum to form a zygote. (A zygote is a single cell, with a complete set of chromosomes, that normally develops into an embryo.)

Sperm cells contribute approximately half of the nuclear genetic information to the diploid offspring (excluding, in most cases, mitochondrial DNA). In mammals, the sex of the offspring is determined by the sperm cell: a spermatozoon bearing a X chromosome will lead to a female (XX) offspring, while one bearing a Y chromosome will lead to a male (XY) offspring. Sperm cells were first observed in Anton van Leeuwenhoek's laboratory in 1677.

Taldom

Taldom (Russian: Та́лдом) is a town and the administrative center of Taldomsky District in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located 110 kilometers (68 mi) north of Moscow, on a suburban railway connecting Moscow to Savyolovo. Population: 13,819 (2010 Census); 13,334 (2002 Census); 14,410 (1989 Census).It was previously known as Taldom (until 1918), Leninsk (until 1929).

Viscount Combermere

Viscount Combermere, of Bhurtpore in the East Indies and of Combermere in the County Palatine of Chester, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1827 for the prominent military commander Stapleton Stapleton-Cotton, 1st Baron Combermere. He had already been created Baron Combermere, of Combermere in the County Palatine of Chester, in 1814, also in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. He had previously inherited the baronetcy, of Combermere in the County Palatine of Chester, that was created in the Baronetage of England on 29 March 1677 for his great-great-grandfather Robert Cotton.

The title of the baronetcy, barony and viscountcy, Combermere, is pronounced "Cumbermeer".

The first baronet represented Cheshire in the House of Commons. His grandson, the third Baronet, sat as a Member of Parliament for Cheshire as well as for Lostwithiel. He was succeeded by his younger brother, the fourth Baronet. He represented Denbighshire in the House of Commons. His son, the fifth Baronet, also represented Cheshire in Parliament. The latter was succeeded by his son, the sixth Baronet, who was later elevated to the peerage as Viscount Combermere. His son, the second Viscount, sat as a Conservative Member of Parliament for Carrickfergus. As of 2010 the titles are held by the latter's great-great-grandson, the sixth Viscount, who succeeded his father in 2000.

Until 1919, the family seat of the viscounts Combermere was Combermere Abbey in Combermere Park, between Nantwich and Whitchurch in Cheshire. The traditional burial place of the viscounts was at St Margaret's Church, Wrenbury.

William Berkeley (governor)

Sir William Berkeley (; 1605 – 9 July 1677) was a colonial governor of Virginia, and one of the Lords Proprietors of the Colony of Carolina; he was appointed to these posts by King Charles I, of whom he was a favourite.

As proprietor of Green Spring Plantation in James City County, he experimented with activities such as growing silkworms as part of his efforts to expand the tobacco-based economy. Berkeley enacted friendly policies toward the Native Americans that led to the revolt by some of the planters in 1676 which became known as Bacon's Rebellion. In the aftermath, King Charles II was angered by the retribution exacted against the rebels by Berkeley, and recalled him to England.

Worshipful Company of Masons

The Worshipful Company of Masons is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London, England. The Masons (entirely unrelated to the Freemasons) were formed during the Middle Ages to regulate stonemasons. They were formally incorporated under a Royal Charter in 1677. Its members have taken part in the construction several famous structures, including Saint Paul's Cathedral. Like most Livery Companies, the Company does not retain its original role as an association of craftsmen. It does support the craft of stonemasonry, however, along with several charities.

The Masons' Company ranks thirtieth in the order of precedence of Livery Companies. Its motto is God Is Our Guide.

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