1645 (MDCXLV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1645th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 645th year of the 2nd millennium, the 45th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1645, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|1645 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2398|
|Balinese saka calendar||1566–1567|
|English Regnal year||20 Cha. 1 – 21 Cha. 1|
|Chinese calendar||甲申年 (Wood Monkey)|
4341 or 4281
— to —
乙酉年 (Wood Rooster)
4342 or 4282
|- Vikram Samvat||1701–1702|
|- Shaka Samvat||1566–1567|
|- Kali Yuga||4745–4746|
|Japanese calendar||Shōhō 2|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||267 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2187–2188|
1771 or 1390 or 618
— to —
1772 or 1391 or 619
Events from the year 1645 in Denmark.1645 in France
Events from the year 1645 in France1645 in Ireland
Events from the year 1645 in Ireland.1645 in Norway
Events in the year 1645 in Norway.1645 in Spain
Events from the year 1645 in Spain.1645 in Sweden
Events from the year 1645 in SwedenAvon, Connecticut
Avon is a town in the Farmington Valley region of Hartford County, Connecticut, United States. As of 2010, the town had a population of 18,098.
Avon is a suburb of Hartford.Battle of Inverlochy (1645)
The Battle of Inverlochy (2 February 1645) was a battle of the Scottish Civil War. A Royalist force of Highlanders and Confederate Irish troops under the overall command of James Graham, Lord Montrose, routed and largely destroyed the pursuing forces of Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll, who had been encamped under the walls of Inverlochy Castle.
After being researched, the area was designated as a battlefield by Historic Scotland in 2011.Battle of Naseby
The Battle of Naseby was a decisive engagement of the First English Civil War, fought on 14 June 1645 between the main Royalist army of King Charles I and the Parliamentarian New Model Army, commanded by Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell. It was fought near the village of Naseby in Northamptonshire.
After the Royalists stormed the Parliamentarian town of Leicester on 31st May 1645, Fairfax was ordered to lift his siege of Oxford, the Royalist capital, and engage the King's main army. Eager to bring the Royalists to battle, Fairfax set off in pursuit of the Royalist army, which was heading to recover the north. The King, faced with retreating north with Fairfax close behind, or giving battle, decided to give battle, fearing a loss of morale if his army continued retreating. After hard fighting, the Parliamentarian army had effectively destroyed the Royalist force, which suffered 7,000 casualties out of 7,400 effectives.
Charles lost the bulk of his veteran infantry and officers, all of his artillery and stores, his personal baggage and many arms, ensuring the Royalists would never again field an army of comparable quality. Captured in the baggage train were the King's private papers, revealing to the fullest extent his attempts to draw Irish Catholics and foreign mercenaries into the war. Publication of these papers gave Parliament an added moral cause in fighting the war to a finish.
Within a year, Parliament had won the first civil war.Battle of Philiphaugh
The Battle of Philiphaugh was fought on 13 September 1645 during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms near Selkirk in the Scottish Borders. The Royalist army of the Marquis of Montrose was destroyed by the Covenanter army of Sir David Leslie, restoring the power of the Committee of Estates.Cheam School
Cheam School is a mixed preparatory school located in Headley, in the civil parish of Ashford Hill with Headley in the English county of Hampshire. It was founded in 1645 by George Aldrich.Cretan War (1645–1669)
The Cretan War (Greek: Κρητικός Πόλεμος, Turkish: Girit'in Fethi) or War of Candia (Italian: Guerra di Candia, Serbo-Croatian: Kandijski rat), is the name given to the Fifth Ottoman–Venetian War, a conflict between the Republic of Venice and her allies (chief among them the Knights of Malta, the Papal States and France) against the Ottoman Empire and the Barbary States, because it was largely fought over the island of Crete, Venice's largest and richest overseas possession. The war lasted from 1645 to 1669 and was fought in Crete, especially in the city of Candia, and in numerous naval engagements and raids around the Aegean Sea, with Dalmatia providing a secondary theater of operations.
Although most of Crete was conquered by the Ottomans in the first few years of the war, the fortress of Candia (modern Heraklion), the capital of Crete, resisted successfully. Its prolonged siege, "Troy's rival" as Lord Byron called it, forced both sides to focus their attention on the supply of their respective forces on the island. For the Venetians in particular, their only hope for victory over the larger Ottoman army in Crete lay in successfully starving it of supplies and reinforcements. Hence the war turned into a series of naval encounters between the two navies and their allies. Venice was aided by various Western European nations, who, exhorted by the Pope and in a revival of crusading spirit, sent men, ships and supplies "to defend Christendom". Throughout the war, Venice maintained overall naval superiority, winning most naval engagements, but the efforts to blockade the Dardanelles were only partially successful, and the Republic never had enough ships to fully cut off the flow of supplies and reinforcements to Crete. The Ottomans were hampered in their efforts by domestic turmoil, as well as by the diversion of their forces north towards Transylvania and the Habsburg Monarchy.
