1656

1656 (MDCLVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1656th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 656th year of the 2nd millennium, the 56th year of the 17th century, and the 7th year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1656, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1656 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1656
MDCLVI
Ab urbe condita2409
Armenian calendar1105
ԹՎ ՌՃԵ
Assyrian calendar6406
Balinese saka calendar1577–1578
Bengali calendar1063
Berber calendar2606
English Regnal yearCha. 2 – 8 Cha. 2
(Interregnum)
Buddhist calendar2200
Burmese calendar1018
Byzantine calendar7164–7165
Chinese calendar乙未(Wood Goat)
4352 or 4292
    — to —
丙申年 (Fire Monkey)
4353 or 4293
Coptic calendar1372–1373
Discordian calendar2822
Ethiopian calendar1648–1649
Hebrew calendar5416–5417
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1712–1713
 - Shaka Samvat1577–1578
 - Kali Yuga4756–4757
Holocene calendar11656
Igbo calendar656–657
Iranian calendar1034–1035
Islamic calendar1066–1067
Japanese calendarMeireki 2
(明暦2年)
Javanese calendar1578–1579
Julian calendarGregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar3989
Minguo calendar256 before ROC
民前256年
Nanakshahi calendar188
Thai solar calendar2198–2199
Tibetan calendar阴木羊年
(female Wood-Goat)
1782 or 1401 or 629
    — to —
阳火猴年
(male Fire-Monkey)
1783 or 1402 or 630

Events

January–June

July–December

Undated

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ Eisinger, J. (July 1982). "Lead and wine: Eberhard Gockel and the colica Pictonum". Medical History. 26 (3): 279–302. doi:10.1017/s0025727300041508. ISSN 0025-7273. PMC 1139187. PMID 6750289.
  2. ^ Risse, Guenter B. (2005). New Medical Challenges During the Scottish Enlightenment. Amsterdam: Rodopi. p. 207. ISBN 90-420-1814-3. Retrieved March 6, 2009.
  3. ^ Rosen, George (1943). The History of Miners' Diseases: a medical and social interpretation (book preview). Schuman's. p. 10. Retrieved March 6, 2009.
1650s in Scotland

Events from the 1650s in the Kingdom of Scotland.

1656 in Denmark

Events from the year 1656 in Denmark.

1656 in England

Events from the year 1656 in England.

1656 in France

Events from the year 1656 in France.

1656 in Ireland

Events from the year 1656 in Ireland.

1656 in Norway

Events in the year 1656 in Norway.

1656 in Sweden

Events from the year 1656 in Sweden

Battle of Valenciennes (1656)

The Battle of Valenciennes (16 July 1656) was fought between the Spanish troops commanded by Don Juan José de Austria against the French troops under Marshal Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne, in the outskirts of the town in the Spanish Netherlands, during the Franco-Spanish War. It was the worst of only a few defeats that the French Marshal Vicomte de Turenne suffered in his long career campaigning and is regarded as Spain's last great victory of the 17th century.

Battle of Warsaw (1656)

The Battle of Warsaw (German: Schlacht von Warschau; Polish: Bitwa pod Warszawą; Swedish: Tredagarsslaget vid Warszawa) was a battle which took place near Warsaw on July 28–July 30 [O.S. July 18–20] 1656, between the armies of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden and Brandenburg. It was a major battle in the Second Northern War between Poland and Sweden in the period 1655–1660, also known as The Deluge. According to Hajo Holborn, it marked "the beginning of Prussian military history".In the battle, a smaller Swedish-Brandenburg force gained victory over a Polish–Lithuanian force superior in numbers, though in the long term the victory achieved little. Polish–Lithuanian losses were insignificant, since the Polish noble levy promptly retreated from the battlefield.

Battle of the Dardanelles (1656)

The Third Battle of the Dardanelles in the Sixth Ottoman-Venetian War took place on 26 and 27 June 1656 inside the Dardanelles Strait. The battle was a clear victory for Venice and the Knights Hospitaller over the Ottoman Empire, although their commander, Lorenzo Marcello, was killed on the first day.

Deluge (history)

The term Deluge (Polish: pоtор szwedzki, Lithuanian: švedų tvanas) denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In a wider sense it applies to the period between the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648 and the Truce of Andrusovo in 1667, thus comprising the Polish theatres of the Russo-Polish and Second Northern Wars. In a stricter sense, the term refers to the Swedish invasion and occupation of the Commonwealth as a theatre of the Second Northern War (1655–1660) only; In Poland and Lithuania this period is called the Swedish Deluge (Polish: potop szwedzki, Swedish: Svenska syndafloden), or less commonly the Russo–Swedish Deluge (Polish: Potop szwedzko-rosyjski) due to the Russian invasion in 1654. The term deluge (or potop in Polish) was popularized by Henryk Sienkiewicz in his novel The Deluge (1886).

During the wars the Commonwealth lost approximately one third of its population as well as its status as a great power due to invasions by Sweden and Russia. According to Professor Andrzej Rottermund, manager of the Royal Castle in Warsaw, the destruction of Poland in the deluge was more extensive than the destruction of the country in World War II. Rottermund claims that Swedish invaders robbed the Commonwealth of its most important riches, and most of the stolen items never returned to Poland. Warsaw, the capital of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, was completely destroyed by the Swedes, and out of a pre-war population of 20,000, only 2,000 remained in the city after the war. According to the 2012 Polish estimates, financial losses of Poland are estimated at 4 billion złotys. Swedish and Russian invaders completely destroyed 188 cities and towns, 81 castles, and 136 churches in Poland.

