1655 (MDCLV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1655th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 655th year of the 2nd millennium, the 55th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1655, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|1655 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2408|
|Balinese saka calendar||1576–1577|
|English Regnal year||6 Cha. 2 – 7 Cha. 2|
|Chinese calendar||甲午年 (Wood Horse)|
4351 or 4291
— to —
乙未年 (Wood Goat)
4352 or 4292
|- Vikram Samvat||1711–1712|
|- Shaka Samvat||1576–1577|
|- Kali Yuga||4755–4756|
|Japanese calendar||Jōō 4 / Meireki 1|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||257 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2197–2198|
1781 or 1400 or 628
— to —
1782 or 1401 or 629
Events from the 1650s in the Kingdom of Scotland.1655 in Denmark
Events from the year 1655 in Denmark.1655 in England
Events from the year 1655 in England.1655 in France
Events from the year 1655 in France1655 in Ireland
Events from the year 1655 in Ireland.1655 in Norway
Events in the year 1655 in Norway.1655 in Sweden
Events from the year 1655 in Sweden1655 papal conclave
The papal conclave of 1655 was convened on the death of Pope Innocent X and ended with the election of Fabio Chigi as Alexander VII. The conclave quickly reached a deadlock, with Giulio Cesare Sacchetti receiving 33 votes throughout the conclave, but never securing enough for his own election. Chigi was eventually elected Pope when Cardinal Mazarin, the leader of the French government, consented to his election at the request of Sacchetti.Anglo-Spanish War (1654–1660)
The Anglo-Spanish War was a conflict between the English Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell and Spain, between 1654 and 1660. It was caused by commercial rivalry. Each side attacked the other's commercial and colonial interests in various ways such as privateering and naval expeditions. In 1655, an English amphibious expedition invaded Spanish territory in the Caribbean. The major land actions took place in the Spanish Netherlands. In 1657, England formed an alliance with France, merging the Anglo–Spanish war with the larger Franco-Spanish War. The war officially ended with two peace treaties which were signed at Madrid in 1667 and 1670.Battle of the Dardanelles (1655)
This battle took place on 21 June 1655 inside the mouth of the Dardanelles Strait. It was a clear victory for Venice over the Ottoman Empire during the Cretan War.
The Venetians, under Lazzaro Mocenigo, continued their strategy of blockading the Dardanelles, to prevent the Ottomans from resupplying their forces in the Aegean Sea. The orders were the same as for the previous year - remain at anchor until the Ottoman fleet passed, then attack the rear - and this time the plan worked. The previous Kapudan Pasha (Grand Admiral), Kara Murat, had been promoted to Grand Vizier and his replacement, Kara Mustapha, had 36 sailing ships, 8 galleasses and 60 galleys, as well as perhaps several galleys from outside the Dardanelles. Once again, the Ottomans were arranged in 3 lines abreast: Sailing ships, then galleasses, then galleys. The Venetians had 26 sailing ships, 4 galleasses and 6 galleys.
As the Ottomans advanced, one galleass was sunk and one galley burnt and the rowing vessels retreated, after which the Venetians attacked the Ottoman sailing ships, resulting in 9 being burnt and 2 wrecked. The only Venetian loss was David Golia, which was burnt. Venetian casualties exclusive of the sunken ship were 126 killed and 180 wounded. 358 Ottomans were taken prisoner.Colony of Jamaica
Jamaica was an English colony from 1655 (when it was captured by the English from Spain) or 1670 (when Spain formally ceded Jamaica to the English), and a British Colony from 1707 until 1962, when it became independent. Jamaica became a Crown colony in 1866.Deluge (history)
The term Deluge (Polish: pоtор szwedzki, Lithuanian: švedų tvanas) denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In a wider sense it applies to the period between the Khmelnytsky (Chmielnicki) Uprising of 1648 and the Truce of Andrusovo in 1667, thus comprising the Polish theatres of the Russo-Polish and Second Northern Wars. In a stricter sense, the term refers to the Swedish invasion and occupation of the Commonwealth as a theatre of the Second Northern War (1655–1660) only; In Poland and Lithuania this period is called the Swedish Deluge (Polish: Potop szwedzki, Swedish: Svenska syndafloden), or lesser known as Russo–Swedish Deluge (Polish: Potop szwedzko-rosyjski), due to the Russian invasion in 1654, also known as Russian Deluge in Poland, and the term deluge (or potop in Polish) was popularized by Henryk Sienkiewicz in his novel The Deluge (1886).
