1651 (MDCLI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1651st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 651st year of the 2nd millennium, the 51st year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1651, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|1651 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2404|
|Balinese saka calendar||1572–1573|
|English Regnal year||2 Cha. 2 – 3 Cha. 2|
|Chinese calendar||庚寅年 (Metal Tiger)|
4347 or 4287
— to —
辛卯年 (Metal Rabbit)
4348 or 4288
|- Vikram Samvat||1707–1708|
|- Shaka Samvat||1572–1573|
|- Kali Yuga||4751–4752|
|Japanese calendar||Keian 4|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||261 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2193–2194|
1777 or 1396 or 624
— to —
1778 or 1397 or 625
Events from the 1650s in the Kingdom of Scotland.1651 in Denmark
Events from the year 1651 in Denmark.1651 in England
Events from the year 1651 in England.1651 in Ireland
Events from the year 1651 in Ireland.1651 in Norway
Events in the year 1651 in Norway.1651 in Spain
Events from the year 1651 in Spain.1651 in Sweden
Events from the year 1651 in SwedenBattle of Worcester
The Battle of Worcester took place on 3 September 1651 at Worcester, England, and was the final battle of the English Civil War. Oliver Cromwell's Parliamentarian New Model Army, 28,000 strong, defeated King Charles II's 16,000 Royalists, of whom the vast majority were Scottish.English Civil War
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance. The first (1642–1646) and second (1648–1649) wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third (1649–1651) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The war ended with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651.
The overall outcome of the war was threefold: the trial and execution of Charles I (1649); the exile of his son, Charles II (1651); and the replacement of English monarchy with, at first, the Commonwealth of England (1649–1653) and then the Protectorate under the personal rule of Oliver Cromwell (1653–1658) and subsequently his son Richard (1658–1659). In England, the monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship was ended, while in Ireland the victors consolidated the established Protestant Ascendancy. Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although the idea of Parliament as the ruling power of England was only legally established as part of the Glorious Revolution in 1688.HMS Dunkirk (1651)
Worcester was a 48-gun third rate frigate built for the navy of the Commonwealth of England at Woolwich Dockyard, and launched in 1651.After the Restoration in 1660, she was renamed HMS Dunkirk. By 1677 her armament had been increased to 60 guns. In 1704 she underwent a rebuild at Blackwall Yard, relaunching as a 60-gun fourth rate ship of the line. On 12 September 1729 Dunkirk was ordered to be taken to pieces at Portsmouth, and rebuilt as a 60-gun fourth rate to the 1719 Establishment. She was relaunched on 3 September 1734.Dunkirk was broken up in 1749.John Cunningham (explorer)
John Cunningham (c. 1575-1651), known in Danish as Hans Køning, was a Scottish explorer who became a captain in the Danish navy in 1603.
In 1605, he was captain of the 60-ton Danish naval ship Trost (German: "Consolation"), which was probably named after one of the queen's dogs. The ship, along with the 70-ton Løven ("Lion") or Den Røde Løve ("The Red Lion") and the 20-ton Katten ("Cat"), was directed by King Christian IV to reëstablish contact with the Norse settlements in Greenland, the first of three annual expeditions sent between 1605 and 1607. Cunningham served as the chief commander, following the piloting of James Hall and commanding Godske Lindenov in the Løven and John Knight in the Katten.
During the 1606 expedition, Cunningham served as the captain of the Løven under Lindenov's command.
In 1615, he was among the commanders aboard the naval expedition under Gabriel Kruse sent to Spitsbergen to demand tolls from foreign whalers. There he encountered Robert Fotherby, Thomas Edge, and Adriaen Block. The following year, he captained the Gabriel as part of the naval expedition under Jørgen Daa sent to rid the coasts of Norway, the Faeroes, and Iceland of illegal whalers and pirates.
In 1619 he was made Lensmann (Governor) of the province of Finnmark in the far north, a post he retained until his death in 1651.
There, he presided over 52 witch trials, nine of which afflicted the Sami population, but there may have been even more because of a lack of records for the 1640s; one of these trials was the great witch trial of 1621 in Vardø.Lancaster County, Virginia
Lancaster County is a county located on the Northern Neck in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,391. Its county seat is Lancaster.Located on the Northern Neck near the mouth of the Rappahannock River, Lancaster County is part of the Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace wine-growing region recognized by the United States as an American Viticultural Area. Lancaster County is the most densely populated county in the Northern Neck. The largest town in Lancaster County is Kilmarnock, Virginia. The county's area code is '804'.List of Royal Air Force conversion units
Conversion units and operational conversion units (OCU) were training units of the Royal Air Force.Lord Rollo
Lord Rollo, of Duncrub in the County of Perth, is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1651 for Sir Andrew Rollo. His great-great-grandson, the fifth Lord, was a Brigadier-General in the Army and fought in North America during the Seven Years' War. He died without surviving male issue and was succeeded by his younger brother, the sixth Lord. His grandson, the eighth Lord, sat in the House of Lords as a Scottish Representative Peer from 1841 to 1846. His son, the ninth Lord, was a Scottish Representative Peer from 1847 to 1852. His son, the tenth Lord, sat in the House of Lords as a Scottish Representative Peer from 1860 to 1868. In 1869 he was created Baron Dunning, of Dunning and Pitcairns in the County of Perth, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. This title gave the Lords an automatic seat in the House of Lords. As of 2017 the titles are held by the tenth Lord's great-great-grandson, the fourteenth Lord, who succeeded his father in 1997. He is the hereditary Clan Chief of Clan Rollo.
