1652 (MDCLII) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1652nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 652nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 52nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1652, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|1652 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2405|
|Balinese saka calendar||1573–1574|
|English Regnal year||3 Cha. 2 – 4 Cha. 2|
|Chinese calendar||辛卯年 (Metal Rabbit)|
4348 or 4288
— to —
壬辰年 (Water Dragon)
4349 or 4289
|- Vikram Samvat||1708–1709|
|- Shaka Samvat||1573–1574|
|- Kali Yuga||4752–4753|
|Japanese calendar||Keian 5 / Jōō 1|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||260 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2194–2195|
1778 or 1397 or 625
— to —
1779 or 1398 or 626
Rhode Island passes laws restricting slavery and forbidding enslavement for more than 10 years.
Events from the 1650s in the Kingdom of Scotland.1652 in Denmark
Events from the year 1652 in Denmark.1652 in France
Events from the year 1652 in France1652 in India
Events in the year 1652 in India.1652 in Ireland
Events from the year 1652 in Ireland.1652 in Sweden
Events from the year 1652 in SwedenAcademy of Sciences Leopoldina
The Academy of Sciences Leopoldina (German: Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina – Nationale Akademie der Wissenschaften) is the national academy of Germany.
Historically it was known under the German name Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina until 2007, when it was declared a national academy of Germany.
The Leopoldina is located in Halle. Founded in 1652, the Leopoldina claims to be the oldest continuously existing learned society in the world.Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652
The Act for the Settlement of Ireland imposed penalties including death and land confiscation against participants and bystanders of the Irish Rebellion of 1641 and subsequent unrest.C/1652 Y1
C/1652 Y1 was a naked-eye comet observed, among others by Jan van Riebeeck. First spotted on December 16, 1652, by Dutch observers at Pernambuco (Brazil).As of June 2008 the comet was about 280 AU from the Sun (very approximate due to poorly determined orbit).Cape Town
Cape Town (Afrikaans: Kaapstad [ˈkɑːpstat]; Xhosa: iKapa; Dutch: Kaapstad; South Sotho: Motse Kapa) is the oldest city in South Africa, colloquially named the Mother City. It is the legislative capital of South Africa and primate city of the Western Cape province. It forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality.
The Parliament of South Africa sits in Cape Town. The other two capitals are located in Pretoria (the executive capital where the Presidency is based) and Bloemfontein (the judicial capital where the Supreme Court of Appeal is located). The city is known for its harbour, for its natural setting in the Cape Floristic Region, and for landmarks such as Table Mountain and Cape Point. Cape Town is home to 64% of the Western Cape's population. It is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role as a major destination for immigrants and expatriates to South Africa. The city was named the World Design Capital for 2014 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design. In 2014, Cape Town was named the best place in the world to visit by both The New York Times and The Daily Telegraph.Located on the shore of Table Bay, Cape Town, as the oldest urban area in South Africa, was developed by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) as a supply station for Dutch ships sailing to East Africa, India, and the Far East. Jan van Riebeeck's arrival on 6 April 1652 established Dutch Cape Colony, the first permanent European settlement in South Africa. Cape Town outgrew its original purpose as the first European outpost at the Castle of Good Hope, becoming the economic and cultural hub of the Cape Colony. Until the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the development of Johannesburg, Cape Town was the largest city in South Africa.
Although Cape Town in itself is a city of approximately 500 000 people, it is part of a greater urban area, also referred to as The City of Cape Town and functions as a Municipality, with the municipal boundaries stretching from the city centre area and its suburbs, from the South Peninsula to beyond Mamre in the north and as far east as Gordon's Bay.Dutch Cape Colony
The Cape Colony (Dutch: Kaapkolonie) was a Dutch East India Company colony in Southern Africa, centered on the Cape of Good Hope, whence it derived its name. The original colony and its successive states that the colony was incorporated into occupied much of modern South Africa. Between 1652 and 1691 a Commandment, and between 1691 and 1795 a Governorate of the Dutch East India Company. Jan van Riebeeck established the colony as a re-supply and layover port for vessels of the Dutch East India Company trading with Asia. The Cape came under Dutch rule from 1652 to 1795 and again from 1803 to 1806. Much to the dismay of the shareholders of the Dutch East India Company, who focused primarily on making profits from the Asian trade, the colony rapidly expanded into a settler colony in the years after its founding.
As the only permanent settlement of the Dutch East India Company not serving as a trading post, it proved an ideal retirement place for employees of the company. After several years of service in the company, an employee could lease a piece of land in the colony as een Vryburgher ("a free citizen"), on which he had to cultivate crops that he had to sell to the Dutch East India Company for a fixed price. As these farms were labour-intensive, Vryburghers imported slaves from Madagascar, Mozambique and Asia, which rapidly increased the number of inhabitants. After King Louis XIV of France revoked the Edict of Nantes (October 1685), which had protected the right of Huguenots in France to practise Protestant worship without persecution from the state, the colony attracted many Huguenot settlers, who eventually mixed with the general Vryburgher population.
