1670 (MDCLXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1670th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 670th year of the 2nd millennium, the 70th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1670s decade. As of the start of 1670, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1670 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1670
Ab urbe condita2423
Armenian calendar1119
Assyrian calendar6420
Balinese saka calendar1591–1592
Bengali calendar1077
Berber calendar2620
English Regnal year21 Cha. 2 – 22 Cha. 2
Buddhist calendar2214
Burmese calendar1032
Byzantine calendar7178–7179
Chinese calendar己酉(Earth Rooster)
4366 or 4306
    — to —
庚戌年 (Metal Dog)
4367 or 4307
Coptic calendar1386–1387
Discordian calendar2836
Ethiopian calendar1662–1663
Hebrew calendar5430–5431
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1726–1727
 - Shaka Samvat1591–1592
 - Kali Yuga4770–4771
Holocene calendar11670
Igbo calendar670–671
Iranian calendar1048–1049
Islamic calendar1080–1081
Japanese calendarKanbun 9
Javanese calendar1592–1593
Julian calendarGregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar4003
Minguo calendar242 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar202
Thai solar calendar2212–2213
Tibetan calendar阴土鸡年
(female Earth-Rooster)
1796 or 1415 or 643
    — to —
(male Iron-Dog)
1797 or 1416 or 644




Date unknown



1669–70 papal conclave

The papal conclave of 1669–70 (20 December – 29 April) was convened on the death of Pope Clement IX and ended with the election of Emilio Altieri as Pope Clement X. The election saw deference within the College of Cardinals to Louis XIV of France, and a freeing of the cardinals loyal to Spain to vote according to their conscience. Eventually the elderly Altieri was elected with support of the major factions within the College.

1670 AM

The following radio stations broadcast on AM frequency 1670 kHz: 1670 AM is a Regional broadcast frequency.

1670 in Denmark

Events from the year 1670 in Denmark.

1670 in England

Events from the year 1670 in England.

1670 in France

Events from the year 1670 in France

1670 in Ireland

Events from the year 1670 in Ireland.

1670 in Norway

Events in the year 1670 in Norway.

1670 in Sweden

Events from the year 1670 in Sweden


The 1670s decade ran from January 1, 1670, to December 31, 1679.

== Events ==

=== 1670 ===

==== January–June ====

January 21 – French-born highwayman Claude Duval is executed at Tyburn, in London.

April 29 – Pope Clement X succeeds Pope Clement IX, as the 239th pope.

May 2 – The Hudson's Bay Company is founded in England, to operate in Canada.

May 26 – At Dover, England, Charles II of England and Louis XIV of France sign the Secret Treaty of Dover, ending hostilities between their kingdoms. Louis will give Charles 200,000 pounds annually. In return Charles will relax the laws against Catholics, gradually re-Catholicize England, support French policy against the Dutch, and convert to Catholicism himself.

June 1 – In Dover, England, Charles II of England and Louis XIV of France sign the Secret Treaty of Dover, which will force England into the Third Anglo-Dutch War.

June 15 – The first stone of Fort Ricasoli is laid down in Malta.

==== July–December ====

July 18 (July 8, O.S.) – Treaty of Madrid (1670): Spain recognises Jamaica and the Cayman Islands as English possessions.

August – Spanish frigates attack Charleston, South Carolina.

September 1–5 – William Penn and William Mead are tried in London, after a Quaker sermon.

November 24 – Louis XIV of France authorises work to commence on the construction of Les Invalides, a veterans' hospital in Paris, France.

December 15 – Welsh privateer in English service, Henry Morgan, recaptures Santa Catalina Island, Colombia.

December 27 – Henry Morgan captures Fort San Lorenzo, on Panama's Caribbean coast.

==== Date unknown ====

Stenka Razin begins the rebellion of Cossacks in Ukraine.

Niani, capital of the Mali Empire, is sacked by the Bambara people of the emerging Segou Empire.

The first French settlers arrive on the Petite Côte, of modern-day Senegal.

=== 1671 ===

==== January–June ====

April – Battle of Saraighat: Ahom general Lachit Borphukan defeats the Mughal forces on the outskirts of present day Guwahati, of then sovereign Assam.