Grenadier Guards

The Grenadier Guards (GREN GDS) is an infantry regiment of the British Army. It can trace its lineage back to 1656 when Lord Wentworth's Regiment was raised in Bruges to protect the exiled Charles II. In 1665, this regiment was combined with John Russell's Regiment of Guards to form the current regiment, known as the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards. Since then, the regiment has filled both a ceremonial and protective role as well as an operational one. In 1900, the regiment provided a cadre of personnel to form the Irish Guards; while later, in 1915 it also provided the basis of the Welsh Guards upon their formation.

The regiment's early history saw it take part in numerous conflicts including the War of Spanish Succession, the War of Austrian Succession, the Seven Years' War, and the Napoleonic Wars; at the end of this period the regiment was granted the "Grenadier" designation by a Royal Proclamation. During the Victorian Era, the regiment took part in the Crimean War, the Anglo-Egyptian War, the Mahdist War, and the Second Boer War.

During the First World War, the Grenadier Guards was expanded from three battalions to five, of which four served on the Western Front, while later during the Second World War, six battalions were raised, and several were converted to an armoured role as part of the Guards Armoured Division. These units fought in France, North-West Europe, North Africa and Italy.

In the post Second World War period the regiment was reduced firstly to three battalions, then later two and finally one battalion in the mid-1990s. Major deployments during this time have included operations in Palestine, Malaya, Cyprus, Northern Ireland, the Gulf War, Afghanistan and Iraq.

Guru Har Krishan

Guru Har Krishan' ([ɡʊruː həɾ kɾɪʃən]; 7 July 1656 – 30 March 1664) was the eighth of the ten Sikh Gurus. At the age of 5, he became the youngest Guru in Sikhism on 7 October 1661, succeeding his father, Guru Har Rai. He contracted smallpox and died of the disease in 1664 before reaching his 8th birthday.He is also known as Bal Guru (Child Guru), and sometimes spelled in Sikh literature as Hari Krishan Sahib. He is remembered in the Sikh tradition for saying "Baba Bakale" before he died, which Sikhs interpreted to identify his granduncle Guru Tegh Bahadur as the next successor. Guru Har Krishan Sahib had the shortest reign as Guru, lasting only 2 years, 5 months and 24 days.

Jama Masjid, Delhi

The Masjid-i Jahān-Numā (lit. the 'World-reflecting Mosque'), commonly known as the Jama Masjid of Delhi, is one of the largest mosques in India.It was built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan between 1644 and 1656 at a cost of 1 million rupees, and was inaugurated by an Imam from Bukhara, present-day Uzbekistan. The mosque was completed in 1656 AD with three great gates, four towers and two 40 metres high minarets constructed with strips of red sandstone and white marble. The courtyard can accommodate more than 25,000 people. There are three domes on the terrace which are surrounded by the two minarets. On the floor, a total of 899 black borders are marked for worshippers. The architectural plan of Badshahi Masjid, built by Shah Jahan's son Aurangzeb at Lahore, Pakistan, is similar to the Jama Masjid.

Robert Harley (1579–1656)

Sir Robert Harley (baptised 1 March 1579 – 6 November 1656) was an English statesman who served as Master of the Mint for Charles I and later supported the parliamentarians during the English Civil War.

Russo-Polish War (1654–1667)

The Russo-Polish War of 1654–1667, also called the Thirteen Years' War, First Northern War, War for Ukraine or Russian Deluge (Polish: Potop rosyjski, Russian: Российский потоп, Lithuanian: Rusų tvanas), was a major conflict between the Tsardom of Russia and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Between 1655 and 1660, the Swedish invasion was also fought in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and so the period became known in Poland as "The Deluge" or Swedish Deluge. Because of this, it is sometimes referred as Russo–Swedish Deluge (Polish: Potop szwedzko-rosyjski).The Commonwealth initially suffered defeats, but it regained its ground and won most of the battles. However, its plundered economy was not able to fund the long conflict. Facing internal crisis and civil war, the Commonwealth was forced to sign a truce. The war ended with significant Russian territorial gains and marked the beginning of the rise of Russia as a great power in Eastern Europe.

Russo-Swedish War (1656–1658)

The Russo-Swedish War of 1656–1658 was fought by Russia and Sweden as a theater of the Second Northern War. It took place during a pause in the contemporary Russo-Polish War (1654-1667) as a consequence of the Truce of Vilna. Despite initial successes, Tsar Alexis of Russia failed to secure his principal objective—to revise the Treaty of Stolbovo, which had stripped Russia of the Baltic coast at the close of the Ingrian War.

Second Protectorate Parliament

The Second Protectorate Parliament in England sat for two sessions from 17 September 1656 until 4 February 1658, with Thomas Widdrington as the Speaker of the House of Commons. In its first session, the House of Commons was its only chamber; in the second session an Other House with a power of veto over the decisions of the Commons was added.

Treaty of Labiau

The Treaty of Labiau was a treaty signed between Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg and Charles X Gustav of Sweden on 10 November (O.S.) / 20 November (N.S.) 1656 in Labiau (now Polessk). With several concessions, the most important being the elevation of Frederick William I from a Swedish vassal to a full sovereign in the Duchy of Prussia and in Ermland (Ermeland, Warmia), Charles X Gustav strove to "buy Frederick William's support" in the ongoing Second Northern War.

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