1663 in England

Events from the year 1663 in England.

1663
in
England

Centuries:
  • 15th
  • 16th
  • 17th
  • 18th
  • 19th
Decades:
  • 1640s
  • 1650s
  • 1660s
  • 1670s
  • 1680s
See also:Other events of 1663

Incumbents

Events

Undated

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 270. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  2. ^ Palmer, Alan; Palmer, Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 188–189. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
  3. ^ Stratton, J. M. (1969). Agricultural Records, A.D. 220-1968. London: John Baker. ISBN 0-212-97022-4.
  4. ^ Spurr, John (2004). "Sheldon, Gilbert (1598–1677)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/25304. Retrieved 2011-11-14. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  5. ^ "The Censorship of L'Estrange". The Cambridge History of English and American Literature. Retrieved 2011-11-14.
  6. ^ Cousin, John William (1910). "Estrange, Sir Roger". A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. Retrieved 2010-04-07.
Act of Uniformity (Explanation) Act 1663

The Act of Uniformity (Explanation) Act 1663 (15 Car 2 c 6) was an Act of the Parliament of England.

The whole Act, except section 4 (which is section 5 in Ruffhead's Edition) and the last section, were repealed by section 1 of, and the Schedule to, the Statute Law Revision Act 1863.

The whole Act, so far as unrepealed, was repealed by section 1 of, and Part II of the Schedule to, the Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1969.

Cartesianism

Cartesianism is the philosophical and scientific system of René Descartes and its subsequent development by other seventeenth century thinkers, most notably Nicolas Malebranche and Baruch Spinoza. Descartes is often regarded as the first thinker to emphasize the use of reason to develop the natural sciences. For him, the philosophy was a thinking system that embodied all knowledge, and expressed it in this way:Cartesians view the mind as being wholly separate from the corporeal body. Sensation and the perception of reality are thought to be the source of untruth and illusions, with the only reliable truths to be had in the existence of a metaphysical mind. Such a mind can perhaps interact with a physical body, but it does not exist in the body, nor even in the same physical plane as the body. The question of how mind and body interact would be a persistent difficulty for Descartes and his followers, with different Cartesians providing different answers.

Charles II of England

Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and king of England, Scotland and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death.

Charles II's father, Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland. Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, and Charles was invited to return to Britain. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660, all legal documents were dated as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649.

Charles's English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code even though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance. The major foreign policy issue of his early reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War. In 1670, he entered into the Treaty of Dover, an alliance with his first cousin King Louis XIV of France. Louis agreed to aid him in the Third Anglo-Dutch War and pay him a pension, and Charles secretly promised to convert to Catholicism at an unspecified future date. Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it. In 1679, Titus Oates's revelations of a supposed Popish Plot sparked the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charles's brother and heir, James, Duke of York, was a Catholic. The crisis saw the birth of the pro-exclusion Whig and anti-exclusion Tory parties. Charles sided with the Tories, and, following the discovery of the Rye House Plot to murder Charles and James in 1683, some Whig leaders were executed or forced into exile. Charles dissolved the English Parliament in 1681, and ruled alone until his death on 6 February 1685. He was received into the Catholic Church on his deathbed.

Charles was one of the most popular and beloved kings of England, known as the Merry Monarch, in reference to both the liveliness and hedonism of his court and the general relief at the return to normality after over a decade of rule by Cromwell and the Puritans. Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no live children, but Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses. He was succeeded by his brother James.

Farnley Wood Plot

The Farnley Wood Plot was a conspiracy in northern England in October 1663. Intended as a major rising to overturn the return to monarchy in 1660, it was undermined by informers, and came to nothing.The major plotters were Joshua Greathead and Captain Thomas Oates, operating primarily in Farnley, West Yorkshire, but also with links to Gildersome, Morley, West Yorkshire and Leeds. The aim was to capture and overthrow the Royalist strongholds of Leeds city centre. The plot was disbanded on 12 October 1663. Twenty-six men were arrested, imprisoned and then hanged, drawn and quartered as traitors.

Joseph Blake (governor)

Joseph Blake (died 1700), the nephew of British General at Sea Robert Blake, was governor of colonial South Carolina in 1694 (chosen by the council), and from 1696 to his death 1700.

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1663

This is a complete list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in its fourth year, 1663.

The New Academy

The New Academy, or the New Exchange is a Caroline era stage play, a comedy written by Richard Brome. It was first printed in 1659.

Years in England (927–present)
1663 in Europe
Sovereign states
Dependencies, colonies
and other territories

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