April 2 – In Rome, Pope Clement X canonizes Rose of Lima, making her the first Catholic saint of the Americas.

May 9 – Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom from the Tower of London. He is immediately caught, because he is too drunk to run with the loot. He is later condemned to death, and then mysteriously pardoned and exiled by King Charles II.

June 22 – The Ottoman Empire declares war on Poland.

==== July–December ====

December – The first Seventh Day Baptist church in America is founded at Newport, Rhode Island.

December 30 – The Académie royale d'architecture is founded by Louis XIV of France in Paris, France (the world's first school of architecture).

==== Undated ====

First Jewish families settle in Berlin, moving from Vienna at the invitation of Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg.

=== 1672 ===

==== January–June ====

March – The Synod of Jerusalem brings together bishops and representatives from the whole of Eastern Orthodox Christendom, to discuss Orthodox dogma against the challenge of Protestantism.

March 15 – Charles II of England issues the Royal Declaration of Indulgence, suspending execution of Penal Laws against Protestant nonconformists and Roman Catholics in his realms; this will be withdrawn the following year under pressure from the Parliament of England.

March 17 – Third Anglo-Dutch War: The Kingdom of England declares war on the Dutch Republic.

April 8 – France declares war on the Dutch Republic, invading the country on April 29.

May 2 – John Maitland becomes Duke of Lauderdale and Earl of March.

June 1 – Münster and Cologne begin their invasion of the Dutch Republic; hence 1672 becomes known as het rampjaar ("the disaster year") in the Netherlands.

June 7 – Third Anglo-Dutch War – Battle of Solebay: An indecisive sea battle results, between the Dutch Republic, and the joined forces of England and France.

June 12 – French forces under king Louis XIV cross the Rhine into the Netherlands. The city of Utrecht is occupied by the French Army.

==== July–December ====

July 4 – William III of Orange is appointed Stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland.

August 20 – Johan de Witt, Grand Pensionary of Holland and his brother Cornelis de Witt are slaughtered by a mob in The Hague.

September – Raimondo Montecuccoli and the Great Elector assemble at Halberstadt, to attack the French and the bishops of Münster and Cologne in their back. Bernard von Galen withdraws from the city of Groningen slowly to the south.

October – Spain begins construction on the masonry fort that will become Castillo de San Marcos, designed to protect St. Augustine, Florida.

October 18 – The Treaty of Buchach between the Ottoman Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is signed.

==== Undated ====

Richard Hoare becomes a partner in the London goldsmith's business which, as private banking house C. Hoare & Co., will survive through to the 21st century.

Foundation of the Chorina Comedy, the first theater in Russia.

=== 1673 ===

==== January–June ====

January 22 – Impostor Mary Carleton is hanged at Newgate Prison in London, for multiple thefts and returning from penal transportation.

February 10 – Molière's comédie-ballet The Imaginary Invalid premiers in Paris. During the fourth performance, on February 17, the playwright, playing the title rôle, collapses on stage, dying soon after.

March 29 – Test Act: Roman Catholics and others who refuse to receive the sacrament of the Church of England cannot vote, hold public office, preach, teach, attend the universities or assemble for meetings in England. On June 12, the king's Catholic brother, James, Duke of York, is forced to resign the office of Lord High Admiral because of the Act.

April 27? – Jean-Baptiste Lully's first opera, Cadmus et Hermione, is premièred in France.

May 17 – In America, trader Louis Joliet and Jesuit missionary-explorer Jacques Marquette begin exploring the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes.

June 7 – First Battle of Schooneveld: In a sea battle of the Third Anglo-Dutch War, fought off the Netherlands coast, the Dutch Republic fleet (commanded by Michiel de Ruyter) defeats the allied Anglo-French fleet, commanded by Prince Rupert of the Rhine.

June 14 – The Dutch fleet again defeats the jointed Anglo-French fleet in the Second Battle of Schooneveld.

June 17 – French explorers Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet reach the headwaters of the Mississippi River, and descend to Arkansas.

==== July–December ====

July 6 – French troops conquer Maastricht.

July 11 – The Netherlands and Denmark sign a defense treaty.

July 24 – Edmund Halley enters The Queen's College, Oxford, as an undergraduate.

August 8 – In the American colonies, a Dutch battle fleet of 23 ships demands the surrender of New York.

