1659 (MDCLIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1659th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 659th year of the 2nd millennium, the 59th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1659, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1659 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1659
Ab urbe condita2412
Armenian calendar1108
Assyrian calendar6409
Balinese saka calendar1580–1581
Bengali calendar1066
Berber calendar2609
English Regnal year10 Cha. 2 – 11 Cha. 2
Buddhist calendar2203
Burmese calendar1021
Byzantine calendar7167–7168
Chinese calendar戊戌(Earth Dog)
4355 or 4295
    — to —
己亥年 (Earth Pig)
4356 or 4296
Coptic calendar1375–1376
Discordian calendar2825
Ethiopian calendar1651–1652
Hebrew calendar5419–5420
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1715–1716
 - Shaka Samvat1580–1581
 - Kali Yuga4759–4760
Holocene calendar11659
Igbo calendar659–660
Iranian calendar1037–1038
Islamic calendar1069–1070
Japanese calendarManji 2
Javanese calendar1581–1582
Julian calendarGregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar3992
Minguo calendar253 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar191
Thai solar calendar2201–2202
Tibetan calendar阳土狗年
(male Earth-Dog)
1785 or 1404 or 632
    — to —
(female Earth-Pig)
1786 or 1405 or 633




Date unknown

  • Spanish Infanta Maria Theresa brings cocoa to Paris.
  • Diego Velázquez's portrait of Infanta Maria Theresa is first exhibited.
  • Thomas Hobbes publishes De Homine.
  • Parisian police raid a monastery, sending monks to prison for eating meat and drinking wine during Lent.
  • Drought occurs in India.
  • Christiaan Huygens writes Systema Saturnium.
  • First known non-white settler to own land in Massachusetts, and first known African to live in Springfield, Massachusetts arrives by the name of Peter Swink. He held seats in the town meetings.




  1. ^ On display at Westminster Abbey.
1650s in Scotland

Events from the 1650s in the Kingdom of Scotland.

1659 in Denmark

Events from the year 1659 in Denmark.

1659 in France

Events from the year 1659 in France.

1659 in India

Events in the year 1659 in India.

1659 in Ireland

Events from the year 1659 in Ireland.

1659 in Norway

Events in the year 1659 in Norway.

1659 in Portugal

Events in the year 1659 in Portugal.

1659 in Sweden

Events from the year 1659 in Sweden

Battle of Kolhapur

Battle of Kolhapur was a land battle that took place on 28 December 1659 near the city of Kolhapur, Maharashtra between the Maratha Chhatrapati Shivaji and the Adilshahi forces. The battle is known for brilliant movement of flanks by Shivaji similar to tactics of Babur against Rana Sanga.

Commonwealth of England

The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, were ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649. Power in the early Commonwealth was vested primarily in the Parliament and a Council of State. During the period, fighting continued, particularly in Ireland and Scotland, between the parliamentary forces and those opposed to them, as part of what is now referred to as the Third English Civil War.

In 1653, after the forcible dissolution of the Rump Parliament, the Army Council adopted the Instrument of Government which made Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector of a united "Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland", inaugurating the period now usually known as the Protectorate. After Cromwell's death, and following a brief period of rule under his son, Richard Cromwell, the Protectorate Parliament was dissolved in 1659 and the Rump Parliament recalled, the start of a process that led to the restoration of the monarchy in 1660. The term Commonwealth is sometimes used for the whole of 1649 to 1660 – a period referred to by monarchists as the Interregnum – although for other historians, the use of the term is limited to the years prior to Cromwell's formal assumption of power in 1653.

Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659)

The Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659) was a military conflict that was the result of French involvement in the Thirty Years' War. After the German allies of Sweden were forced to seek terms with the Holy Roman Empire, the French first minister, Cardinal Richelieu, declared war on Spain because French territory was surrounded by Habsburg territories. The conflict was a continuation of the aims of the War of the Mantuan Succession (1628–31) in which France invaded northern Italy to take possession of territory claimed by the Spanish Habsburgs. The Franco-Spanish War ended inconclusively in 1659 with the Treaty of the Pyrenees.

Henry Purcell

Henry Purcell ( or ; c. 10 September 1659 – 21 November 1695) was an English composer. Although incorporating Italian and French stylistic elements into his compositions, Purcell's legacy was a uniquely English form of Baroque music. He is generally considered to be one of the greatest English composers; no later native-born English composer approached his fame until Edward Elgar, Ralph Vaughan Williams, William Walton and Benjamin Britten in the 20th century.

