1669 (MDCLXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1669th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 669th year of the 2nd millennium, the 69th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1660s decade. As of the start of 1669, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|1669 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2422|
|Balinese saka calendar||1590–1591|
|English Regnal year||20 Cha. 2 – 21 Cha. 2|
|Chinese calendar||戊申年 (Earth Monkey)|
4365 or 4305
— to —
己酉年 (Earth Rooster)
4366 or 4306
|- Vikram Samvat||1725–1726|
|- Shaka Samvat||1590–1591|
|- Kali Yuga||4769–4770|
|Japanese calendar||Kanbun 8|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||243 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2211–2212|
1795 or 1414 or 642
— to —
1796 or 1415 or 643
The 1660s decade ran from January 1, 1660, to December 31, 1669.1669 in Denmark
Events from the year 1669 in Denmark.1669 in England
Events from the year 1669 in England.1669 in Ireland
Events from the year 1669 in Ireland.1669 in Norway
Events in the year 1669 in Norway.1669 in Sweden
Events from the year 1669 in Sweden1669–70 papal conclave
The papal conclave of 1669–70 (20 December – 29 April) was convened on the death of Pope Clement IX and ended with the election of Emilio Altieri as Pope Clement X. The election saw deference within the College of Cardinals to Louis XIV of France, and a freeing of the cardinals loyal to Spain to vote according to their conscience. Eventually the elderly Altieri was elected with support of the major factions within the College.Cretan War (1645–1669)
The Cretan War (Greek: Κρητικός Πόλεμος, Turkish: Girit'in Fethi) or War of Candia (Italian: Guerra di Candia, Serbo-Croatian: Kandijski rat), is the name given to the Fifth Ottoman–Venetian War, a conflict between the Republic of Venice and her allies (chief among them the Knights of Malta, the Papal States and France) against the Ottoman Empire and the Barbary States, because it was largely fought over the island of Crete, Venice's largest and richest overseas possession. The war lasted from 1645 to 1669 and was fought in Crete, especially in the city of Candia, and in numerous naval engagements and raids around the Aegean Sea, with Dalmatia providing a secondary theater of operations.
Although most of Crete was conquered by the Ottomans in the first few years of the war, the fortress of Candia (modern Heraklion), the capital of Crete, resisted successfully. Its prolonged siege, "Troy's rival" as Lord Byron called it, forced both sides to focus their attention on the supply of their respective forces on the island. For the Venetians in particular, their only hope for victory over the larger Ottoman army in Crete lay in successfully starving it of supplies and reinforcements. Hence the war turned into a series of naval encounters between the two navies and their allies. Venice was aided by various Western European nations, who, exhorted by the Pope and in a revival of crusading spirit, sent men, ships and supplies "to defend Christendom". Throughout the war, Venice maintained overall naval superiority, winning most naval engagements, but the efforts to blockade the Dardanelles were only partially successful, and the Republic never had enough ships to fully cut off the flow of supplies and reinforcements to Crete. The Ottomans were hampered in their efforts by domestic turmoil, as well as by the diversion of their forces north towards Transylvania and the Habsburg Monarchy.
The prolonged conflict exhausted the economy of the Republic, which relied on the lucrative trade with the Ottoman Empire. By the 1660s, despite increased aid from other Christian nations, war-weariness had set in. The Ottomans on the other hand, having managed to sustain their forces on Crete and reinvigorated under the capable leadership of the Köprülü family, sent a final great expedition in 1666 under the direct supervision of the Grand Vizier. This began the final and bloodiest stage of the Siege of Candia, which lasted for more than two years. It ended with the negotiated surrender of the fortress, sealing the fate of the island and ending the war in an Ottoman victory. In the final peace treaty, Venice retained a few isolated island fortresses off Crete, and made some territorial gains in Dalmatia. The Venetian desire for a revanche would lead, barely 15 years later, to a renewed war, from which Venice would emerge victorious. Crete however was lost to the Serenissima. It would remain under Ottoman control until 1897, when it became an autonomous state; it was finally united with Greece in 1913.Dorchester County, Maryland
Dorchester County is a county located in the U.S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 census, the population was 32,618. Its county seat is Cambridge. The county was formed in 1669 and named for the Earl of Dorset, a family friend of the Calverts (the founding family of the Maryland colony).Dorchester County comprises the Cambridge, MD Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area. It is located on the Eastern Shore of Maryland.