August 9 – Dutch forces under Admiral Cornelis Evertsen de Jonge recapture New York from the English; the city is known as New Orange until regained by the English in 1674).

August 21 – Battle of Texel (Kijkduin): The Dutch fleet under Michiel de Ruyter defeats the English and French fleet. This prevents England's Blackheath Army from landing in Zeeland.

August 30 – Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Spain, Netherlands and the Lutherans form an anti-French covenant.

September 12 – William, Prince of Orange occupies Naarden, Netherlands.

November 9 – King Charles II of England removes Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, from his position as Lord Chancellor.

November 11 – Battle of Khotyn: Polish and Lithuanian military units, under the command of soon-to-be-king Jan Sobieski, defeat the Turkish army. In this battle, rockets of Kazimierz Siemienowicz are successfully used.

November 13 – Dutch troops commanded by Raimondo Montecuccoli and William, Prince of Orange conquer Bonn.

November 14 – Christopher Wren is knighted in England.

November 23 – James, Duke of York, marries Mary of Modena; they meet for the first time immediately before the ceremony in Dover.

==== Date unknown ====

France begins its expedition against Ceylon.

Chelsea Physic Garden, the second oldest botanic garden in England, is founded by the Society of Apothecaries, for the study of medicinal and other plants.

The Mitsui family's trading and banking house is founded in Japan.

The stalactic grotto of Antiparos (Aegean Sea) is discovered.

Archpriest Petrovich Avvakum writes his Zhitie (Life), as the first Russian autobiography.

=== 1674 ===

==== January–June ====

February 19 – England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster, ending the Third Anglo-Dutch War. Its provisions come into effect gradually – see November 10.

May 21 – John III Sobieski is elected by the nobility, as King of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (to 1696).

June 6 – Shivaji is crowned as Chatrapati Shivaji, at Raigad Fort in India.

==== July–December ====

August 11 – The French army under Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé defeats the Dutch–Spanish–Austrian army under William III of Orange in the Battle of Seneffe.

November 10 – As provided in the Treaty of Westminster of February 19, the Dutch Republic cedes its colony of New Netherland to England. This includes the colonial capital, New Orange, which is returned to its English name of New York. The colonies of Surinam, Essequibo and Berbice remain in Dutch hands.

December 4 – Father Jacques Marquette founds a mission on the shores of Lake Michigan, to minister to the Illinois Confederation (which will in time grow into the city of Chicago).

==== Date unknown ====

The British East India Company arranges a trading treaty with the Maratha Empire, that has recently been founded by Shivaji Bhonsle in central India.

The first Dutch West India Company is dissolved.

Two skeletons of children are discovered at the White Tower (Tower of London), and believed at this time to be the remains of the Princes in the Tower.

=== 1675 ===

==== January–June ====

January 5 – Franco-Dutch War: In Turckheim, Alsace, France, the French defeat Austria and Brandenburg in the Battle of Turckheim.

January 29 – John Sassamon, an English-educated Native American Christian, dies at Assawampsett Pond, an event which will trigger a year-long war between the English American colonists of New England, and the Algonquian Native American tribes.

March 30 – The guild organisation Maîtresses couturières is founded in Paris.

April – English merchant Anthony de la Roché, blown off course after rounding Cape Horn eastabout, makes the first discovery of land south of the Antarctic Convergence, landing on South Georgia and (probably) Gough Island.

June 8 – John Sassamon's alleged murderers are executed at Plymouth.

June 11 – Armed Wampanoags are reported traveling around Swansea, Massachusetts.

June 14–25 – Colonial authorities of Rhode Island, Plymouth, and Massachusetts attempt a negotiation with Metacomet (King Philip), leader of the Wampanoags, and seek guarantees of fidelity from the Nipmuck and Narragansett tribes.

June 24 – King Philip's War breaks out, as the Wampanoags attack Swansea.

June 26 – Massachusetts troops march to Swansea, to join the Plymouth troops.

June 26–29 – Wampanoags assault Rehoboth and Taunton; the natives elude colonial troops and leave Mount Hope for Pocasset, Massachusetts. The Mohegan tribe travels to Boston, in order to side with the English colonists against the Wampanoags.

