1639 (MDCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1639th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 639th year of the 2nd millennium, the 39th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1639, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1639 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1639
Ab urbe condita2392
Armenian calendar1088
Assyrian calendar6389
Balinese saka calendar1560–1561
Bengali calendar1046
Berber calendar2589
English Regnal year14 Cha. 1 – 15 Cha. 1
Buddhist calendar2183
Burmese calendar1001
Byzantine calendar7147–7148
Chinese calendar戊寅(Earth Tiger)
4335 or 4275
    — to —
己卯年 (Earth Rabbit)
4336 or 4276
Coptic calendar1355–1356
Discordian calendar2805
Ethiopian calendar1631–1632
Hebrew calendar5399–5400
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1695–1696
 - Shaka Samvat1560–1561
 - Kali Yuga4739–4740
Holocene calendar11639
Igbo calendar639–640
Iranian calendar1017–1018
Islamic calendar1048–1049
Japanese calendarKan'ei 16
Javanese calendar1560–1561
Julian calendarGregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar3972
Minguo calendar273 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar171
Thai solar calendar2181–2182
Tibetan calendar阳土虎年
(male Earth-Tiger)
1765 or 1384 or 612
    — to —
(female Earth-Rabbit)
1766 or 1385 or 613




Date unknown






Date unknown



  1. ^ Roberts, J. (1994). History of the World. Penguin.
  2. ^ "平戸観光協会|History". Retrieved July 10, 2014.
1639 in Denmark

Events from the year 1639 in Denmark.

1639 in England

Events from the year 1639 in England.

1639 in Ireland

Events from the year 1639 in Ireland.

1639 in Norway

Events in the year 1639 in Norway.

1639 in Spain

Events from the year 1639 in Spain.

1639 in Sweden

Events from the year 1639 in Sweden

1639 transit of Venus

The first known observations and recording of a transit of Venus were made in 1639 by the English astronomers Jeremiah Horrocks and his friend and correspondent William Crabtree. The pair made their observations independently on 4 December that year (24 November under the Julian calendar then used in England); Horrocks from Carr House, then in the village of Much Hoole, Lancashire, and Crabtree from his home in Broughton, near Manchester.

The friends, followers of the new astronomy of Johannes Kepler, were self-taught mathematical astronomers who had worked methodically to correct and improve Kepler's Rudolphine tables by observation and measurement. In 1639, Horrocks was the only astronomer to realise that a transit of Venus was imminent; others became aware of it only after the event when Horrocks's report of it was circulated. Although the friends both died within five years of making their observations, their ground-breaking work was influential in establishing the size of the Solar System; for this and their other achievements Horrocks and Crabtree, along with their correspondent William Gascoigne, are considered to be the founding fathers of British research astronomy.

Action of 18 February 1639

The action of 18 February 1639 was a naval battle of the Eighty Years' War fought off Dunkirk between a Dutch fleet under the command of Admiral Maarten Tromp and the Spanish Dunkirk Squadron under Miguel de Horna. Horna, who had orders to join with his ships Admiral Antonio de Oquendo's fleet at A Coruña, escorted at the same time a transport convoy carrying 2,000 Walloon soldiers to Spain, where they were needed. The attempt to exit Dunkirk was done in sight of the Dutch blockading squadron of Maarten Tromp. A 4-hour battle ensued and Horna was forced to retreat into Dunkirk leaving behind two of his galleons, whilst another ran aground. Despite his success in stopping the sortie, many of Tromp's ships suffered heavy damage, and the Dutch Admiral was forced to abandon the blockade. Therefore, De Horna, after repairing his squadron, was able to accomplish his mission.

Action of 18 September 1639

This battle took place between 17 and 19 September 1639 when a Dutch squadron under Admiral Maarten Tromp and Admiral Witte Corneliszoon de With, met with a much larger but poorly led Spanish fleet under Antonio D'Oquendo, consisting of 40 to 45 men–of–war and 40 to 50 transport vessels filled with some 13,000 Spanish soldiers who were being transported to Dunkirk. Tromp with 12 ships spotted the Spanish fleet on the 16th, but waited for de With to arrive with five more ships before attacking. Despite his numerical inferiority Tromp got the upper hand in a running fight which lasted into the night. The next day, Zeeland Commodore Joost Banckert, arrived to reinforce the Dutch with 12 more ships. Fighting continued until the Dutch ran out of gunpowder when D'Oquendo retreated to the roadstead of the Downs hoping on English protection which would eventually lead to the Battle of the Downs, where D'Oquendo was decisively defeated.

This fight is notable because Tromp used the line of battle for the first time.

Battle of the Downs

The naval Battle of the Downs took place on 21 October 1639 (New Style), during the Eighty Years' War, and was a decisive defeat of the Spanish, commanded by Admiral Antonio de Oquendo, by the United Provinces, commanded by Lieutenant-Admiral Maarten Tromp.

Bishops' Wars

The Bishops' Wars of 1639 and 1640 are generally viewed as the starting point of the 1639–1652 Wars of the Three Kingdoms that ultimately involved the whole of the British Isles. They originated in long-standing disputes over control and governance of the Church of Scotland or kirk that went back to the 1580s. These came to a head in 1637 when Charles I attempted to impose uniform practices between the kirk and the Church of England.

Charles favoured an episcopal system, or rule by bishops, while the majority of Scots advocated a presbyterian system, without bishops. The 1638 National Covenant pledged to oppose these 'innovations' and the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland voted to expel bishops from the kirk. When Charles resorted to force, the Covenanters defeated Royalist forces in Aberdeenshire in 1639, then an English army in 1640, leaving them in control of Scotland.