Jamestown, Saint Helena

Jamestown is the capital of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, located on the island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. It is also the historic main settlement of the island and is on its north-western coast. It is the island's only port and the centre of the island's road and communications network. It was founded when colonists from the English East India Company settled on the island in 1659 and was briefly occupied by the Dutch East India Company in 1673 before being recaptured. Many of the buildings built by the East India Company in the 1700s survive and give the town its distinctive Georgian flavour.

The town briefly hosted Napoleon in 1815 during his exile on St. Helena and later served as a base for the Royal Navy's efforts to suppress the slave trade. It had no role during the First World War and only played a minor role during the Second World War.

Lawrence Washington (1659–1698)

Lawrence Washington (1659 – February 1698), a colonial-era American who is principally remembered as the paternal grandfather of George Washington. He was the owner of a substantial Virginia plantation that he inherited from his father, John Washington, as the firstborn son under the law of primogeniture.

Washington was sent to England to finish his education. In addition to being a landowner and planter, he was a lawyer, soldier, and a politician in colonial Virginia.

Ralph Brownrigg

Ralph Brownrigg or Brownrig (1592–1659) was bishop of Exeter from 1642 to 1659. He spent that time largely in exile from his see, which he perhaps never visited. He did find a position there for Seth Ward. He was both a Royalist in politics, and a Calvinist in religion, an unusual combination of the period. Brownrigg opposed Laudianism in Cambridge during the 1630s and at the Short Parliament Convocation of 1640. Nominated to the Westminster Assembly, he apparently took no part in it.

Saadi dynasty

The Saadi dynasty or Saadian dynasty (Arabic: السعديون‎ as-saʿdiyyūn) was an Arab Moroccan dynasty, which ruled Morocco from 1549 to 1659.

From 1509 to 1549, they had ruled only in the south of Morocco. Although still recognizing the Wattasids as Sultans until 1528, Saadian's growing power led the Wattasids to attack them and, after an indecisive battle, to recognize their rule over southern Morocco through the Treaty of Tadla.

Their reign over Morocco began with the reign of Sultan Mohammed ash-Sheikh in 1554, when he vanquished the last Wattasids at the Battle of Tadla. The Saadian rule ended in 1659 with the end of the reign of Sultan Ahmad el Abbas.

Saint Helena

Saint Helena ( hə-LEE-nə) is a volcanic tropical island in the South Atlantic Ocean, 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi) east of Rio de Janeiro and 1,950 kilometres (1,210 mi) west of the mouth of the Cunene River, which marks the border between Namibia and Angola in southwestern Africa. It is part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. Saint Helena measures about 16 by 8 kilometres (10 by 5 mi) and has a population of 4,534 (2016 census). It was named after Saint Helena of Constantinople.

It is one of the most remote islands in the world, and was uninhabited when discovered by the Portuguese in 1502. It was an important stopover for ships sailing to Europe from Asia and South Africa for centuries. Napoleon was imprisoned there in exile by the British, as was Dinuzulu kaCetshwayo (for leading a Zulu army against British rule) and more than 5,000 Boers taken prisoner during the Second Boer War, including Piet Cronjé.Saint Helena is Britain's second-oldest overseas territory after Bermuda.

The Protectorate

The Protectorate was the period during the Commonwealth (or, to monarchists, the Interregnum) when England and Wales, Ireland and Scotland were governed by a Lord Protector as a republic. The Protectorate began in 1653 when, following the dissolution of the Rump Parliament and then Barebone's Parliament, Oliver Cromwell was appointed Lord Protector of the Commonwealth under the terms of the Instrument of Government. In 1659 the Protectorate Parliament was dissolved by the Committee of Safety as Richard Cromwell, who had succeeded his father as Lord Protector, was unable to keep control of the Parliament and the Army. This marked the end of the Protectorate and the start of a second period of rule by the Rump Parliament as the legislature and the Council of State as the executive.

Third Protectorate Parliament

The Third Protectorate Parliament sat for one session, from 27 January 1659 until 22 April 1659, with Chaloner Chute and Thomas Bampfylde as the Speakers of the House of Commons. It was a bicameral Parliament, with an Upper House having a power of veto over the Commons.

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