June 28 – Brandenburg defeats the Swedes in the Battle of Fehrbellin.

==== July–December ====

July 15 – The Narragansett tribe signs a peace treaty with Connecticut.

July 16–24 – An envoy from Massachusetts attempts to negotiate with the Nipmuck tribe.

August 2–4 – The Nipmucks attack Massachusetts troops and besiege Brookfield, Massachusetts.

August 10 – King Charles II of England places the foundation stone of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in London; construction begins.

August 13 – The Massachusetts Council orders that Christian Indians are to be confined to designated praying towns.

September 1–2 – While Wampanoags and Nipmucks attack Deerfield, Massachusetts, Captain Samuel Moseley commands Massachusetts troops in an attack on the Pennacook tribe.

September 12 – English colonists abandon Deerfield, Squakeag, and Brookfield due to a coalition of Indian attacks.

September 15 – The Bremen-Verden Campaign of the Northern Wars begins, with the invasion of Amt Wildeshausen by the Münster army, and their advance on Verden via the city of Bremen.

September 18 – The Narragansetts sign a treaty with the English in Boston; meanwhile, Massachusetts troops are ambushed near Northampton, Massachusetts.

September 20 – In England, a fire destroys most of the town of Northampton. According to a contemporary account, "the market place (which was a very goodly one), the stately church of Allhallows, 2 other parish churches and above three-fourth parts of the whole town was consumed and laid in ashes.".

October 5 – The Pocomtuc tribe attacks and destroys Springfield, Massachusetts.

October 13 – The Massachusetts Council convenes and agrees that all Christian Indians should be ordered to move to Deer Island.

October 29 - Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz makes the first use of the long s (∫) as a symbol of the integral in calculus.

November 2–12 – Commissioners of the Thirteen Colonies organize a united force to attack the Narragansett tribe.

November 11

Guru Teg Bahadur, ninth of the Sikh gurus, is executed by Mughal rulers; he prefers execution, to defend the right of Hindus to practice their own religion. He is succeeded by Guru Gobind Singh as tenth Guru.

Gottfried Leibniz uses infinitesimal calculus on a function.

December 19 – United colonial forces attack the Narragansetts at the Great Swamp Fight.

==== Date unknown ====

Cassini discovers Saturn's Cassini Division.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek begins to use a microscope for observing human tissues and liquids.

=== 1676 ===

==== January–June ====

January – Six months into King Philip's War, Metacomet (King Philip), leader of the Algonquian tribe known as the Wampanoag, travels westward to the Mohawk nation, seeking an alliance with the Mohawks against the English colonists of New England; his efforts in creating such an alliance are a failure.

January 29 – Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia.

February 10 – After the Nipmuc tribe attacks Lancaster, Massachusetts, colonist Mary Rowlandson is taken captive, and lives with the Indians until May.

February 14 – Metacomet and his Wampanoags attack Northampton, Massachusetts; meanwhile, the Massachusetts Council debates whether a wall should be erected around Boston.

February 23 – While the Massachusetts Council debates how to handle the Christian Indians they had exiled to Deer Island on October 13, 1675, a coalition of Indians led by Metacomet attacks colonial settlements just 16 km (9.9 mi) outside of Boston.

March 29 – Providence, Rhode Island is attacked and destroyed by Native Americans.

May 2–3 – Mary Rowlandson is released from captivity, and returns to Boston.

May 19 – Peskeomskut Massacre – Battle of Turner's Falls: Captain William Turner leads a raid at first light, on an encampment consisting mainly of women and children. An estimated 300-400 lives are taken in less than half an hour, first from gunshot directly into the sleeping tents, then by sword and by drowning as the victims try to flee. This incident happens on the west bank of the Connecticut River, just above the falls known as Turner's Falls in Gill, Massachusetts.

May 26 – A fire destroys the town hall and 624 houses in Southwark, England.

May 31 – The Massachusetts Council finally decides to move the Christian Indians from Deer Island to Cambridge, Massachusetts (approximate date).

June – Bacon's Rebellion begins in the Virginia Colony. On July 30, Nathaniel Bacon and his followers issue the Declaration of the People of Virginia.

June 1 – Battle of Öland: A combined fleet of the Dutch Republic and Denmark–Norway decisively defeats the Swedish Navy, which loses its flagship Kronan.