Dorchester County is the largest county on the Eastern Shore. It is bordered by the Choptank River to the north, Talbot County to the northwest, Caroline County to the northeast, Wicomico County to the southeast, Sussex County, Delaware, to the east, and the Chesapeake Bay to the west. Dorchester County uses the slogan, "The Heart of Chesapeake Country," due to its geographical location and the heart-like shape of the county on a map.HMS St Michael (1669)
HMS St Michael was a 90-gun second rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built by John Tippetts of Portsmouth Dockyard and launched in 1669.St Michael was rebuilt at Blackwall Yard in 1706, at which time she was also renamed HMS Marlborough. On 5 April 1725 Marlborough was ordered to be taken to pieces and rebuilt at Chatham. She was relaunched on 25 September 1732.Marlborough was reduced to a 68-gun ship in 1752. Whilst making her way back to Britain after participating in the reduction of Havana in 1762, Marlborough was caught in very heavy weather. On 29 November her crew were forced to abandon the ship, which was sinking. All of Marlborough's crew were taken off by HMS Antelope.Kinokuniya Bunzaemon
Kinokuniya Bunzaemon (紀伊国屋文左衛門) (1669 – 1734) was a Japanese merchant of the Edo period, specializing in citrus, lumber, and salmon, among other goods. He enjoyed the favoritism and protection of shogunal advisor Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu and shogunal minister of finances Ogura Shigehide, and made a sizeable fortune as a result. When these two retired, so did Kinokuniya.Kosmos 1669
Kosmos-1669 (Russian: Космос-1669 meaning Cosmos 1669) was a Progress spacecraft used to resupply the Salyut 7 space station. It was a Progress 7K-TG spacecraft with the serial number 126.
Kosmos-1669 was launched by a Soyuz-U carrier rocket from Site 1/5 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, at 13:05 UTC on 19 July 1985. The spacecraft docked with the aft port of Salyut 7 at 15:05 UTC on 21 July. Following undocking on 28 August, it moved away from the station, before returning and redocking to test the reliability of the docking system. It undocked for a second time at 21:50 UTC, and was deorbited on 30 August, with the spacecraft burning up over the Pacific Ocean at 01:20 UTC.
Kosmos-1669 was the second cargo spacecraft (after Progress 24) to visit Salyut 7 after its reactivation, and also the last Progress flight as part of the Salyut programme. It delivered new spacesuits, to replace ones damaged by cold temperatures whilst Salyut 7 was deactivated, as well as replacement parts and consumables. This Progress mission was followed by one last cargo mission to Salyut 7, but carried out by an TKS spacecraft: TKS-4, which would become the fourth and last flight of an TKS craft. The next following mission of a Progress cargo craft, Progress 25, flew to Mir.As of 2009, Kosmos-1669 is the only Progress spacecraft to have received a Kosmos designation, which are usually reserved for military, experimental and failed spacecraft. It has been reported that this may have been an error due to confusion with a TKS spacecraft which later became Kosmos 1686, or that the spacecraft may have gone out of control shortly after launch, but then been recovered after the Kosmos designation had been applied. Alternatively, it could have been given the designation as it was used to test modifications that would be used on future Progress missions. Some news agencies reported that it was a free-flying Progress-derived spacecraft, or that it was a new type of spacecraft derived from the Progress.List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1669
This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in its tenth year, 1669.List of elections in 1669
The following elections occurred in the year 1669.