The family seat was Duncrub Castle, near Dunning, Perthshire.Navigation Acts
The Navigation Acts, or more broadly The Acts of Trade and Navigation were a long series of English laws that developed, promoted, and regulated English ships, shipping, trade, and commerce between other countries and with its own colonies. The laws also regulated England's fisheries and restricted foreigners' participation in its colonial trade. While based on earlier precedents, they were first enacted in 1651 under the Commonwealth. The system was reenacted and broadened with the restoration by the Act of 1660, and further developed and tightened by the Navigation Acts of 1663, 1673, and 1696. Upon this basis during the 18th century, the acts were modified by subsequent amendments, changes, and the addition of enforcement mechanisms and staff. Additionally, a major change in the very purpose of the acts in the 1760s — that of generating a colonial revenue, rather than only regulating the Empire's trade — would help lead to revolutionary events, and major changes in implementation of the acts themselves. The Acts generally prohibited the use of foreign ships, required the employment of English and colonial mariners for three quarters of the crews, including East India Company ships. The acts prohibited the colonies from exporting specific, enumerated, products to countries and colonies other than those British, and mandated that imports be sourced only through Britain. Overall, the Acts formed the basis for English (and later) British overseas trade for nearly 200 years, but with the development and gradual acceptance of free trade, the acts were eventually repealed in 1849. The laws reflected the European economic theory of mercantilism which sought to keep all the benefits of trade inside their respective Empires, and to minimize the loss of gold and silver, or profits, to foreigners through purchases and trade. The system would develop with the colonies supplying raw materials for British industry, and in exchange for this guaranteed market, the colonies would purchase manufactured goods from or through Britain.
The major impetus for the first Navigation Act was the ruinous deterioration of English trade in the aftermath of the Eighty Years' War, and the associated lifting of the Spanish embargoes on trade between the Spanish Empire and the Dutch Republic. The end of the embargoes in 1647 unleashed the full power of the Amsterdam Entrepôt and other Dutch competitive advantages in European and world trade. Within a few years, English merchants had practically been overwhelmed in the Baltic and North sea trade, as well as trade with the Iberian Peninsula, the Mediterranean and the Levant. Even the trade with English colonies (partly still in the hands of the royalists, as the English Civil War was in its final stages and the Commonwealth of England had not yet imposed its authority throughout the English colonies) was "engrossed" by Dutch merchants. English direct trade was crowded out by a sudden influx of commodities from the Levant, Mediterranean and the Spanish and Portuguese empires, and the West Indies via the Dutch Entrepôt, carried in Dutch ships and for Dutch account.The obvious solution seemed to be to seal off the English markets to these unwanted imports. A precedent was the Act the Greenland Company had obtained from Parliament in 1645 prohibiting the import of whale products into England, except in ships owned by that company. This principle was now generalized. In 1648 the Levant Company petitioned Parliament for the prohibition of imports of Turkish goods "...from Holland and other places but directly from the places of their growth." Baltic traders added their voices to this chorus. In 1650 the Standing Council for Trade and the Council of State of the Commonwealth prepared a general policy designed to impede the flow of Mediterranean and colonial commodities via Holland and Zeeland into England.Following the 1696 act, the Acts of Trade and Navigation were generally obeyed, except for the Molasses Act 1733, which led to extensive smuggling because no effective means of enforcement was provided until the 1760s. Stricter enforcement under the Sugar Act 1764 became one source of resentment of Great Britain by merchants in the American colonies. This, in turn, helped push the American colonies to rebel in the late 18th century, even though the consensus view among modern economic historians and economists is that the "costs imposed on [American] colonists by the trade restrictions of the Navigation Acts were small."New Castle, Delaware
New Castle is a city in New Castle County, Delaware, six miles (10 km) south of Wilmington, situated on the Delaware River. According to the 2010 Census, the population of the city is 5,285.North Reading, Massachusetts
North Reading (pronounced, as is with Reading as North REDD-ing) is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 14,892 at the 2010 census.Norwalk, Connecticut
Norwalk is a U.S. city located in southwestern Connecticut, in southern Fairfield County, on the northern shore of Long Island Sound. Norwalk is included statistically within both the New York metropolitan area as well as the Bridgeport metropolitan area.Norwalk was settled in 1649, and is now the sixth most populous city in Connecticut. According to the 2010 United States Census the city had a population of 85,603; with an estimated population of 88,438 in 2016.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1651
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1651, adopted unanimously on 21 December 2005, after recalling previous resolutions on the situation in Sudan, particularly resolutions 1556 (2004) and 1591 (2005), the Council extended the mandate of an expert panel monitoring sanctions against and violations of human rights in the Darfur region until 29 March 2006. It was the last Security Council resolution adopted in 2005.