June 12 – The Indian coalition attacks Hadley, Massachusetts, but are repelled by Connecticut troops.

June 19 – Massachusetts issues a declaration of amnesty, to any Indian who surrenders.

==== July–December ====

July 2 – Major John Talcott and his troops begin sweeping Connecticut and Rhode Island, capturing large numbers of Native Americans from Algonquian tribes and exporting them out of the Thirteen Colonies as slaves.

July 4 – Captain Benjamin Church and his soldiers begin sweeping Plymouth Colony, for any remaining Wampanoag tribesmen.

July 11 – The Wampanoags attack Taunton, Massachusetts, but are repelled by colonists.

July 17 – In France, Madame de Brinvilliers is executed for poisoning her father and brothers. The case also scares King Louis XIV into starting a series of investigations about possible poisonings and witchcraft (later called the Affair of the Poisons).

July 27 – Nearly 200 Nipmuc tribesmen surrender to the English colonists in Boston.

August 2 – Captain Benjamin Church captures Metacomet's wife and son.

August 12 – King Philip (Metacomet), chief of the Wampanoags that had waged a war throughout southern New England that bore his name, is killed by an Indian named Alderman, a soldier led by Captain Benjamin Church.

August 17 – Sweden gains a decisive victory over Denmark–Norway in the Battle of Halmstad (fought at Fyllebro).

August 28 – Irish Donation of 1676 is shipped from Dublin to relieve Boston in the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

September 19

The Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681) begins, with Russo-Ukrainian troops forcing pro-Ottoman Hetman Ivan Samoylovych to surrender Chyhyryn.

Bacon's Rebellion: Jamestown is burned to the ground by the forces of Nathaniel Bacon.

September 21 – Pope Innocent XI succeeds Pope Clement X, as the 240th pope.

October 13 – Trunajaya defeats the Mataram Sultanate in the Battle of Gegodog.

October 17 – The Treaty of Żurawno is signed, between the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire and Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

November 16 – A prison is founded on Nantucket Island, in the English colony of Massachusetts.

November 27 – A fire in Boston, Massachusetts, is accidentally set by a careless and sleepy apprentice, who drops a lighted candle, or leaves it too near some combustible substance; this is the largest fire known at this time in the district. The Rev. Increase Mather’s church, dwelling and a portion of his personal library are destroyed.

December 4 – Scanian War: Sweden defeats the forces of Denmark in the Battle of Lund.

December 7 – Ole Rømer makes the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light.

==== Date unknown ====

Emperor Yohannes I of Ethiopia decrees that Muslims must live separately from Christians throughout his realm.

Anton van Leeuwenhoek discovers microorganisms.

An Åbo Lantdag (assembly) meets in Turku, Finland.

The French East India Company founds its principal Indian base at Pondicherry, on the Coromandel Coast.

=== 1677 ===

==== January–June ====

January 1 – Jean Racine's tragedy Phèdre is first performed, in Paris.

January 21 – The first medical publication in America (a pamphlet on smallpox) is produced in Boston.

February – The first arrest is made in the case that will develop into the "Affair of the Poisons" in France.

March 17 – Franco-Dutch War: Siege of Valenciennes (1676–77) in the Spanish Netherlands ends with surrender of the town to the French.

April 6 – Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor visits the University of Innsbruck.

April 11 – Franco-Dutch War: Battle of Cassel – A French force under Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, defeats a combined Dutch-Spanish force under William of Orange in French Flanders.

April 16 – The Statute of Frauds is passed into English law.

May 29 – The Treaty of Middle Plantation establishes peace between the Virginia colonists and the local Indians.

May 31 – Scanian War: Battle of Møn – Danish ships clash with a Swedish fleet under Niels Juel, between Fehmarn and Warnemünde; the Danish defeat the Swedish and capture a number of ships.

June 25–26 – Scanian War: Siege of Malmö – Danish attackers fail to take the town from the Swedish.

==== July–December ====

July 14 – Sweden defeats the Danes in the Battle of Landskrona.

August – The French guild of the Maitresses bouquetieres is founded in Paris.

October 29 – Michel le Tellier becomes Chancellor of France.

