1666 (MDCLXVI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1666th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 666th year of the 2nd millennium, the 66th year of the 17th century, and the 7th year of the 1660s decade. As of the start of 1666, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. This is the first year to be designated as an Annus mirabilis, in John Dryden's 1667 poem so titled, celebrating England's failure to be beaten either by the Dutch or by fire. It is the only year to contain each Roman numeral once in descending order (1000(M)+500(D)+100(C)+50(L)+10(X)+5(V)+1(I) = 1666).
|1666 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2419|
|Balinese saka calendar||1587–1588|
|English Regnal year||17 Cha. 2 – 18 Cha. 2|
|Chinese calendar||乙巳年 (Wood Snake)|
4362 or 4302
— to —
丙午年 (Fire Horse)
4363 or 4303
|- Vikram Samvat||1722–1723|
|- Shaka Samvat||1587–1588|
|- Kali Yuga||4766–4767|
|Japanese calendar||Kanbun 5|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||246 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2208–2209|
1792 or 1411 or 639
— to —
1793 or 1412 or 640
The 1666 census of New France was the first census conducted in Canada (and also North America). It was organized by Jean Talon, the first Intendant of New France, between 1665 and 1666.
Talon and the French Minister of the Marine Jean-Baptiste Colbert had brought the colony of New France under direct royal control in 1663, and Colbert wished to make it the centre of the French colonial empire. To do this he needed to know the state of the population, so that the economic and industrial basis of the colony could be expanded.
Jean Talon conducted the census largely by himself, travelling door-to-door among the settlements of New France. He did not include Native American inhabitants of the colony, or the religious orders such as the Jesuits or Recollets.
According to Talon's census there were 3,215 people in New France, and 538 separate families. The census showed a difference in the number of men at 2,034 versus 1,181 women. Children and unwedded adults were grouped together; there were 2,154 of these, while only 1,019 people were married (42 were widowed).
A total of 625 people lived in Montreal, the largest settlement; 547 people lived in Quebec; and 455 lived in Trois-Rivières. The largest single age group, 21- to 30-year-olds, numbered 842. 763 people were professionals of some kind, and 401 of these were servants, while 16 were listed as "gentlemen of means".1666 in Denmark
Events from the year 1666 in Denmark.1666 in France
Events from the year 1666 in France1666 in Ireland
Events from the year 1666 in Ireland.1666 in Norway
Events in the year 1666 in Norway.1666 in Sweden
Events from the year 1666 in SwedenAlaouite dynasty
The Alaouite dynasty, or Alawite dynasty (Arabic: سلالة العلويين الفيلاليين, Sulālat al-ʿAlawiyyīn al-Fīlālīyn), is the current Moroccan royal family. The name Alaouite comes from the ‘Alī of ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib, Muhammad's son-in-law and cousin, whose descendant Sharif ibn Ali became Prince of Tafilalt in 1631. His son Mulay Al-Rashid (1664–1672) was able to unite and pacify the country. The Alaouite family claim descent from the Islamic prophet Muhammad, through his daughter Fāṭimah az-Zahrah and her husband ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib.Anne of Austria
Anne of Austria (French: Anne d'Autriche; 22 September 1601 – 20 January 1666), a Spanish princess of the House of Habsburg, was queen of France as the wife of Louis XIII, and regent of France during the minority of her son, Louis XIV, from 1643 to 1651. During her regency, Cardinal Mazarin served as France's chief minister. Accounts of French court life of her era emphasize her difficult marital relations with her husband, her closeness to her son Louis XIV, and her disapproval of her son's marital infidelity to her niece and daughter-in-law Maria Theresa.Barbuda
Barbuda () is a small island located in the eastern Caribbean forming part of the sovereign Commonwealth nation of Antigua and Barbuda. It is located north of the Antigua Island and is part of the Leeward Islands of the West Indies. Antigua and Barbuda became a sovereign nation on the 1st of November 1981 but remained part of the British Commonwealth and its constitutional monarchy. The island is a popular tourist destination because of its moderate climate and coastline.
Historically, most of Barbuda's 1,638 residents have lived in the town of Codrington. However, in September 2017, Hurricane Irma damaged or destroyed 95% of the island's buildings and infrastructure and as a result, all the island's inhabitants were evacuated to Antigua, leaving Barbuda empty for the first time in modern history.Declared death in absentia
A person may be legally declared dead in absentia, i.e. a legal presumption of death may be declared, despite the absence of direct proof of the person's death, such as the finding of remains (e.g., a corpse or skeleton) attributable to that person. Such a declaration is typically made when a person has been missing for an extended period of time and in the absence of any evidence that the person is still alive – or after a much shorter period but where the circumstances surrounding a person's disappearance overwhelmingly support the belief that the person has died (e.g., an airplane crash).
A declaration that a person is dead resembles other forms of "preventive adjudication", such as the declaratory judgment. Different jurisdictions have different legal standards for obtaining such a declaration and in some jurisdictions a legal presumption of death may arise after a person has been missing under certain circumstances and a certain amount of time.French Academy of Sciences
The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, and is one of the earliest Academies of Sciences.