Due to the authoritarian rule of the Company (telling farmers what to grow for what price, controlling immigration, and monopolising trade), some farmers tried to escape the rule of the company by moving further inland. The Company, in an effort to control these migrants, established a magistracy at Swellendam in 1745 and another at Graaff Reinet in 1786, and declared the Gamtoos River as the eastern frontier of the colony, only to see the Trekboere cross it soon afterwards. In order to avoid collision with the Bantu peoples advancing south, north and west from east central Africa, the Dutch agreed in 1780 to make the Great Fish River the boundary of the colony.
In 1795, after the Battle of Muizenberg in present-day Cape Town, the British occupied the colony. Under the terms of the Peace of Amiens of 1802, Britain returned the colony to the Dutch on 1 March 1803, but as the Batavian Republic had since nationalized the Dutch East India Company (1796), the colony came under the direct rule of The Hague. Renewed Dutch control did not last long, however, as the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars (18 May 1803) invalidated the Peace of Amiens. In January 1806, the British occupied the colony for a second time after the Battle of Blaauwberg at present-day Bloubergstrand. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 confirmed the transfer of sovereignty to Great Britain. However most of the Dutch settlers remained in the colony under new leadership of the British.English Council of State
The English Council of State, later also known as the Protector's Privy Council, was first appointed by the Rump Parliament on 14 February 1649 after the execution of King Charles I.
Charles's execution on 30 January was delayed for several hours so that the House of Commons could pass an emergency bill to declare the representatives of the people, the House of Commons, as the source of all just power and to make it an offence to proclaim a new King. This in effect abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords.History of South Africa (1652–1815)
Although the Portuguese basked in the nautical achievement of successfully navigating the cape, they showed little interest in colonization. The area's fierce weather and rocky shoreline posed a threat to their ships, and many of their attempts to trade with the local Khoikhoi ended in conflict. The Portuguese found the Mozambican coast more attractive, with appealing bays to use as waystations, prawns, and links to gold ore in the interior.
The Portuguese had little competition in the region until the late 16th century, when the English and Dutch began to challenge them along their trade routes. Stops at the continent's southern tip increased, and the cape became a regular stopover for scurvy-ridden crews.
In 1647, a Dutch vessel, the Haarlem, was wrecked in the present-day Table Bay. After being rescued, the marooned crew recommended that a permanent station be established in the bay. The Dutch East India Company (in the Dutch of the day: Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC), one of the major European trading houses sailing the spice route to the East, had no intention of colonizing the area, instead wanting only to establish a secure base camp where passing ships could shelter, and where hungry sailors could stock up on fresh supplies of meat, fruit, and vegetables. To this end, a small VOC expedition under the command of Jan van Riebeeck reached Table Bay on April 6, 1652. The Cape was under Dutch rule from 1652 to 1795 and again from 1803 to 1806.List of Royal Air Force conversion units
Conversion units and operational conversion units (OCU) were training units of the Royal Air Force.Marc-René de Voyer de Paulmy d'Argenson (1652–1721)
Marc-René de Voyer, Marquis de Paulmy and marquis d’Argenson (4 November 1652 – 8 May 1721) was a French politician.New Utrecht, Brooklyn
New Utrecht (Dutch: Nieuw Utrecht) was a town in western Long Island, New York, located in the present-day Bensonhurst neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York City. New Utrecht was established in 1652 by Dutch settlers in the English colony of Province of New York, the last of the original six towns to be founded in Kings County. New Utrecht ceased to exist in 1894 when it was annexed by the City of Brooklyn, and became part of the City of Greater New York when Brooklyn joined as a borough in 1898.Port Royal, Virginia
Port Royal is an incorporated town in Caroline County, Virginia, United States. The population was 126 at the 2010 census.Port Royal was established in the mid-17th century in the Colony of Virginia primarily as a port at the head of the navigable reach of the Rappahannock River for export of tobacco, Virginia's cash crop. The town was also set along an early stage road, which brought passengers and freight for embarkation upon the river there. It still remains a crossroads along the busy modern highways of U.S. Route 17 and U.S. Route 301.Solar eclipse of April 8, 1652
A total solar eclipse occurred on April 8, 1652. In contemporary British sources, the date is alternately listed as March 29, 1652 following the Old Style as Great Britain had not yet adopted of the Gregorian Calendar by that time. 19th century authors further adjusted the date to March 24, 1652 so that it fell on a Monday. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is larger than the Sun's, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across Earth's surface, with the partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometres wide.
The path of totality intersected the United Kingdom, as well as passing just off the west coast of Norway.Surry County, Virginia
Surry County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,058. Its county seat is Surry.In 1652, Surry County was formed from the portion of James City County south of the James River. For more than 350 years, Surry County has depended on an agricultural economy. It has guarded its heritage, including many small towns and 19 sites listed on the National Register including a landmark occupied in 1676 known as Bacon's Castle and Chippokes Plantation (now a state park). The Jamestown Ferry provides easy access to Virginia's Historic Triangle, featuring Jamestown, Williamsburg, and Yorktown, linked by the National Park Service's Colonial Parkway.
The county is known for farming, curing Virginia Hams, and harvesting lumber, notably Virginia Pine.