November 4 – The future Mary II of England marries William of Orange.

November 16 – French troops occupy Freiburg.

==== Date unknown ====

The Second London Baptist Confession of Faith is written (published in 1689).

Spinoza's Ethics (Ethica, ordine geometrico demonstrata) is published as part of his Opera Posthuma in Amsterdam.

Elias Ashmole gifts the collection that begins the Ashmolean Museum to the University of Oxford in England.

Charles II of England makes Henry Purcell his court musician.

Jules Hardouin Mansart begins la place Vendôme in Paris (it is completed in 1698).

Francis Aungier, 3rd Baron Aungier of Longford, is created 1st Earl of Longford in the Peerage of Ireland.

The John Roan School is established in Greenwich, London.

Belgian missionary Louis Hennepin observes and describes the Niagara Falls, thus bringing them to the attention of Europeans.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz gives a complete solution to the tangent problem.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek observes spermatozoa under the microscope.

The use of male impotence is ended as a factor in French divorce proceedings.

Ice cream becomes popular in Paris.

The population of Paris first exceeds 500,000.

=== 1678 ===

==== January–June ====

January 27 – The first fire engine company (in what will become the United States) goes into service.

February 18 – The first part of English nonconformist preacher John Bunyan's Christian allegory, The Pilgrim's Progress, is published in London.

May 11 – French admiral Jean d'Estrees runs his whole fleet aground in Curaçao.

June – French buccaneer Michel de Grammont leads 6 pirate ships and 700 men in a daring raid on Spanish-held Venezuela, reaching inland as far as Trujillo.

June 25 – Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia becomes the first woman to be awarded a university degree, a doctorate in philosophy from the University of Padua.

==== July–December ====

August–December – Kediri campaign: Mataram and Dutch East India Company forces defeat the Trunajaya rebellion in eastern Java.

August 3 – Robert LaSalle builds the Le Griffon, the first known ship built on the Great Lakes.

August 10 – The Treaties of Nijmegen end the Franco-Dutch War. The County of Burgundy is ceded to the Kingdom of France.

August 14–15 – The Battle of Saint-Denis is fought after the peace was signed between France and the Dutch Republic in the Treaties of Nijmegen on 10 August.

September 6 – Titus Oates begins to present allegations of the Popish Plot, a supposed Roman Catholic conspiracy to assassinate king Charles II of England. Oates applies the term Tory to those who disbelieve his allegations.

October 17 – English magistrate Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey is found murdered in Primrose Hill, London. Titus Oates claims it as a proof of his allegations.

December 3 – The Test Act provides that members of both the House of Lords and House of Commons of England must swear an anti-Catholic oath, before taking office.

==== Date unknown ====

Rebellion breaks out in southern China.

About 1,200 Irish families sail from Barbados, to Virginia and the Carolinas.

In Ireland, the vacant Bishopric of Leighlin is given to the Bishop of Kildare, to form the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kildare and Leighlin.

The first chrysanthemums are planted in Europe.

=== 1679 ===

==== January–June ====

January 24 – King Charles II of England dissolves the "Cavalier Parliament", after nearly 18 years.

March 6–May 27 – In England, the "Habeas Corpus Parliament" (or "First Exclusion Parliament") meets. It is dissolved on July 12, while in recess, by royal prerogative, to prevent it from passing a bill excluding the king's brother, the Catholic James, Duke of York, from the succession to the English throne, as part of the Exclusion Crisis.

May 27 – The Parliament of England passes the Habeas Corpus Act, "for the better securing the liberty of the subject".

June 1 – Scottish Covenanters defeat a small government force in the Battle of Drumclog.

June 4 – Armenia earthquake: A tremor with an estimated surface wave magnitude of 6.4 takes place, in the Yerevan region of the Persian Empire.

June 22 – Battle of Bothwell Bridge, Scotland: Royal forces led by James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and John Graham of Claverhouse subdue the Scottish Covenanters.

==== July–December ====

August 7 – The brigantine Le Griffon, commissioned by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes.

September 2 – The 8.0 Mw Sanhe-Pinggu earthquake devastates Beijing and Hebei in China with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X ("Extreme").