Fairfield, Connecticut

Fairfield is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. It borders the city of Bridgeport and towns of Trumbull, Easton, Weston, and Westport along the Gold Coast of Connecticut. As of the 2010 census, the town had a population of 59,404. In September 2014, Money magazine ranked Fairfield the 44th best place to live in the United States, and the best place to live in Connecticut.


Hämeenlinna (Swedish: Tavastehus) is a city and municipality of about 68,000 inhabitants in the heart of the historical province of Häme in the south of Finland. Hämeenlinna is the oldest inland city of Finland and was one of the most important Finnish cities until the 19th century. It still remains an important regional center.

Hämeenlinna is the birthplace of composer Jean Sibelius. Today, it belongs to the region of Tavastia Proper (Kanta-Häme), and before 2010 it was the residence city for the Governor of the province of Southern Finland. Nearby cities include the capital Helsinki (98 km or 61 mi), Tampere (73 km or 45 mi) and Lahti (72 km or 45 mi).

The medieval Häme Castle (Hämeen linna) is located in the city.

The municipalities of Hauho, Kalvola, Lammi, Renko and Tuulos were consolidated with Hämeenlinna on 1 January 2009.

Patriarch Metrophanes of Alexandria

Metrophanes Kritopoulos, sometimes Critopoulos, Critopoulus, Kritopulus (Greek: Μητροφάνης Κριτόπουλος, c. 1589 – 30 May 1639) was a Greek monk and theologian who served as Greek Patriarch of Alexandria between 1636 and 1639.


Savonlinna (Swedish: Nyslott) is a town and a municipality of 33,580 (31 January 2019) inhabitants in the southeast of Finland, in the heart of the Saimaa lake region. The Finnish name of the town means "Castle of Savonia" and the Swedish name means "New Castle".

Self-Portrait (Rubens, 1638–1639)

The Self-portrait is an oil on canvas by Rubens measuring 109.5 cm by 85 cm and dating to between 1638 and 1639. It is now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. It is a courtly portrait in style (such as showing the sword, glove and column), but shows more attention to facial detail than was usual in a portrait of that kind.


Tobai-in (唐梅院, d. August 2, 1639) was a Japanese woman of the late Azuchi–Momoyama through early Edo periods. Tobai-in was known for her beauty and intelligence. She was the daughter of Matsudaira Yasuchika. Her brother was Matsudaira Yasushige. In 1582 she was adopted by Tokugawa Ieyasu. January 11, 1584, Ieyasu gave her in marriage to Ii Naomasa, one of the four Shitennō of the Tokugawa. Their son, Ii Naokatsu was the first Lord of Annaka Domain in Kōzuke Province. Her older daughter married Matsudaira Tadayoshi, son of Tokugawa Ieyasu and brother of the shōgun Tokugawa Hidetada. Her younger daughter married Date Hidemune, Date Masamune's first son. In 1602, when Naomasa died due to injuries from Sekigahara, she became a nun. However her son was only 12 years old, so she continued to support her son as daimyō of the clan until he was of age. Tobai-in had a memorial built for her husband in Shiga Prefecture. After her death in 1639, she was buried in Hikone Castle, in the Annaka Domain. She was also known as Seizen-in (清泉院) and Hana (花).

Treaty of Zuhab

The Treaty of Zuhab (Persian: عهدنامه زهاب‎), also called Treaty of Qasr-e Shirin (Turkish: Kasr-ı Şirin Antlaşması), was an accord signed between the Safavid Empire and the Ottoman Empire on May 17, 1639. The accord ended the Ottoman-Safavid War of 1623-1639 and was the last conflict in almost 150 years of intermittent wars between the two states over territorial disputes. It can roughly be seen as a confirmation of the previous Peace of Amasya from 1555.The treaty confirmed the dividing of territories in West Asia priorly held by the Safavids, such as the permanent parting of the Caucasus between the two powers, in which East Armenia, eastern Georgia, Dagestan, and Azerbaijan stayed under the control of the Safavid Empire, while western Georgia and most of Western Armenia came fully under Ottoman rule. It also included all of Mesopotamia (including Baghdad) being irreversibly ceded to the Ottomans, as well as Safavid-controlled eastern Samtskhe (Meskheti), making Samtskhe in its entirety an Ottoman possession.Nevertheless, border disputes between Persia and the Ottoman Empire did not end. Between 1555 and 1918, Persia and the Ottomans signed no less than 18 treaties that would re-address their disputed borders. The exact demarcation according to this treaty would permanently begin during the 19th century, essentially laying out the rough outline for the frontier between modern day Iran and the states of Turkey and Iraq (the former Ottoman-Persian border until 1918, when the Ottoman Empire lost its territories in the Middle East following their defeat in World War I.) Nevertheless, according to Professor Ernest Tucker, the Zuhab treaty can be seen as the "culmination" of a process of normalisation between the two that had commenced with the Peace of Amasya. As opposed to any other Ottoman-Safavid treaty, the Zuhab treaty proved to be more "resilient", and it became a "point of departure" for almost all further agreements on a diplomatic level between the two neighbors.


Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator (Mongolian: Улаанбаатар, [ʊɮɑːm.bɑːtʰɑ̆r], literally "Red Hero"), is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag (province), and its population as of 2014 was over 1.3 million, almost half of the country's total population. Located in north central Mongolia, the municipality lies at an elevation of about 1,300 meters (4,300 ft) in a valley on the Tuul River. It is the country's cultural, industrial and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system.The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre. It settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers, in 1778. Prior to that occasion it changed location twenty-eight times, each new location being chosen ceremonially. In the twentieth century, Ulaanbaatar grew into a major manufacturing center. Ulaanbaatar is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21. The city's official website lists Moscow, Hohhot, Seoul, Sapporo and Denver as sister cities.

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