During the wars the Commonwealth lost approximately one third of its population as well as its status as a great power due to invasions by Sweden and Russia. According to Professor Andrzej Rottermund, manager of the Royal Castle in Warsaw, the destruction of Poland in the deluge was more extensive than the destruction of the country in World War II. Rottermund claims that Swedish invaders robbed the Commonwealth of its most important riches, and most of the stolen items never returned to Poland. Warsaw, the capital of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, was completely destroyed by the Russians and Swedes, and out of a pre-war population of 20,000, only 2,000 remained in the city after the war. According to the 2012 Polish estimates, financial losses of Poland are estimated at four billion złotys. Swedish and Russian invaders completely destroyed 188 cities and towns, 81 castles, and 136 churches in Poland.Eleonora Gonzaga (1598–1655)
For other women of the same name, see Eleanor Gonzaga (disambiguation)
Eleonora Gonzaga (23 September 1598 – 27 June 1655), was born Princess of Mantua as a member of the House of Gonzaga and by marriage Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia.Nicknamed the Elder (de: Ältere) to distinguish herself from her namesake niece, during her reign the Imperial court in Vienna became one of the centers of European baroque music. As Empress, Eleanora was a supporter of the Counter-Reformation.First Protectorate Parliament
The First Protectorate Parliament was summoned by the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell under the terms of the Instrument of Government. It sat for one term from 3 September 1654 until 22 January 1655 with William Lenthall as the Speaker of the House.
During the first nine months of the Protectorate, Cromwell with the aid of the Council of State, had drawn up a list of 84 bills to present to Parliament for ratification. But the members of Parliament had their own and their constituents' interests to promote and in the end not enough of them would agree to work with Cromwell, or to sign a declaration of their acceptance of the Instrument of Government, to make the constitutional arrangements in the Instrument of Government work. Cromwell dissolved the Parliament as soon as it was allowed under the terms of the Instrument of Government, having failed to get any of the 84 bills passed.Invasion of Jamaica
The Invasion of Jamaica was an amphibious expedition conducted by the English in the Caribbean in 1655 that resulted in the capture of the island from Spain. Before that, Spanish Jamaica was a colony of Spain for over a hundred years. Jamaica's capture was the casus belli that resulted in actual war between England and Spain in 1655. For the next period of the island's history, it was known as the Colony of Jamaica.Janusz Radziwiłł (1612–1655)
Prince Janusz Radziwiłł, also known as Janusz the Second or Janusz the Younger (Lithuanian: Jonušas Radvila, 2 December 1612 – 31 December 1655) was a noble and magnate in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Throughout his life he occupied a number of posts in the state administration, including that of Court Chamberlain of Lithuania (from 1633), Field Hetman of Lithuania (from 1646) and Grand Hetman of Lithuania (from 1654). He was also a voivode of Vilna Voivodeship (from 1653), as well as a starost of Samogitia, Kamieniec, Kazimierz and Sejwy. He was a protector of the Protestant religion in Lithuania and sponsor of many Protestant schools and churches.
For several decades, the interests between the Radziwłł family and the state (Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) had begun to drift apart, as the Radziwiłłs increased their magnate status and wealth. Their attempts to acquire more political power in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania culminated in the doings of Janusz Radziwiłł, who is remembered in Polish historiography as one of the Grand Duchy nobles responsible for the end of the Golden Age of the Commonwealth.
In his times he was one of the most powerful people in the Commonwealth, often described as a de facto ruler of the entire Grand Duchy of Lithuania. During the "Deluge", the Swedish invasion of Poland-Lithuania during the Second Northern War, he sided with the Swedish king signing the Treaty of Kėdainiai and the Union of Kėdainiai. This move however antagonised him with most of other nobles, including members of his own family. His forces were eventually defeated in battle and he himself died in a besieged castle at Tykocin.Jundiaí
Jundiaí is a municipality in the state of São Paulo, in the Southeast Region of Brazil, located 57 kilometres (35 mi) north of São Paulo. The population of the city is 401,896 (2015 est.), with an area of 431.21 km². The elevation is 761 m.
The GDP of the city is U$16.6 billion (R$36.6 billion). The budget for 2013 is U$787 million (R$1.63 billion), according to the official data of the City Hall.New Sweden
New Sweden (Swedish: Nya Sverige; Finnish: Uusi Ruotsi; Latin: Nova Svecia) was a Swedish colony along the lower reaches of the Delaware River in America from 1638 to 1655, established during the Thirty Years' War when Sweden was a great military power. New Sweden was part of Swedish colonization efforts in the Americas. Settlements were established on both sides of the Delaware Valley in the region of Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, often in places where Swedish traders had been visiting since about 1610. Fort Christina in Wilmington, Delaware was the first settlement, named after the reigning Swedish monarch. The settlers were Swedes, Finns, and a number of Dutch. New Sweden was conquered by the Dutch Republic in 1655 during the Second Northern War and incorporated into the Dutch colony of New Netherland.Thomas Young (theologian)
Thomas Young (c. 1587–1655) was a Scottish Presbyterian minister and theologian, resident in England and a member of the Westminster Assembly. He was the major author of the Smectymnuus group of leading Puritan churchmen. He was also Master of Jesus College, Cambridge, and is known as the tutor to John Milton from the age of about ten.