September 18 – New Hampshire becomes a county of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

November 27 – A fire in Boston, Massachusetts, burns all of the warehouses, 80 houses, and all of the ships in the dockyards.

==== Date unknown ====

The Tibet–Ladakh–Mughal War (1679–84) begins with the Tibetan invasion of Ladakh.

French explorer Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, explores the Saint Louis River; the city of Duluth, Minnesota, will take its name from him.

Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb reimposes jizya.

Malpas Tunnel on the Canal du Midi in Hérault, France, Europe's first navigable canal tunnel, is excavated by Pierre-Paul Riquet (165 metres (541 ft), concrete lined).

Abigail Masham, Baroness Masham

Abigail Masham, Baroness Masham (née Hill; c. 1670 – 6 December 1734), was an English courtier. She was a favourite of Queen Anne, and a cousin of Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough.

Augustus II the Strong

Augustus II the Strong (Polish: August II Mocny; German: August II. der Starke; Lithuanian: Augustas II; 12 May 1670 – 1 February 1733) of the Albertine line of the House of Wettin was Elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus I), Imperial Vicar and elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.

Augustus' great physical strength earned him the nicknames "the Strong", "the Saxon Hercules" and "Iron-Hand". He liked to show that he lived up to his name by breaking horseshoes with his bare hands and engaging in fox tossing by holding the end of his sling with just one finger while two of the strongest men in his court held the other end. He is also notable for having conceived a very large number of children.

In order to be elected King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Augustus converted to Roman Catholicism. As a Catholic, he received the Order of the Golden Fleece from the Holy Roman Emperor.

As Elector of Saxony, he is perhaps best remembered as a patron of the arts and architecture. He established the Saxon capital of Dresden as a major cultural centre, attracting artists from across Europe to his court. Augustus also amassed an impressive art collection and built lavish baroque palaces in Dresden and Warsaw.

His reigns brought Poland some troubled times. He led the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Great Northern War, which led to the Russian Empire strengthening its influence in Europe, especially within Poland. His main pursuit was bolstering royal power in the Commonwealth, characterized by broad decentralization in comparison with other European monarchies. He tried to accomplish this goal using foreign powers and thus destabilized the state.

Battle of Sinhagad

The Battle of Sinhagad took place during the night on 4 February, 1670 on the fort of Sinhagad near the city of Pune, Maharashtra, India.

The battle was fought between Tanaji Malusare, a Koli commander of Maratha ruler Shivaji Maharaj and Udaybhan Rathod, fortkeeper under Jai Singh I who was a Mughal Army Chief.

A steep cliff leading to the fort was scaled at night with the help of a tamed monitor lizard named "Yashwanti", to whom the Marathas attached a rope and sent to scale the wall with its claws. Thereafter, a battle ensued between Tanaji and his men versus the Mughal army headed by Udaybhan Singh Rathod, a Rajput sardar who had control of the fort. Tanaji Malusare lost his life, but his brother Suryaji took over and captured the Kondana fort, now known as Sinhagad.A bust of Tanaji Malusare was established on the fort in the memory of his contribution to the battle.when Tanaji Malusare was found dead Shivaji Maharaj famously said "gad alaa pan sinha gelaa". Shivaji renamed the fort from Kondhana fort to Sinhagad.

Elizabeth Barnard

Elizabeth, Lady Barnard (formerly Elizabeth Nash, née Elizabeth Hall) (baptised 21 February 1608 – 17 February 1670) was the granddaughter of the English poet and playwright William Shakespeare. Despite two marriages, she had no children, and was his last surviving descendant.

Elizabeth was closely associated with the Royalist cause during the English Civil War. Both her husbands were dedicated supporters of Charles I.

Frederick III of Denmark

Frederick III (Danish: Frederik; 18 March 1609 – 9 February 1670) was king of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death in 1670. He also governed under the name Frederick II as diocesan administrator (colloquially referred to as prince-bishop) of the Prince-Bishopric of Verden (1623–29 and again 1634–44), and the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen (1635–45).He instituted absolute monarchy in Denmark-Norway in 1660, confirmed by law in 1665 as the first in Western historiography. He also ordered the creation of the Throne Chair of Denmark. He was born the second-eldest son of Christian IV and Anne Catherine of Brandenburg. Frederick was only considered an heir to the throne after the death of his older brother Prince Christian in 1647.