The prolonged conflict exhausted the economy of the Republic, which relied on the lucrative trade with the Ottoman Empire. By the 1660s, despite increased aid from other Christian nations, war-weariness had set in. The Ottomans on the other hand, having managed to sustain their forces on Crete and reinvigorated under the capable leadership of the Köprülü family, sent a final great expedition in 1666 under the direct supervision of the Grand Vizier. This began the final and bloodiest stage of the Siege of Candia, which lasted for more than two years. It ended with the negotiated surrender of the fortress, sealing the fate of the island and ending the war in an Ottoman victory. In the final peace treaty, Venice retained a few isolated island fortresses off Crete, and made some territorial gains in Dalmatia. The Venetian desire for a revanche would lead, barely 15 years later, to a renewed war, from which Venice would emerge victorious. Crete however was lost to the Serenissima. It would remain under Ottoman control until 1897, when it became an autonomous state; it was finally united with Greece in 1913.Earl of Lichfield
Earl of Lichfield is a title that has been created three times, twice in the Peerage of England (1645 and 1674) and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom (1831). The third creation is extant and is held by a member of the Anson family.Halland
Halland is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish), on the western coast of Sweden. It borders Västergötland, Småland, Scania and the sea of Kattegat. Until 1645 and the Second Treaty of Brömsebro, it was part of the Kingdom of Denmark.Joan Orpí
Joan Orpí i del Pou, also Juan Orpín or Juan Urpín (1593 in Piera – 1 July 1645 in Barcelona, Venezuela) was a Spanish conquistador, known for founding New Barcelona in Venezuela, and for founding the short-lived Province of New Catalonia (1633–1654).
In 1623 he journeyed to Araya. In 1624 the Governor of New Andalusia Province, Diego de Arroyo Daza, named Orpí Lieutenant General of the province, a position he held until 1627/8. That year the Real Audiencia of Santo Domingo recognised the law degree he had obtained in Barcelona, and he began acting as a legal representative of the Audiencia in Caracas.
In 1631 he moved to Santo Domingo, where the difficulty of communication between the Venezuela Province (Caracas) and the New Andalusia Province (Cumaná) was a matter of some concern. He agreed to launch an expedition to secure the territory between the Unare River and the Neverí River, inhabited by the Cumanagotos, and was granted the royal privilege to do so, despite opposition from others. His expedition began in 1632 but had to be called off when the privilege was revoked, and he had to plead a case to the Audiencia and to the Council of the Indies to regain it, which he was able to do in 1636.
A second expedition was launched in 1637, and Orpí founded New Barcelona (Nueva Barcelona del Cerro Santo) in February 1638. New Barcelona became the capital of the Province of Nueva Cataluña he created in 1633, extending along the coast from San Felipe de Austria (Cariaco) to Cabo Codera, and down to the Orinoco River. After his death in 1645 the Province did not last long, being merged into New Andalusia Province in 1654, while New Barcelona had to be refounded in 1671.List of Ordinances and Acts of the Parliament of England, 1642–1660
This is a list of Ordinances and Acts of the Parliament of England from 1642 to 1660, during the English Civil War and the Interregnum.
As King Charles I of England would not assent to Bills from a Parliament at war with him, decrees of Parliament before the Third English Civil War were styled ordinances. The Rump Parliament reverted to using the term "Act" on 6 January 1649 when it passed the Act erecting a High Court of Justice for the trial of the King (when any possibility of reconciliation between King and Parliament was over). All but one subsequent decree were termed Acts through to the end of the interregnum. All of these Ordinances and Acts were considered void after the English Restoration due to their lack of Royal Assent.New Model Army
The New Model Army of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration. It differed from other armies in the series of civil wars referred to as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in that it was intended as an army liable for service anywhere in the country (including in Scotland and Ireland), rather than being tied to a single area or garrison. Its soldiers became full-time professionals, rather than part-time militia. To establish a professional officer corps, the army's leaders were prohibited from having seats in either the House of Lords or House of Commons. This was to encourage their separation from the political or religious factions among the Parliamentarians.
The New Model Army was raised partly from among veteran soldiers who already had deeply held Puritan religious beliefs, and partly from conscripts who brought with them many commonly held beliefs about religion or society. Many of its common soldiers therefore held dissenting or radical views unique among English armies. Although the Army's senior officers did not share many of their soldiers' political opinions, their independence from Parliament led to the Army's willingness to contribute to the overthrow of both the Crown and Parliament's authority, and to establish a Commonwealth of England from 1649 to 1660, which included a period of direct military rule. Ultimately, the Army's Generals (particularly Oliver Cromwell) could rely both on the Army's internal discipline and its religious zeal and innate support for the "Good Old Cause" to maintain an essentially dictatorial rule.Taubaté
Taubaté is a medium-sized city in the State of São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil.William Laud
William Laud (7 October 1573 – 10 January 1645) was an English archbishop and academic. He was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1633, during the personal rule of Charles I. Arrested in 1640, he was executed in 1645.
In matters of church polity, Laud was autocratic. Laudianism refers to a collection of rules on matters of ritual, in particular, that were enforced by Laud in order to maintain uniform worship in England and Wales, in line with the king's preferences. They were precursors to later High Church views. In theology, Laud was accused of being an Arminian and opponent of Calvinism, as well as covertly favouring Roman Catholic doctrines (see Arminianism in the Church of England). On all three grounds, he was regarded by Puritan clerics and laymen as a formidable and dangerous opponent.
Laud favoured scholars, and was a major collector of manuscripts. He pursued ecumenical contacts with the Greek Orthodox Church.
The pun "give great praise to the Lord, and little Laud to the devil" is a warning to King Charles attributed to Archibald Armstrong, the official court jester. Laud was known to be touchy about his diminutive stature.