Papal conclave, 1669–1670Paris Opera
The Paris Opera (French: Opéra de Paris; French: ) is the primary opera and ballet company of France. It was founded in 1669 by Louis XIV as the Académie d'Opéra, and shortly thereafter was placed under the leadership of Jean-Baptiste Lully and officially renamed the Académie Royale de Musique, but continued to be known more simply as the Opéra. Classical ballet as it is known today arose within the Paris Opera as the Paris Opera Ballet and has remained an integral and important part of the company. Currently called the Opéra National de Paris, it mainly produces operas at its modern 2700-seat theatre Opéra Bastille which opened in 1989, and ballets and some classical operas at the older 1970-seat Palais Garnier which opened in 1875. Small scale and contemporary works are also staged in the 500-seat Amphitheatre under the Opéra Bastille.
The company's annual budget is in the order of 200 million euros, of which 100 million come from the French state and 70 million from box office receipts. With this money, the company runs the two houses and supports a large permanent staff, which includes the orchestra of 170, a chorus of 110 and the corps de ballet of 150.Each year, the Opéra presents about 380 performances of opera, ballet and other concerts, to a total audience of about 800,000 people (of whom 17% come from abroad), which is a very good average seat occupancy rate of 94%. In the 2012/13 season, the Opéra presented 18 opera titles (two in a double bill), 13 ballets, 5 symphonic concerts and two vocal recitals, plus 15 other programmes. The company's training bodies are also active, with 7 concerts from the Atelier Lyrique and 4 programmes from the École de Danse.Pope Clement IX
Pope Clement IX (Latin: Clemens IX; 28 January 1600 – 9 December 1669), born Giulio Rospigliosi, was Pope from 20 June 1667 to his death in 1669.Saint-Denis, Réunion
Saint-Denis (French pronunciation: [sɛ̃.də.ni], or unofficially Saint-Denis de la Réunion for disambiguation) is the préfecture (administrative capital) of the French overseas region and department of Réunion, in the Indian Ocean. It is located at the island's northernmost point, close to the mouth of the Rivière Saint-Denis.
Saint-Denis is the most populous commune in the French overseas departments. At the 2016 census, there were 204,304 inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Saint-Denis (as defined by INSEE), 147,920 of whom lived in the city (commune) of Saint-Denis proper and the remainder in the neighbouring communes of Sainte-Marie and Sainte-Suzanne.Siege of Candia
The Siege of Candia (modern Heraklion, Crete) was a military conflict in which Ottoman forces besieged the Venetian-ruled city. Lasting from 1648 to 1669, or a total of 21 years, it is second longest siege in history after the siege of Ceuta; however, the Ottomans were ultimately victorious despite Candia's unprecedented resistance.University of Zagreb
The University of Zagreb (Croatian: Sveučilište u Zagrebu, pronounced [sʋeǔt͡ʃiliːʃte u zǎːgrebu]; Latin: Universitas Studiorum Zagrabiensis) is the largest Croatian university and the oldest continuously operating university in the area covering Central Europe south of Vienna and all of Southeastern Europe.The history of the University began on September 23, 1669, when the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I issued a decree granting the establishment of the Jesuit Academy of the Royal Free City of Zagreb. The decree was accepted at the Council of the Croatian Kingdom on November 3, 1671. The Academy was run by the Jesuits for more than a century until the order was dissolved by Pope Clement XIV in 1773. In 1776, Empress Maria Theresa issued a decree founding the Royal Academy of Science which succeeded the previous Jesuit Academy. Bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer proposed the founding of a University to the Croatian Parliament in 1861. Emperor Franz Joseph signed the decree on the establishment of the University of Zagreb in 1869. The Act of Founding was passed by the Parliament in 1874, and was ratified by the Emperor on January 5, 1874. On October 19, 1874, the Royal University of Franz Joseph I was officially opened.
The University is composed of 29 faculties, 3 art academies and 1 university center with more than 70.000 students. The University is as of 2018 at the 463rd place out of 1000 on the list of Universities of the world made by the Center for University World Rankings.