Currently headed by Sébastien Candel (President of the Academy), it is one of the five Academies of the Institut de France.Great Fire of London
The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London from Sunday, 2 September to Thursday, 6 September 1666. The fire gutted the medieval City of London inside the old Roman city wall. It threatened but did not reach the aristocratic district of Westminster, Charles II's Palace of Whitehall, and most of the suburban slums. It consumed 13,200 houses, 87 parish churches, St Paul's Cathedral, and most of the buildings of the City authorities. It is estimated to have destroyed the homes of 70,000 of the city's 80,000 inhabitants.The death toll is unknown but was traditionally thought to have been small, as only six verified deaths were recorded. This reasoning has recently been challenged on the grounds that the deaths of poor and middle-class people were not recorded; moreover, the heat of the fire may have cremated many victims, leaving no recognisable remains. A melted piece of pottery on display at the Museum of London found by archaeologists in Pudding Lane, where the fire started, shows that the temperature reached 1,250 °C (2,280 °F; 1,520 K).List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1666
This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in its seventh year, 1666.List of Royal Air Force conversion units
Conversion units and operational conversion units (OCU) were training units of the Royal Air Force.Old St Paul's Cathedral
Old St Paul's Cathedral was the medieval cathedral of the City of London that, until 1666, stood on the site of the present St Paul's Cathedral. Built from 1087 to 1314 and dedicated to Saint Paul, the cathedral was the fourth church on the site at Ludgate Hill.Work on the cathedral began during the reign of William the Conqueror after a fire in 1087 that destroyed much of the city. Work took more than 200 years, and construction was delayed by another fire in 1135. The church was consecrated in 1240, enlarged in 1256 and enlarged again in the early 14th century. At its final state of completion in the middle of the 14th century, the cathedral was one of the longest churches in the world, had one of the tallest spires and some of the finest stained glass.
The presence of the shrine of Saint Erkenwald made the cathedral a site of pilgrimage during the Medieval Period. In addition to serving as the seat of the Diocese of London, the building developed a reputation as a social hub of the City of London, with the nave aisle, "Paul's walk", known as a centre for doing business and a place to hear the latest gossip on the London grapevine. After the Reformation, the open-air pulpit in the churchyard, St Paul's Cross, became the stage for radical evangelical preaching and Protestant bookselling.
The cathedral was already in severe structural decline by the beginning of the 17th century. Restoration work begun by Inigo Jones in the 1620s was halted at the time of the English Civil War (1642–1651). Sir Christopher Wren was attempting another restoration in 1666 when the cathedral was destroyed in the Great Fire of London. At that point, the old structure was demolished, and the present, domed cathedral was erected on the site, with an English Baroque design by Wren.Polish–Cossack–Tatar War (1666–1671)
Polish-Cossack-Tatar War was the war between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire (in practice, a proxy war between the Cossack Hetmanate and Crimean Khanate) over Ukraine. It was one of the aftermaths of the Russo-Polish War (1654–67) and a prelude to the Polish–Ottoman War (1672–76).Second Anglo-Dutch War
The Second Anglo-Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667), or the Second Dutch War (Dutch: Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict fought between England and the Dutch Republic for control over the seas and trade routes, where England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade during a period of intense European commercial rivalry. After initial English successes, the war ended in a Dutch victory. It was the second of a series of naval wars fought between the English (later British) and the Dutch in the 17th and 18th centuries.Shah Jahan
Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan,
(Persian: شاه جهان; "King of the World"), was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.Shah Jahan was widely considered to be the most competent of Emperor Jahangir's four sons and after Jahangir's death in late 1627, when a war of succession ensued, Shah Jahan emerged victorious. He put to death all of his rivals for the throne and crowned himself emperor in January 1628 in Agra under the regnal title "Shah Jahan" (which was originally given to him as a princely title). Although an able military commander, Shah Jahan is perhaps best remembered for his architectural achievements. The period of his reign is widely considered to be the golden age of Mughal architecture. Shah Jahan commissioned many monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal in Agra, which entombs his wife Mumtaz Mahal.
In September 1657, Shah Jahan fell seriously ill, which set off a war of succession among his four sons, in which his third son Aurangzeb, emerged victorious. Shah Jahan recovered from his illness, but Aurangzeb put his father under house arrest in Agra Fort from July 1658 until his death in January 1666. On 31 July 1658, Aurangzeb crowned himself emperor under the title "Alamgir".The Mughal Empire reached the pinnacle of its glory during Shah Jahan's reign and he is widely considered to be one of the greatest Mughal emperors.Wood Street Compter
The Wood Street Compter (or Wood Street Counter) was a small prison within the City of London in England. It was primarily a debtors' prison, and also held people accused of such misdemeanours as public drunkenness, although some wealthier prisoners were able to obtain alcohol through bribery. The prison was built and opened in 1555, replacing the earlier Bread Street Compter, from which many prisoners were transferred.
The Compter was originally one of two prisons, the other, the Poultry Compter, located on the Poultry. Both were destroyed during the Great Fire of London in 1666, although the Poultry Compter was rebuilt, and another compter, Giltspur Street Compter was constructed in 1791.
Among its inmates were:
Captain George Orrell
The Catholic martyr George Napper
One of the Gunpowder Plotters, Robert Catesby (for his part in Essex's rebellion, 1601)
The Sabbatarian dissenter John Traske
The poet Edmund Gayton
A young Jonathan Wild; and highwayman James Hind.The Wood Street Compter was still active in 1727 when The London Gazette (6 July p4) listed 13 insolvent debtors awaiting court on 25 August.
During the closure of the compters, debtors were held in prisons in Southwark, including the Marshalsea and King's Bench Prisons, Borough Compter and Horsemonger Lane Gaol.
Some wine cellars on Mitre Court were marketed as a party venue under the name of "The City Compter" but these appear to date from the mid 18th century; no sign of the prison was found during archaeological investigations of the site of a new office block at One Wood Street.