In order to be elected king after the death of his father, Frederick conceded significant influence to the nobility. As king, he fought two wars against Sweden. He was defeated in the Dano-Swedish War of 1657–1658, but attained great popularity when he weathered the 1659 Assault on Copenhagen and won the Dano-Swedish War of 1658–1660. Later that year, Frederick used his popularity to disband the elective monarchy in favour of absolute monarchy, which lasted until 1848 in Denmark. He married Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, with whom he fathered Christian V of Denmark.

Hudson's Bay Company

The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; French: Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian retail business group. A fur trading business for much of its existence, HBC now owns and operates retail stores in Canada, the United States, and parts of Europe including Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany. The company's namesake business division is Hudson's Bay, commonly referred to as The Bay (La Baie in French). Other divisions include Galeria Kaufhof, Home Outfitters, Lord & Taylor and Saks Fifth Avenue. HBC's head office is currently located in Brampton, Ontario. The company is listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange under the symbol "HBC".

After incorporation by English royal charter in 1670, the company functioned as the de facto government in parts of North America for nearly 200 years until the HBC sold the land it owned (known as Rupert's Land) to Canada in 1869 as part of The Deed of Surrender. During its peak, the company controlled the fur trade throughout much of the English- and later British-controlled North America. By the mid-19th century, the company evolved into a mercantile business selling a wide variety of products from furs to fine homeware in a small number of sales shops (as opposed to trading posts) across Canada. These shops were the first step towards the department stores the company owns today.In 2008, HBC was acquired by NRDC Equity Partners, which also owns the upmarket American department store Lord & Taylor. From 2008 to 2012, the HBC was run through a holding company of NRDC, Hudson's Bay Trading Company, which was dissolved in early 2012. Since 2012, the HBC directly oversees its Canadian subsidiaries Hudson's Bay (formerly The Bay) and Home Outfitters, in addition to the operations of Lord & Taylor in the United States.The Hudson's Bay Company bought Saks, Inc. (the operator of Saks Fifth Avenue) in 2013, German department store chain Galeria Kaufhof in 2015, online shopping site Gilt Groupe in 2015, and 20 former Vroom & Dreesmann sites in the Netherlands in 2015. Gilt Groupe was sold to online fashion store Rue La La in 2018.

Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport

Rome–Fiumicino International Airport "Leonardo da Vinci" (Italian: Aeroporto Internazionale di Roma–Fiumicino "Leonardo da Vinci") (IATA: FCO, ICAO: LIRF), is an international airport in Rome and the major airport in Italy. It is one of the busiest airports in Europe by passenger traffic with almost 43 million passengers served in 2018.The airport serves as the main hub for Alitalia, the largest Italian airline and Vueling, a Spanish low-cost carrier owned by International Airlines Group. Based on total passenger numbers, it is the eighth-busiest airport in Europe and was the world's 47th-busiest airport in 2017. It covers an area of 16 km2 and is named after polymath Leonardo da Vinci who, in 1480, designed a flying machine with wings and the first proto helicopter.

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1670

This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in its 11th year, 1670.

Rajaram I

Rajaram Raje Bhosale (24 February 1670 – 3 March 1700 Sinhagad) was the younger son of Maratha ruler Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, and half-brother of Sambhaji Maharaj. He took over the Maratha Empire as its third Chhatrapati after his brother's death at the hands of the Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb in 1689. His eleven-year reign was marked with a constant struggle against the Mughals.

Rupert's Land

Rupert's Land, or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 years from 1670 to 1870. The area once known as Rupert's Land is now mainly a part of Canada, but a small portion is now in the United States. It was named after Prince Rupert of the Rhine, a nephew of Charles I and the first Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC). In December 1821, the HBC monopoly was extended from Rupert's Land to the Pacific coast.

Areas belonging to Rupert's Land were mostly in present-day Canada and included the whole of Manitoba, most of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, southern Nunavut, and northern parts of Ontario and Quebec. It also included present-day United States territory, including parts of the states of Minnesota and North Dakota and very small parts of Montana and South Dakota. The southern border west of Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains was the drainage divide between the Mississippi and Saskatchewan watersheds until the London Convention of 1818 substituted the 49th Parallel.

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